Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Middle English shelle
, Anglo-Saxon scell
; akin to Dutch shel
, Icelandic skel
, Goth. skalja
a tile, and English skill
. Confer Scale
of fishes, Shale
.] 1. A hard outside covering, as of a fruit or an animal.
Specifically: (a) The covering, or outside part, of a nut; as, a hazelnut shell . (b) A pod. (c) The hard covering of an egg.
Think him as a serpent's egg, . . . Shak. (d) (Zoology) The hard calcareous or chitinous external covering of mollusks, crustaceans, and some other invertebrates. In some mollusks, as the cuttlefishes, it is internal, or concealed by the mantle. Also, the hard covering of some vertebrates, as the armadillo, the tortoise, and the like. (e) (Zoology) Hence, by extension, any mollusks having such a covering. 2. (Mil.) A hollow projectile, of various shapes, adapted for a mortar or a cannon, and containing an explosive substance, ignited with a fuse or by percussion, by means of which the projectile is burst and its fragments scattered. See Bomb . 3. The case which holds the powder, or charge of powder and shot, used with breechloading small arms. 4. Any slight hollow structure; a framework, or exterior structure, regarded as not complete or filled in; as, the shell of a house. 5. A coarse kind of coffin; also, a thin interior coffin inclosed in a more substantial one. Knight. 6. An instrument of music, as a lyre, -- the first lyre having been made, it is said, by drawing strings over a tortoise shell.
And kill him in the shell .
When Jubal struck the chorded shell . Dryden. 7. An engraved copper roller used in print works. 8. plural The husks of cacao seeds, a decoction of which is often used as a substitute for chocolate, cocoa, etc. 9. (Nautical) The outer frame or case of a block within which the sheaves revolve. 10. A light boat the frame of which is covered with thin wood or with paper; as, a racing shell . Message shell
, a bombshell inside of which papers may be put, in order to convey messages.
-- Shell bit
, a tool shaped like a gouge, used with a brace in boring wood. See Bit , noun , 3.
-- Shell button
. (a) A button made of shell
. (b) A hollow button made of two pieces, as of metal, one for the front and the other for the back, -- often covered with cloth, silk, etc.
-- Shell cameo
, a cameo cut in shell instead of stone.
-- Shell flower
. (Botany) Same as Turtlehead .
-- Shell gland
. (Zoology) (a) A glandular organ in which the rudimentary shell is formed in embryonic mollusks
. (b) A glandular organ which secretes the eggshells of various worms, crustacea, mollusks, etc.
-- Shell gun
, a cannon suitable for throwing shells.
-- Shell ibis (Zoology)
, the openbill of India.
-- Shell jacket
, an undress military jacket.
-- Shell lime
, lime made by burning the shells of shellfish.
-- Shell marl (Min.)
, a kind of marl characterized by an abundance of shells, or fragments of shells.
-- Shell meat
, food consisting of shellfish, or testaceous mollusks. Fuller.
-- Shell mound
. See under Mound .
-- Shell of a boiler
, the exterior of a steam boiler, forming a case to contain the water and steam, often inclosing also flues and the furnace; the barrel of a cylindrical, or locomotive, boiler.
-- Shell road
, a road of which the surface or bed is made of shells, as oyster shells.
-- Shell sand
, minute fragments of shells constituting a considerable part of the seabeach in some places.
Shell transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shelled
; present participle & verbal noun Shelling
.] 1. To strip or break off the shell of; to take out of the shell, pod, etc.; as, to shell nuts or pease; to shell oysters. 2. To separate the kernels of (an ear of Indian corn, wheat, oats, etc.) from the cob, ear, or husk. 3. To throw shells or bombs upon or into; to bombard; as, to shell a town. To shell out
, to distribute freely; to bring out or pay, as money.
Shell intransitive verb
1. To fall off, as a shell, crust, etc. 2. To cast the shell, or exterior covering; to fall out of the pod or husk; as, nuts shell in falling. 3. To be disengaged from the ear or husk; as, wheat or rye shells in reaping.
1. Something similar in form or action to an ordnance shell; specif.: (a) (Fireworks) A case or cartridge containing a charge of explosive material, which bursts after having been thrown high into the air. It is often elevated through the agency of a larger firework in which it is contained. (b) (Oil Wells) A torpedo. 2. A concave rough cast-iron tool in which a convex lens is ground to shape. 3. A gouge bit or shell bit.
Shell-lac, Shellac noun
a resinous substance; confer Dutch shellak
, German schellack
.] See the Note under 2d Lac .
Shell-less adjective Having no shell. J. Burroughs.
Shellbark noun (Botany) A species of hickory ( Carya alba ) whose outer bark is loose and peeling; a shagbark; also, its nut.
Shelled adjective (Zoology) Having a shell.
Sheller noun One who, or that which, shells; as, an oyster sheller ; a corn sheller .
Shellfish noun (Zoology) Any aquatic animal whose external covering consists of a shell, either testaceous, as in oysters, clams, and other mollusks, or crustaceous, as in lobsters and crabs.
Shelling noun Groats; hulled oats. Simmonds.
Shellproof adjective Capable of resisting bombs or other shells; bombproof.
Shellwork noun Work composed of shells, or adorned with them. Cotgrave.
Shelly adjective Abounding with shells; consisting of shells, or of a shell.
Shrinks backward in his shelly cave. Shak.
[ Confer Middle English scheltrun
, a guard, squadron, Anglo-Saxon scildtruma
a troop of men with shields; scild
shield + truma
a band of men. See Shield
] 1. That which covers or defends from injury or annoyance; a protection; a screen.
The sick and weak the healing plant shall aid, Pope. 2. One who protects; a guardian; a defender.
From storms a shelter , and from heat a shade.
Thou [ God] hast been a shelter for me. Ps. lxi. 3. 3. The state of being covered and protected; protection; security.
Who into shelter takes their tender bloom. Young. Shelter tent
, a small tent made of pieces of cotton duck arranged to button together. In field service the soldiers carry the pieces. Syn.
-- Asylum; refuge; retreat; covert; sanctuary; protection; defense; security.
Shelter transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Sheltered
; present participle & verbal noun Sheltering
.] 1. To be a shelter for; to provide with a shelter; to cover from injury or annoyance; to shield; to protect.
Those ruins sheltered once his sacred head. Dryden.
You have no convents . . . in which such persons may be received and sheltered . Southey. 2. To screen or cover from notice; to disguise.
In vain I strove to cheek my growing flame, Prior. 3. To betake to cover, or to a safe place; -- used reflexively.
Or shelter passion under friendship's name.
They sheltered themselves under a rock. Abp. Abbot.
Shelter intransitive verb To take shelter.
There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat, Milton.
Shelters in cool.
Shelterless adjective Destitute of shelter or protection.
Now sad and shelterless perhaps she lies. Rowe.
Sheltery adjective Affording shelter. [ R.]
Sheltie, Shelty noun A Shetland pony.
Shelve transitive verb
1. To furnish with shelves; as, to shelve a closet or a library. 2. To place on a shelf. Hence: To lay on the shelf; to put aside; to dismiss from service; to put off indefinitely; as, to shelve an officer; to shelve a claim.
Shelve intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shelved
; present participle & verbal noun Shelving
.] [ Perhapss originally from the same source as shallow
, but influenced by shelf
a ledge, a platform.] To incline gradually; to be slopping; as, the bottom shelves from the shore.
Shelving adjective Sloping gradually; inclining; as, a shelving shore. Shak. " Shelving arches." Addison.
1. The act of fitting up shelves; as, the job of shelving a closet. 2. The act of laying on a shelf, or on the shelf; putting off or aside; as, the shelving of a claim. 3. Material for shelves; shelves, collectively.
Shelvy adjective Sloping gradually; shelving.
The shore was shelving and shallow. Shak.
Shemite noun A descendant of Shem.
Shemitic, Shemitish adjective Of or pertaining to Shem , the son of Noah, or his descendants. See Semitic .
Shend transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shent
; present participle & verbal noun Shending
.] [ Anglo-Saxon scendan
to disgrace, bring to shame, from sceand
, disgrace, dishonor, shame; akin to German schande
, Goth. skanda
. See Shame
] 1. To injure, mar, spoil, or harm.
[ Obsolete] "Loss of time shendeth
I fear my body will be shent . Dryden. 2. To blame, reproach, or revile; to degrade, disgrace, or put to shame.
[ Archaic] R. Browning.
The famous name of knighthood foully shend . Spenser.
She passed the rest as Cynthia doth shend Spenser.
The lesser stars.
Shendful adjective Destructive; ruinous; disgraceful. [ Obsolete] -- Shend"ful*ly , adverb [ Obsolete] Fabyan.
Shendship noun Harm; ruin; also, reproach; disgrace. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Shent obsolete 3d pers. sing. present of Shend , for shendeth . Chaucer.
Shent transitive verb To shend. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.
[ Hebrew shĕōl
.] The place of departed spirits; Hades; also, the grave.
For thou wilt not leave my soul to sheol . Ps. xvi. 10. (Rev. Ver.)
Shepen noun A stable; a shippen.
The shepne brenning with the blacke smoke. Chaucer.
[ Middle English schepherde
, Anglo-Saxon sceáphyrde
sheep + hyrde
, a herd, a guardian. See Sheep
, and Herd
.] 1. A man employed in tending, feeding, and guarding sheep, esp. a flock grazing at large. 2. The pastor of a church; one with the religious guidance of others. Shepherd bird (Zoology)
, the crested screamer. See Screamer .
-- Shepherd dog (Zoology)
, a breed of dogs used largely for the herding and care of sheep. There are several kinds, as the collie, or Scotch shepherd dog, and the English shepherd dog. Called also shepherd's dog .
-- Shepherd dog
, a name of Pan. Keats.
-- Shepherd kings
, the chiefs of a nomadic people who invaded Egypt from the East in the traditional period, and conquered it, at least in part. They were expelled after about five hundred years, and attempts have been made to connect their expulsion with narrative in the book of Exodus.
-- Shepherd's club (Botany)
, the common mullein. See Mullein .
-- Shepherd's crook
, a long staff having the end curved so as to form a large hook, -- used by shepherds.
-- Shepherd's needle (Botany)
, the lady's comb.
-- Shepherd's plaid
, a kind of woolen cloth of a checkered black and white pattern.
-- Shephered spider (Zoology)
, a daddy longlegs, or harvestman.
-- Shepherd's pouch
, or Shepherd's purse (Botany)
, an annual cruciferous plant ( Capsella Bursapastoris ) bearing small white flowers and pouchlike pods. See Illust. of Silicle .
-- Shepherd's rod
, or Shepherd's staff (Botany)
, the small teasel.
Shepherd transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shepherded
; present participle & verbal noun Shepherding
.] To tend as a shepherd; to guard, herd, lead, or drive, as a shepherd.
White, fleecy clouds . . .
Shepherded by the slow, unwilling wind. Shelley.
Shepherdess noun A woman who tends sheep; hence, a rural lass.
She put herself into the garb of a shepherdess . Sir P. Sidney.
; plural Shepherdias
. [ New Latin So called from John Shepherd
, an English botanist.] (Botany) A genus of shrubs having silvery scurfy leaves, and belonging to the same family as Elæagnus; also, any plant of this genus. See Buffalo berry , under Buffalo .
Shepherdish noun Resembling a shepherd; suiting a shepherd; pastoral. Sir T. Sidney.
Shepherdism noun Pastoral life or occupation.
Shepherdling noun A little shepherd.
Shepherdly adjective Resembling, or becoming to, a shepherd; pastoral; rustic. [ R.] Jer. Taylor.
Shepster noun A seamstress. [ Obsolete] Caxton.
Sherardize transitive verb [ From Sherard Cowper-Coles, the inventor.] (Metal.) To subject to the process of vapor galvanizing (which see, below).
[ Arabic sherbet
, properly, one drink or sip, a draught, beverage, from shariba
to drink. Confer Sorbet
a drink.] 1. A refreshing drink, common in the East, made of the juice of some fruit, diluted, sweetened, and flavored in various ways; as, orange sherbet ; lemon sherbet ; raspberry sherbet , etc. 2. A flavored water ice. 3. A preparation of bicarbonate of soda, tartaric acid, sugar, etc., variously flavored, for making an effervescing drink; -- called also sherbet powder .
Sherd noun A fragment; -- now used only in composition, as in pot sherd . See Shard .
The thigh . . . which all in sherds it drove. Chapman.
Shereef Sher"if noun [ Arabic sherīf noble, holy, noun , a prince.] A member of an Arab princely family descended from Mohammed through his son-in-law Ali and daughter Fatima. The Grand Shereef is the governor of Mecca.
Sheriat noun [ Turk. sherī 'at ] The sacred law of the Turkish empire.
[ Middle English shereve
, Anglo-Saxon scīr-ger...fa
a shire + ger...fa
a reeve. See Shire, and Reeve
, and confer Shrievalty
.] The chief officer of a shire or county, to whom is intrusted the execution of the laws, the serving of judicial writs and processes, and the preservation of the peace.
» In England, sheriffs are appointed by the king. In the United States, sheriffs are elected by the legislature or by the citizens, or appointed and commissioned by the executive of the State. The office of sheriff in England is judicial and ministerial. In the United States, it is mainly ministerial. The sheriff, by himself or his deputies, executes civil and criminal process throughout the county, has charge of the jail and prisoners, attends courts, and keeps the peace. His judicial authority is generally confined to ascertaining damages on writs of inquiry and the like. Sheriff
, in Scotland, called sheriff depute
, is properly a judge, having also certain ministerial powers. Sheriff clerk
is the clerk of the Sheriff's Court in Scotland. Sheriff's Court in London
is a tribunal having cognizance of certain personal actions in that city. Wharton, Tomlins. Erskine.
Sheriffalty, Sheriffdom Sher"iff*ry Sher"iff*ship