Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Middle English schivere
, from shive
; confer German schifer
a splinter, slate, Old High German scivere
a splinter, Dan. & Swedish skifer
a slate. See Shive
, and confer Skever
.] 1. One of the small pieces, or splinters, into which a brittle thing is broken by sudden violence; -- generally used in the plural.
"All to shivers
dashed." Milton. 2. A thin slice; a shive.
[ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.] "A shiver
of their own loaf." Fuller.
Of your soft bread, not but a shiver . Chaucer. 3. (Geol.) A variety of blue slate. 4. (Nautical) A sheave or small wheel in a pulley. 5. A small wedge, as for fastening the bolt of a window shutter. 6. A spindle.
[ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.]
Shiver transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shivered
; present participle & verbal noun Shivering
.] [ Middle English schiveren
; confer OD. scheveren
. See Shiver
a fragment.] To break into many small pieces, or splinters; to shatter; to dash to pieces by a blow; as, to shiver a glass goblet.
All the ground Milton.
With shivered armor strown.
Shiver intransitive verb To separate suddenly into many small pieces or parts; to be shattered.
There shiver shafts upon shields thick. Chaucer
The natural world, should gravity once cease, . . . would instantly shiver into millions of atoms. Woodward.
Shiver intransitive verb
[ Middle English chiveren
; of uncertain origin. This word seems to have been confused with shiver
to shatter.] To tremble; to vibrate; to quiver; to shake, as from cold or fear.
Prometheus is laid Swift.
On icy Caucasus to shiver .
The man that shivered on the brink of sin, Creech.
Thus steeled and hardened, ventures boldly in.
Shiver transitive verb (Nautical) To cause to shake or tremble, as a sail, by steering close to the wind.
Shiver noun The act of shivering or trembling.
Shiver-spar noun [ Confer German schiefer-spath .] (Min.) A variety of calcite, so called from its slaty structure; -- called also slate spar .
Shiveringly adverb In a shivering manner.
1. Tremulous; shivering. Mallet. 2. Easily broken; brittle; shattery.
Shizoku noun sing. & plural [ Jap. shi-zoku , from Chin. ch' ( chi ) branch, posterity + tsu kindered, class.] The Japanese warrior gentry or middle class, formerly called samurai ; also, any member of this class.
Shoad noun [ Confer German schutt rubbish.] (Mining) A train of vein material mixed with rubbish; fragments of ore which have become separated by the action of water or the weather, and serve to direct in the discovery of mines. [ Written also shode .]
Shoading noun (Mining) The tracing of veins of metal by shoads. [ Written also shoding .] Pryce.
[ Anglo-Saxon scolu
, a company, multitude, crowd, akin to Old Saxon skola
; probably originally, a division, and akin to Icelandic skilja
to part, divide. See Skill
, and confer School
. of fishes.] A great multitude assembled; a crowd; a throng; -- said especially of fish; as, a shoal of bass.
of people." Bacon.
Beneath, a shoal of silver fishes glides. Waller.
Shoal intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shoaled
; present participle & verbal noun Shoaling
.] To assemble in a multitude; to throng; as, the fishes shoaled about the place. Chapman.
[ Confer Shallow
; or confer German scholle
a clod, glebe, Old High German scollo
, probably akin to English shoal
a multitude.] Having little depth; shallow; as, shoal water.
Shoal noun 1. A place where the water of a sea, lake, river, pond, etc., is shallow; a shallow.
The depth of your pond should be six feet; and on the sides some shoals for the fish to lay their span. Mortimer.
Wolsey, that once trod the ways of glory, Shak. 2. A sandbank or bar which makes the water shoal.
And sounded all the depths and shoals of honor.
The god himself with ready trident stands, Dryden.
And opes the deep, and spreads the moving sands,
Then heaves them off the shoals .
Shoal intransitive verb To become shallow; as, the color of the water shows where it shoals .
Shoal transitive verb To cause to become more shallow; to come to a more shallow part of; as, a ship shoals her water by advancing into that which is less deep. Marryat.
Shoaliness noun The quality or state of being shoaly; little depth of water; shallowness.
Shoaling adjective Becoming shallow gradually. "A shoaling estuary." Lyell.
Shoaly adjective Full of shoals, or shallow places.
The tossing vessel sailed on shoaly ground. Dryden.
(shōr) noun A prop. See 3d Shore .
(shōt) noun A young hog. Same as Shote .
[ Middle English schokke
; confer OD schocke
, German schock
a heap, quantity, threescore, Middle High German schoc
, Swedish skok
, and also German hocke
a heap of hay, Lithuanian kugis
.] 1. A pile or assemblage of sheaves of grain, as wheat, rye, or the like, set up in a field, the sheaves varying in number from twelve to sixteen; a stook.
And cause it on shocks to be by and by set. Tusser.
Behind the master walks, builds up the shocks . Thomson. 2.
[ German schock
.] (Com.) A lot consisting of sixty pieces; -- a term applied in some Baltic ports to loose goods.
Shock transitive verb To collect, or make up, into a shock or shocks; to stook; as, to shock rye.
Shock intransitive verb To be occupied with making shocks.
Reap well, scatter not, gather clean that is shorn, Tusser.
Bind fast, shock apace.
[ Confer Dutch schok
a bounce, jolt, or leap, Old High German scoc
a swing, Middle High German schoc
, Icelandic skykkjun
tremuously, French choc
a shock, collision, a dashing or striking against, Spanish choque
, Italian ciocco
a log. √161. Confer Shock
to shake.] 1. A quivering or shaking which is the effect of a blow, collision, or violent impulse; a blow, impact, or collision; a concussion; a sudden violent impulse or onset.
These strong, unshaken mounds resist the shocks Blackmore.
Of tides and seas tempestuous.
He stood the shock of a whole host of foes. Addison. 2. A sudden agitation of the mind or feelings; a sensation of pleasure or pain caused by something unexpected or overpowering; also, a sudden agitating or overpowering event.
of pleasure." Talfourd. 3. (Medicine) A sudden depression of the vital forces of the entire body, or of a port of it, marking some profound impression produced upon the nervous system, as by severe injury, overpowering emotion, or the like. 4. (Electricity) The sudden convulsion or contraction of the muscles, with the feeling of a concussion, caused by the discharge, through the animal system, of electricity from a charged body. Syn.
. Both words signify a sudden violent shaking caused by impact or colision; but concussion
is restricted in use to matter, while shock
is used also of mental states.
Shock transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shocked
; present participle & verbal noun Shocking
.] [ Middle English schokken
; confer Dutch schokken
, French choquer
, Spanish chocar
. √161. Confer Chuck
to strike, Jog
a striking, Shog
] 1. To give a shock to; to cause to shake or waver; hence, to strike against suddenly; to encounter with violence.
Come the three corners of the world in arms, Shak.
And we shall shock them.
I shall never forget the force with which he shocked De Vipont. Sir W. Scott. 2. To strike with surprise, terror, horror, or disgust; to cause to recoil; as, his violence shocked his associates.
Advise him not to shock a father's will. Dryden.
Shock intransitive verb To meet with a shock; to meet in violent encounter. "They saw the moment approach when the two parties would shock together." De Quincey.
[ Confer Shag
.] 1. (Zoology) A dog with long hair or shag; -- called also shockdog . 2. A thick mass of bushy hair; as, a head covered with a shock of sandy hair.
Shock adjective Bushy; shaggy; as, a shock hair.
His red shock peruke . . . was laid aside. Sir W. Scott.
Shock transitive verb (Physiol.) To subject to the action of an electrical discharge so as to cause a more or less violent depression or commotion of the nervous system.
Shock-head adjective Shock- headed. Tennyson.
Shock-headed adjective Having a thick and bushy head of hair.
Shockdog noun (Zoology) See 7th Shock , 1.
Shocking adjective Causing to shake or tremble, as by a blow; especially, causing to recoil with horror or disgust; extremely offensive or disgusting.
The grossest and most shocking villainies. Secker.
Shod imperfect & past participle f Shoe .
[ Perhaps from Shed
, transitive verb
; as meaning originally, waste stuff shed
or thrown off.] 1. A fibrous material obtained by "deviling," or tearing into fibers, refuse woolen goods, old stockings, rags, druggets, etc. See Mungo . 2. A fabric of inferior quality made of, or containing a large amount of, shoddy.
» The great quantity of shoddy goods furnished as army supplies in the late Civil War in the United States gave wide currency to the word, and it came to be applied to persons who pretend to a higher position in society than that to which their breeding or worth entitles them.
Shoddy adjective Made wholly or in part of shoddy; containing shoddy; as, shoddy cloth; shoddy blankets; hence, colloquially, not genuine; sham; pretentious; as, shoddy aristocracy.
Shoddy inventions designed to bolster up a factitious pride. Compton Reade.
[ Perh. akin to Shed
, transitive verb
; as meaning originally, waste stuff shed
or thrown off; confer dial. shod
to shed, and English Shed
a parting, separation, Shode
a parting.] Fluffy, fibrous waste from wool carding, worsted spinning, or weaving of woolens.
Shoddy fever (Medicine) A febrile disease characterized by dyspnœa and bronchitis caused by inhaling dust.
Shoddyism noun The quality or state of being shoddy.
[ Colloq.] See the Note under Shoddy
[ Anglo-Saxon scāde
, from sceádan
. See Shed
, transitive verb
] 1. The parting of the hair on the head.
Full straight and even lay his jolly shode . Chaucer. 2. The top of the head; the head.
[ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Shoder noun A package of gold beater's skins in which gold is subjected to the second process of beating.
; plural Shoes
, formerly Shoon
, now provincial. [ Middle English sho
, Anglo-Saxon sc...h
; akin to OFries. sk...
, Old Saxon sk...h
, Dutch schoe
, German schuh
, Old High German scuoh
, Icelandic sk...r
, Dan. & Swedish sko
, Goth. sk...hs
; of unknown origin.] 1. A covering for the human foot, usually made of leather, having a thick and somewhat stiff sole and a lighter top. It differs from a boot on not extending so far up the leg.
Your hose should be ungartered, . . . your shoe untied. Shak.
Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon . Shak. 2. Anything resembling a shoe in form, position, or use.
Specifically: (a) A plate or rim of iron nailed to the hoof of an animal to defend it from injury. (b) A band of iron or steel, or a ship of wood, fastened to the bottom of the runner of a sleigh, or any vehicle which slides on the snow. (c) A drag, or sliding piece of wood or iron, placed under the wheel of a loaded vehicle, to retard its motion in going down a hill. (d) The part of a railroad car brake which presses upon the wheel to retard its motion. (e) (Architecture) A trough-shaped or spout-shaped member, put at the bottom of the water leader coming from the eaves gutter, so as to throw the water off from the building. (f) (Milling.) The trough or spout for conveying the grain from the hopper to the eye of the millstone. (g) An inclined trough in an ore-crushing mill. (h) An iron socket or plate to take the thrust of a strut or rafter. (i) An iron socket to protect the point of a wooden pile. (j) (Machinery) A plate, or notched piece, interposed between a moving part and the stationary part on which it bears, to take the wear and afford means of adjustment; -- called also slipper , and gib .
is often used adjectively, or in composition; as, shoe
buckle, or shoe
latchet, or shoe
leathet, or shoe
-string, or shoe
string. Shoe of an anchor
. (Nautical) (a) A small block of wood, convex on the back, with a hole to receive the point of the anchor fluke, -- used to prevent the anchor from tearing the planks of the vessel when raised or lowered. (b) A broad, triangular piece of plank placed upon the fluke to give it a better hold in soft ground.
-- Shoe block (Nautical)
, a block with two sheaves, one above the other, and at right angles to each other.
-- Shoe bolt
, a bolt with a flaring head, for fastening shoes on sleigh runners.
-- Shoe pac
, a kind of moccasin. See Pac .
-- Shoe stone
, a sharpening stone used by shoemakers and other workers in leather.
Shoe transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Shod
; present participle & verbal noun Shoeing
.] [ Anglo-Saxon sc...ian
. See Shoe
] 1. To furnish with a shoe or shoes; to put a shoe or shoes on; as, to shoe a horse, a sled, an anchor. 2. To protect or ornament with something which serves the purpose of a shoe; to tip.
The sharp and small end of the billiard stick, which is shod with brass or silver. Evelyn.
Shoe (shō) noun The outer cover or tread of a pneumatic tire, esp. for an automobile.
Shoebill noun (Zoology) A large African wading bird ( Balæniceps rex ) allied to the storks and herons, and remarkable for its enormous broad swollen bill. It inhabits the valley of the White Nile. See Illust. ( l. ) of Beak .
Shoeblack noun One who polishes shoes.
1. (Railroading) A contrivance for throwing the track temporarily to one side for convenience in filling washouts or effecting other repairs. [ Cant, U. S.] 2. (Print.) In some cylinder presses, a device with long fingers for freeing the sheet from the cylinder.
Shoehorn, Shoeing-horn noun
1. A curved piece of polished horn, wood, or metal used to facilitate the entrance of the foot into a shoe. 2. Figuratively: (a) Anything by which a transaction is facilitated; a medium; -- by way of contempt. Spectator. (b) Anything which draws on or allures; an inducement. [ Low] Beau. & Fl.
Shoeless adjective Destitute of shoes. Addison.