Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Baptize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Baptized ; present participle & verbal noun Baptizing .] [ French baptiser , Latin baptizare , from Greek ... . See Baptism .]
1. To administer the sacrament of baptism to.

2. To christen ( because a name is given to infants at their baptism); to give a name to; to name.

I'll be new baptized ;
Henceforth I never will be Romeo.
Shak.

3. To sanctify; to consecrate.

Baptizement noun The act of baptizing. [ R.]

Baptizer noun One who baptizes.

Bar (bär) noun [ Middle English barre , French barre , from Late Latin barra , W. bar the branch of a tree, bar, baren branch, Gael. & Ir. barra bar. √91.]
1. A piece of wood, metal, or other material, long in proportion to its breadth or thickness, used as a lever and for various other purposes, but especially for a hindrance, obstruction, or fastening; as, the bars of a fence or gate; the bar of a door.

Thou shalt make bars of shittim wood.
Ex. xxvi. 26.

2. An indefinite quantity of some substance, so shaped as to be long in proportion to its breadth and thickness; as, a bar of gold or of lead; a bar of soap.

3. Anything which obstructs, hinders, or prevents; an obstruction; a barrier.

Must I new bars to my own joy create?
Dryden.

4. A bank of sand, gravel, or other matter, esp. at the mouth of a river or harbor, obstructing navigation.

5. Any railing that divides a room, or office, or hall of assembly, in order to reserve a space for those having special privileges; as, the bar of the House of Commons.

6. (Law) (a) The railing that incloses the place which counsel occupy in courts of justice. Hence, the phrase at the bar of the court signifies in open court . (b) The place in court where prisoners are stationed for arraignment, trial, or sentence. (c) The whole body of lawyers licensed in a court or district; the legal profession. (d) A special plea constituting a sufficient answer to plaintiff's action.

7. Any tribunal; as, the bar of public opinion; the bar of God.

8. A barrier or counter, over which liquors and food are passed to customers; hence, the portion of the room behind the counter where liquors for sale are kept.

9. (Her.) An ordinary, like a fess but narrower, occupying only one fifth part of the field.

10. A broad shaft, or band, or stripe; as, a bar of light; a bar of color.

11. (Mus.) A vertical line across the staff. Bars divide the staff into spaces which represent measures, and are themselves called measures .

» A double bar marks the end of a strain or main division of a movement, or of a whole piece of music; in psalmody, it marks the end of a line of poetry. The term bar is very often loosely used for measure , i.e., for such length of music, or of silence, as is included between one bar and the next; as, a passage of eight bars ; two bars' rest.

12. (Far.) plural (a) The space between the tusks and grinders in the upper jaw of a horse, in which the bit is placed. (b) The part of the crust of a horse's hoof which is bent inwards towards the frog at the heel on each side, and extends into the center of the sole.

13. (Mining) (a) A drilling or tamping rod. (b) A vein or dike crossing a lode.

14. (Architecture) (a) A gatehouse of a castle or fortified town. (b) A slender strip of wood which divides and supports the glass of a window; a sash bar.

Bar shoe (Far.) , a kind of horseshoe having a bar across the usual opening at the heel, to protect a tender frog from injury. -- Bar shot , a double headed shot, consisting of a bar, with a ball or half ball at each end; -- formerly used for destroying the masts or rigging in naval combat. -- Bar sinister (Her.) , a term popularly but erroneously used for baton , a mark of illegitimacy. See Baton . -- Bar tracery (Architecture) , ornamental stonework resembling bars of iron twisted into the forms required. -- Blank bar (Law) . See Blank . -- Case at bar (Law) , a case presently before the court; a case under argument. -- In bar of , as a sufficient reason against; to prevent. -- Matter in bar , or Defence in bar , any matter which is a final defense in an action. -- Plea in bar , a plea which goes to bar or defeat the plaintiff's action absolutely and entirely. -- Trial at bar (Eng. Law) , a trial before all the judges of one the superior courts of Westminster, or before a quorum representing the full court.

Bar (bär) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Barred (bärd); present participle & verbal noun Barring .] [ French barrer . See Bar , noun ]
1. To fasten with a bar; as, to bar a door or gate.

2. To restrict or confine, as if by a bar; to hinder; to obstruct; to prevent; to prohibit; as, to bar the entrance of evil; distance bars our intercourse; the statute bars my right; the right is barred by time; a release bars the plaintiff's recovery; -- sometimes with up .

He barely looked the idea in the face, and hastened to bar it in its dungeon.
Hawthorne.

3. To except; to exclude by exception.

Nay, but I bar to-night: you shall not gauge me
By what we do to-night.
Shak.

4. To cross with one or more stripes or lines.

For the sake of distinguishing the feet more clearly, I have barred them singly.
Burney.

Bar iron See under Iron .

Baraca noun An international, interdenominational organization of Bible classes of young men; -- so named in allusion to the Hebrew word Berachah (Meaning blessing ) occurring in 2 Chron. xx. 26 and 1 Chron. xii.

Barad noun [ Greek ... weight.] (Physics) The pressure of one dyne per square centimeter; -- used as a unit of pressure.

Barathea noun A soft fabric with a kind of basket weave and a diapered pattern.

Barb noun [ French barbe , from Latin barba beard. See Beard , noun ]
1. Beard, or that which resembles it, or grows in the place of it.

The barbel, so called by reason of his barbs , or wattles in his mouth.
Walton.

2. A muffler, worn by nuns and mourners. [ Obsolete]

3. plural Paps, or little projections, of the mucous membrane, which mark the opening of the submaxillary glands under the tongue in horses and cattle. The name is mostly applied when the barbs are inflamed and swollen. [ Written also barbel and barble .]

4. The point that stands backward in an arrow, fishhook, etc., to prevent it from being easily extracted. Hence: Anything which stands out with a sharp point obliquely or crosswise to something else. "Having two barbs or points." Ascham.

5. A bit for a horse. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

6. (Zoology) One of the side branches of a feather, which collectively constitute the vane. See Feather .

7. (Zoology) A southern name for the kingfishes of the eastern and southeastern coasts of the United States; -- also improperly called whiting .

8. (Botany) A hair or bristle ending in a double hook.

Barb transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Barbed ; present participle & verbal noun Barbing .]
1. To shave or dress the beard of. [ Obsolete]

2. To clip; to mow. [ Obsolete] Marston.

3. To furnish with barbs, or with that which will hold or hurt like barbs, as an arrow, fishhook, spear, etc.

But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire.
Milton.

Barb noun [ Corrupted from bard .] Armor for a horse. Same as 2d Bard , noun , 1.

Barbacan noun See Barbican .

Barbacanage noun See Barbicanage .

Barbadian adjective Of or pertaining to Barbados. -- noun A native of Barbados.

Barbados, Barbadoes noun A West Indian island, giving its name to a disease, to a cherry, etc.

Barbados cherry (Botany) , a genus of trees of the West Indies ( Malpighia ) with an agreeably acid fruit resembling a cherry. -- Barbados leg (Medicine) , a species of elephantiasis incident to hot climates. -- Barbados nuts , the seeds of the Jatropha curcas , a plant growing in South America and elsewhere. The seeds and their acrid oil are used in medicine as a purgative. See Physic nut .

Barbara noun [ Coined by logicians.] (Logic) The first word in certain mnemonic lines which represent the various forms of the syllogism. It indicates a syllogism whose three propositions are universal affirmatives. Whately.

Barbaresque adjective Barbaric in form or style; as, barbaresque architecture. De Quincey.

Barbarian noun [ See Barbarous .]
1. A foreigner. [ Historical]

Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian , and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.
1 Cor. xiv. 11.

2. A man in a rude, savage, or uncivilized state.

3. A person destitute of culture. M. Arnold.

4. A cruel, savage, brutal man; one destitute of pity or humanity. "Thou fell barbarian ." Philips.

Barbarian adjective Of, or pertaining to, or resembling, barbarians; rude; uncivilized; barbarous; as, barbarian governments or nations.

Barbaric (bär*băr"ĭk) adjective [ Latin barbaricus foreign, barbaric, Greek barbariko`s .]
1. Of, or from, barbarian nations; foreign; -- often with reference to barbarous nations of the east. " Barbaric pearl and gold." Milton.

2. Of or pertaining to, or resembling, an uncivilized person or people; barbarous; barbarian; destitute of refinement. "Wild, barbaric music." Sir W. Scott.

Barbarism (bär"bȧ*rĭz'm) noun [ Latin barbarismus , Greek barbarismo`s ; confer French barbarisme .]
1. An uncivilized state or condition; rudeness of manners; ignorance of arts, learning, and literature; barbarousness. Prescott.

2. A barbarous, cruel, or brutal action; an outrage.

A heinous barbarism . . . against the honor of marriage.
Milton.

3. An offense against purity of style or language; any form of speech contrary to the pure idioms of a particular language. See Solecism .

The Greeks were the first that branded a foreign term in any of their writers with the odious name of barbarism .
G. Campbell.

Barbarity noun ; plural Barbarities [ From Barbarous .]
1. The state or manner of a barbarian; lack of civilization.

2. Cruelty; ferociousness; inhumanity.

Treating Christians with a barbarity which would have shocked the very Moslem.
Macaulay.

3. A barbarous or cruel act.

4. Barbarism; impurity of speech. [ Obsolete] Swift.

Barbarize intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Barbarized ; present participle & verbal noun Barbarizing ]


1. To become barbarous.

The Roman empire was barbarizing rapidly from the time of Trajan.
De Quincey.

2. To adopt a foreign or barbarous mode of speech.

The ill habit . . . of wretched barbarizing against the Latin and Greek idiom, with their untutored Anglicisms.
Milton.

Barbarize transitive verb [ Confer French barbariser , Late Latin barbarizare .] To make barbarous.

The hideous changes which have barbarized France.
Burke.

Barbarous adjective [ Latin barbarus , Greek ba`rbaros , strange, foreign; later, slavish, rude, ignorant; akin to Latin balbus stammering, Sanskrit barbara stammering, outlandish. Confer Brave , adjective ]
1. Being in the state of a barbarian; uncivilized; rude; peopled with barbarians; as, a barbarous people; a barbarous country.

2. Foreign; adapted to a barbaric taste. [ Obsolete]

Barbarous gold.
Dryden.

3. Cruel; ferocious; inhuman; merciless.

By their barbarous usage he died within a few days, to the grief of all that knew him.
Clarendon.

4. Contrary to the pure idioms of a language.

A barbarous expression
G. Campbell.

Syn. -- Uncivilized; unlettered; uncultivated; untutored; ignorant; merciless; brutal. See Ferocious .

Barbarously adverb In a barbarous manner.

Barbarousness noun The quality or state of being barbarous; barbarity; barbarism.

Barbary noun [ Fr. Arabic Barbar the people of Barbary.] The countries on the north coast of Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic. Hence: A Barbary horse; a barb. [ Obsolete] Also, a kind of pigeon.

Barbary ape (Zoology) , an ape ( Macacus innuus ) of north Africa and Gibraltar Rock, being the only monkey inhabiting Europe. It is very commonly trained by showmen.

Barbastel noun [ French barbastelle .] (Zoology) A European bat ( Barbastellus communis ), with hairy lips.

Barbate adjective [ Latin barbatus , from barba beard. See Barb beard.] (Botany) Bearded; beset with long and weak hairs. Gray.

Barbated adjective Having barbed points.

A dart uncommonly barbated .
T. Warton.

Barbecue (bä"be*kū) noun [ In the language of Indians of Guiana, a frame on which all kinds of flesh and fish are roasted or smoke-dried.]
1. A hog, ox, or other large animal roasted or broiled whole for a feast.

2. A social entertainment, where many people assemble, usually in the open air, at which one or more large animals are roasted or broiled whole.

3. A floor, on which coffee beans are sun- dried.

Barbecue transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Barbecued ; present participle & verbal noun Barbecuing .]
1. To dry or cure by exposure on a frame or gridiron.

They use little or no salt, but barbecue their game and fish in the smoke.
Stedman.

2. To roast or broil whole, as an ox or hog.

Send me, gods, a whole hog barbecued .
Pope.

Barbed (bärbd or bärb"ĕd) adjective [ See 4th Barb .] Accoutered with defensive armor; -- said of a horse. See Barded (which is the proper form.) Sir W. Raleigh.

Barbed adjective Furnished with a barb or barbs; as, a barbed arrow; barbed wire.

Barbed wire , a wire, or a strand of twisted wires, armed with barbs or sharp points. It is used for fences.

Barbel (bär"bĕl) noun [ Old French barbel , French barbeau , dim. of Latin barbus barbel, from barba beard. See 1st Barb .]


1. (Zoology) A slender tactile organ on the lips of certain fishes.

2. (Zoology) A large fresh-water fish ( Barbus vulgaris ) found in many European rivers. Its upper jaw is furnished with four barbels.

3. plural Barbs or paps under the tongues of horses and cattle. See 1st Barb , 3.

Barbellate (-lat) adjective [ See 1st Barb .] (Botany) Having short, stiff hairs, often barbed at the point. Gray.

Barbellulate (bär*bĕl"lu*lat) adjective (Botany) Barbellate with diminutive hairs or barbs.

Barber (bär"bẽr) noun [ Middle English barbour , Old French barbeor , French barbier , as if from an assumed Latin barbator , from barba beard. See 1st Barb .] One whose occupation it is to shave or trim the beard, and to cut and dress the hair of his patrons.

Barber's itch . See under Itch .

» Formerly the barber practiced some offices of surgery, such as letting blood and pulling teeth. Hence such terms as barber surgeon (old form barber chirurgeon ), barber surgery , etc.

Barber transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Barbered ; present participle & verbal noun Barbering .] To shave and dress the beard or hair of. Shak.

Barber noun (Meteor.) A storm accompanied by driving ice spicules formed from sea water, esp. one occurring on the Gulf of St. Lawrence; -- so named from the cutting ice spicules. [ Canada]

Barber fish (Zoology) See Surgeon fish .

Barbermonger noun A fop. [ Obsolete]

Barberry noun [ Middle English barbarin , barbere , Old French berbere .] (Botany) A shrub of the genus Berberis , common along roadsides and in neglected fields. B. vulgaris is the species best known; its oblong red berries are made into a preserve or sauce, and have been deemed efficacious in fluxes and fevers. The bark dyes a fine yellow, esp. the bark of the root. [ Also spelt berberry .]

Barbet noun [ French barbet , from barbe beard, long hair of certain animals. See Barb beard.] (Zoology) (a) A variety of small dog, having long curly hair. (b) A bird of the family Bucconidæ , allied to the Cuckoos, having a large, conical beak swollen at the base, and bearded with five bunches of stiff bristles; the puff bird. It inhabits tropical America and Africa. (c) A larva that feeds on aphides.

Barbette noun [ French Confer Barbet .] (Fort.) A mound of earth or a platform in a fortification, on which guns are mounted to fire over the parapet.

En barbette , In barbette , said of guns when they are elevated so as to fire over the top of a parapet, and not through embrasures. -- Barbette gun , or Barbette battery , a single gun, or a number of guns, mounted in barbette , or partially protected by a parapet or turret. -- Barbette carriage , a gun carriage which elevates guns sufficiently to be in barbette . [ See Illust. of Casemate .]

Barbican, Barbacan noun [ Middle English barbican , barbecan , French barbacane , Late Latin barbacana , barbicana , of uncertain origin: confer Arabic barbakh aqueduct, sewer. French barbacane also means, an opening to let out water, loophole.]
1. (Fort.) A tower or advanced work defending the entrance to a castle or city, as at a gate or bridge. It was often large and strong, having a ditch and drawbridge of its own.

2. An opening in the wall of a fortress, through which missiles were discharged upon an enemy.

Baræsthesiometer, Baresthesiometer noun [ Greek ... weight + æsthesiometer .] (Physiol.) An instrument for determining the delicacy of the sense of pressure. -- Bar`æs*the`si*o*met"ric , Bar`es*the`si*o*met"ric adjective