Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Barycentric adjective [ Greek bary`s heavy + ke`ntron center.] Of or pertaining to the center of gravity. See Barycentric calculus , under Calculus .

Baryphony noun [ Greek bary`s heavy + fwnh` a sound, voice.] (Medicine) Difficulty of speech.

Barysphere noun [ Greek ... heavy + sphere .] (Geol.) The heavy interior portion of the earth, within the lithosphere.

Baryta noun [ Greek bary`s heavy. Confer Baria .] (Chemistry) An oxide of barium (or barytum); a heavy earth with a specific gravity above 4.

Barytes noun [ Greek bary`s heavy: confer Greek bary`ths heaviness, French baryte .] (Min.) Barium sulphate, generally called heavy spar or barite . See Barite .

Barytic adjective Of or pertaining to baryta.

Baryto-calcite noun [ Baryta + calcite .] (Min.) A mineral of a white or gray color, occurring massive or crystallized. It is a compound of the carbonates of barium and calcium.

Barytone, Baritone adjective [ Greek bary`tonos ; bary`s heavy + to`nos tone.]
1. (Mus.) Grave and deep, as a kind of male voice.

2. (Greek Gram.) Not marked with an accent on the last syllable, the grave accent being understood.

Barytone, Baritone noun [ French baryton : confer Italian baritono .]
1. (Mus.) (a) A male voice, the compass of which partakes of the common bass and the tenor, but which does not descend as low as the one, nor rise as high as the other. (b) A person having a voice of such range. (c) The viola di gamba, now entirely disused.

2. (Greek Gram.) A word which has no accent marked on the last syllable, the grave accent being understood.

Barytum noun [ New Latin ] (Chemistry) The metal barium. See Barium . [ R.]

Basal adjective Relating to, or forming, the base.

Basal cleavage . See under Cleavage . -- Basal plane (Crystallog.) , one parallel to the lateral or horizontal axis.

Basal-nerved adjective (Botany) Having the nerves radiating from the base; -- said of leaves.

Basalt noun [ Latin basaltes (an African word), a dark and hard species of marble found in Ethiopia: confer French basalte .]
1. (Geol.) A rock of igneous origin, consisting of augite and triclinic feldspar, with grains of magnetic or titanic iron, and also bottle-green particles of olivine frequently disseminated.

» It is usually of a greenish black color, or of some dull brown shade, or black. It constitutes immense beds in some regions, and also occurs in veins or dikes cutting through other rocks. It has often a prismatic structure as at the Giant's Causeway, in Ireland, where the columns are as regular as if the work of art. It is a very tough and heavy rock, and is one of the best materials for macadamizing roads.

2. An imitation, in pottery, of natural basalt; a kind of black porcelain.

Basaltic adjective [ Confer French basaltique .] Pertaining to basalt; formed of, or containing, basalt; as basaltic lava.

Basaltiform adjective [ Basalt + -form .] In the form of basalt; columnar.

Basaltoid adjective [ Basalt + - oid .] Formed like basalt; basaltiform.

Basan noun Same as Basil , a sheepskin.

Basanite noun [ Latin basanites lapis, Greek ba`sanos the touchstone: confer French basanite .] (Min.) Lydian stone, or black jasper, a variety of siliceous or flinty slate, of a grayish or bluish black color. It is employed to test the purity of gold, the amount of alloy being indicated by the color left on the stone when rubbed by the metal.

Basbleu noun [ French, from bas stocking + bleu blue.] A bluestocking; a literary woman. [ Somewhat derisive]

Bascinet noun [ Middle English bacinet , basnet , Old French bassinet , bacinet , French bassinet , dim. of Old French bacin , French bassin , a helmet in the form of a basin.] A light helmet, at first open, but later made with a visor. [ Written also basinet , bassinet , basnet .]

Bascule (băs"kul) noun [ French, a seesaw.] In mechanics, an apparatus on the principle of the seesaw, in which one end rises as the other falls.

Bascule bridge , a counterpoise or balanced drawbridge, which is opened by sinking the counterpoise and thus lifting the footway into the air.

Base (bās) adjective [ Middle English bass , French bas , low, from Late Latin bassus thick, fat, short, humble; confer Latin Bassus , a proper name, and W. bas shallow. Confer Bass a part in music.]
1. Of little, or less than the usual, height; of low growth; as, base shrubs. [ Archaic] Shak.

2. Low in place or position. [ Obsolete] Shak.

3. Of humble birth; or low degree; lowly; mean. [ Archaic] "A peasant and base swain." Bacon.

4. Illegitimate by birth; bastard. [ Archaic]

Why bastard? wherefore base ?

5. Of little comparative value, as metal inferior to gold and silver, the precious metals.

6. Alloyed with inferior metal; debased; as, base coin; base bullion.

7. Morally low. Hence: Low-minded; unworthy; without dignity of sentiment; ignoble; mean; illiberal; menial; as, a base fellow; base motives; base occupations. "A cruel act of a base and a cowardish mind." Robynson (More's Utopia). " Base ingratitude." Milton.

8. Not classical or correct. " Base Latin." Fuller.

9. Deep or grave in sound; as, the base tone of a violin. [ In this sense, commonly written bass. ]

10. (Law) Not held by honorable service; as, a base estate, one held by services not honorable; held by villenage. Such a tenure is called base , or low, and the tenant, a base tenant.

Base fee , formerly, an estate held at the will of the lord; now, a qualified fee. See note under Fee , noun , 4. -- Base metal . See under Metal .

Syn. -- Dishonorable; worthless; ignoble; low-minded; infamous; sordid; degraded. -- Base , Vile , Mean . These words, as expressing moral qualities, are here arranged in the order of their strength, the strongest being placed first. Base marks a high degree of moral turpitude; vile and mean denote, in different degrees, the want of what is valuable or worthy of esteem. What is base excites our abhorrence; what is vile provokes our disgust or indignation; what is mean awakens contempt. Base is opposed to high-minded; vile , to noble; mean , to liberal or generous. Ingratitude is base ; sycophancy is vile ; undue compliances are mean .

Base noun [ French base , Latin basis , from Greek ba`sis a stepping, step, a base, pedestal, from bai`nein to go, step, akin to English come . Confer Basis , and see Come .]
1. The bottom of anything, considered as its support, or that on which something rests for support; the foundation; as, the base of a statue. "The base of mighty mountains." Prescott.

2. Fig.: The fundamental or essential part of a thing; the essential principle; a groundwork.

3. (Architecture) (a) The lower part of a wall, pier, or column, when treated as a separate feature, usually in projection, or especially ornamented. (b) The lower part of a complete architectural design, as of a monument; also, the lower part of any elaborate piece of furniture or decoration.

4. (Botany) That extremity of a leaf, fruit, etc., at which it is attached to its support.

5. (Chemistry) The positive, or non-acid component of a salt; a substance which, combined with an acid, neutralizes the latter and forms a salt; -- applied also to the hydroxides of the positive elements or radicals, and to certain organic bodies resembling them in their property of forming salts with acids.

6. (Pharmacy) The chief ingredient in a compound.

7. (Dyeing) A substance used as a mordant. Ure.

8. (Fort.) The exterior side of the polygon, or that imaginary line which connects the salient angles of two adjacent bastions.

9. (Geom.) The line or surface constituting that part of a figure on which it is supposed to stand.

10. (Math.) The number from which a mathematical table is constructed; as, the base of a system of logarithms.

11. [ See Base low.] A low, or deep, sound. (Mus.) (a) The lowest part; the deepest male voice. (b) One who sings, or the instrument which plays, base. [ Now commonly written bass .]

The trebles squeak for fear, the bases roar.

12. (Mil.) A place or tract of country, protected by fortifications, or by natural advantages, from which the operations of an army proceed, forward movements are made, supplies are furnished, etc.

13. (Mil.) The smallest kind of cannon. [ Obsolete]

14. (Zoology) That part of an organ by which it is attached to another more central organ.

15. (Crystallog.) The basal plane of a crystal.

16. (Geol.) The ground mass of a rock, especially if not distinctly crystalline.

17. (Her.) The lower part of the field. See Escutcheon .

18. The housing of a horse. [ Obsolete]

19. plural A kind of skirt (often of velvet or brocade, but sometimes of mailed armor) which hung from the middle to about the knees, or lower. [ Obsolete]

20. The lower part of a robe or petticoat. [ Obsolete]

21. An apron. [ Obsolete] "Bakers in their linen bases ." Marston.

22. The point or line from which a start is made; a starting place or a goal in various games.

To their appointed base they went.

23. (Surv.) A line in a survey which, being accurately determined in length and position, serves as the origin from which to compute the distances and positions of any points or objects connected with it by a system of triangles. Lyman.

24. A rustic play; -- called also prisoner's base , prison base , or bars . "To run the country base ." Shak.

25. (Baseball) Any one of the four bounds which mark the circuit of the infield.

Altern base . See under Altern . -- Attic base . (Architecture) See under Attic . -- Base course . (Architecture) (a) The first or lower course of a foundation wall, made of large stones or a mass of concrete; -- called also foundation course . (b) The architectural member forming the transition between the basement and the wall above. -- Base hit (Baseball) , a hit, by which the batsman, without any error on the part of his opponents, is able to reach the first base without being put out. -- Base line . (a) A main line taken as a base, as in surveying or in military operations. (b) A line traced round a cannon at the rear of the vent. -- Base plate , the foundation plate of heavy machinery, as of the steam engine; the bed plate. -- Base ring (Ordnance) , a projecting band of metal around the breech, connected with the body of the gun by a concave molding. H. Latin Scott.

Base (bās) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Based (bāsd); present participle & verbal noun Basing .] [ From Base , noun ] To put on a base or basis; to lay the foundation of; to found, as an argument or conclusion; -- used with on or upon . Bacon.

Base transitive verb [ See Base , adjective , and confer Abase .]
1. To abase; to let, or cast, down; to lower. [ Obsolete]

If any . . . based his pike.
Sir T. North.

2. To reduce the value of; to debase. [ Obsolete]

Metals which we can not base .

Base viol See Bass viol .

Base-burner noun A furnace or stove in which the fuel is contained in a hopper or chamber, and is fed to the fire as the lower stratum is consumed.

Base-court noun [ French basse-cour . See Base , adjective , and Court , noun ]
1. The secondary, inferior, or rear courtyard of a large house; the outer court of a castle.

2. (Law) An inferior court of law, not of record.

Baseball noun
1. A game of ball, so called from the bases or bounds (four in number) which designate the circuit which each player must endeavor to make after striking the ball.

2. The ball used in this game.

Baseboard noun (Architecture) A board, or other woodwork, carried round the walls of a room and touching the floor, to form a base and protect the plastering; -- also called washboard (in England), mopboard , and scrubboard .

Baseborn adjective
1. Born out of wedlock. Gay.

2. Born of low parentage.

3. Vile; mean. "Thy baseborn heart." Shak.

Based past participle & adjective
1. Having a base, or having as a base; supported; as, broad- based .

2. [ See Base , noun , 18-21.] Wearing, or protected by, bases. [ Obsolete] " Based in lawny velvet." E. Hall.

Basedow's disease [ Named for Dr. Basedow , a German physician.] (Medicine) A disease characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, prominence of the eyeballs, and inordinate action of the heart; -- called also exophthalmic goiter . Flint.

Baselard noun [ Old French baselarde , Late Latin basillardus .] A short sword or dagger, worn in the fifteenth century. [ Written also baslard .] Fairholt.

Baseless adjective Without a base; having no foundation or support. "The baseless fabric of this vision." Shak.

Basely adverb
1. In a base manner; with despicable meanness; dishonorably; shamefully.

2. Illegitimately; in bastardy. [ Archaic] Knolles.

Basement noun [ French soubassement . Of uncertain origin. Confer Base , adjective , Bastion .] (Architecture) The outer wall of the ground story of a building, or of a part of that story, when treated as a distinct substructure. (See Base , noun , 3 (a) .) Hence: The rooms of a ground floor, collectively.

Basement membrane (Anat.) , a delicate membrane composed of a single layer of flat cells, forming the substratum upon which, in many organs, the epithelioid cells are disposed.

Baseness noun The quality or condition of being base; degradation; vileness.

I once did hold it a baseness to write fair.

Basenet noun See Bascinet . [ Obsolete]

Bash transitive verb & i. [ Middle English baschen , baissen . See Abash .] To abash; to disconcert or be disconcerted or put out of countenance. [ Obsolete]

His countenance was bold and bashed not.

Bash transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bashed ; present participle & verbal noun Bashing .] [ Perh. of imitative origin; or confer Danish baske to strike, bask a blow, Swedish basa to beat, bas a beating.] To strike heavily; to beat; to crush. [ Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Hall Caine.

Bash her open with a rock.

Bashaw noun [ See Pasha .]
1. A Turkish title of honor, now written pasha . See Pasha .

2. Fig.: A magnate or grandee.

3. (Zoology) A very large siluroid fish ( Leptops olivaris ) of the Mississippi valley; -- also called goujon , mud cat , and yellow cat .

Bashful (băsh"ful) adjective [ See Bash .]
1. Abashed; daunted; dismayed. [ Obsolete]

2. Very modest, or modest to excess; constitutionally disposed to shrink from public notice; indicating extreme or excessive modesty; shy; as, a bashful person, action, expression.

Syn. -- Diffident; retiring; reserved; shamefaced; sheepish.

Bashfully adverb In a bashful manner.

Bashfulness noun The quality of being bashful.

Syn. -- Bashfulness , Modesty , Diffidence , Shyness . Modesty arises from a low estimate of ourselves; bashfulness is an abashment or agitation of the spirits at coming into contact with others; diffidence is produced by an undue degree of self-distrust; shyness usually arises from an excessive self-consciousness, and a painful impression that every one is looking at us. Modesty of deportment is becoming in all; bashfulness often gives rise to mistakes and blundering; diffidence in society frequently makes a man a burden to himself; shyness usually produces a reserve or distance which is often mistaken for haughtiness.

Bashi-bazouk (băsh"ĭ*bȧ*zōk") noun [ Turkish, light-headed, a foolish fellow.] A soldier belonging to the irregular troops of the Turkish army.

Bashless adjective Shameless; unblushing. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Bashyle noun (Chemistry) See Basyle .

Basi- A combining form, especially in anatomical and botanical words, to indicate the base or position at or near a base ; forming a base ; as , basi branchials, the most ventral of the cartilages or bones of the branchial arches; basi cranial, situated at the base of the cranium; basi facial, basi temporal, etc.

Basic adjective
1. (Chemistry) (a) Relating to a base; performing the office of a base in a salt. (b) Having the base in excess, or the amount of the base atomically greater than that of the acid, or exceeding in proportion that of the related neutral salt. (c) Apparently alkaline, as certain normal salts which exhibit alkaline reactions with test paper.

2. (Min.) Said of crystalline rocks which contain a relatively low percentage of silica, as basalt.

Basic salt (Chemistry) , a salt formed from a base or hydroxide by the partial replacement of its hydrogen by a negative or acid element or radical.