Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Shad-spirit noun See Shadbird (a)

Shad-waiter noun (Zoology) A lake whitefish; the roundfish. See Roundfish .

Shadrach noun (Metal.) A mass of iron on which the operation of smelting has failed of its intended effect; -- so called from Shadrach , one of the three Hebrews who came forth unharmed from the fiery furnace of Nebuchadnezzar. (See Dan. iii. 26, 27. )

Shady adjective [ Compar. Shadier ; superl. Shadiest .]
1. Abounding in shade or shades; overspread with shade; causing shade.

The shady trees cover him with their shadow.
Job. xl. 22.

And Amaryllis fills the shady groves.

2. Sheltered from the glare of light or sultry heat.

Cast it also that you may have rooms shady for summer and warm for winter.

3. Of or pertaining to shade or darkness; hence, unfit to be seen or known; equivocal; dubious or corrupt. [ Colloq.] "A shady business." London Sat. Rev.

Shady characters, disreputable, criminal.
London Spectator.

On the shady side of , on the thither side of; as, on the shady side of fifty; that is, more than fifty. [ Colloq.] -- To keep shady , to stay in concealment; also, to be reticent. [ Slang]

Shaffle intransitive verb [ See Shuffle .] To hobble or limp; to shuffle. [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.]

Shaffler noun A hobbler; one who limps; a shuffer. [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.]

Shafiite noun A member of one of the four sects of the Sunnites, or Orthodox Mohammedans; -- so called from its founder, Mohammed al- Shafeï .

Shaft noun [ Middle English shaft , schaft , Anglo-Saxon sceaft ; akin to Dutch schacht , Old High German scaft , German schaft , Dan. & Swedish skaft handle, haft, Icelandic skapt , and probably to Latin scapus , Greek ............, ............, a staff. Probably originally, a shaven or smoothed rod. Confer Scape , Scepter , Shave .]
1. The slender, smooth stem of an arrow; hence, an arrow.

His sleep, his meat, his drink, is him bereft,
That lean he wax, and dry as is a shaft .

A shaft hath three principal parts, the stele [ stale], the feathers, and the head.

2. The long handle of a spear or similar weapon; hence, the weapon itself; (Fig.) anything regarded as a shaft to be thrown or darted; as, shafts of light.

And the thunder,
Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage,
Perhaps hath spent his shafts .

Some kinds of literary pursuits . . . have been attacked with all the shafts of ridicule.
V. Knox.

3. That which resembles in some degree the stem or handle of an arrow or a spear; a long, slender part, especially when cylindrical. Specifically: (a) (Botany) The trunk, stem, or stalk of a plant. (b) (Zoology) The stem or midrib of a feather. See Illust. of Feather . (c) The pole, or tongue, of a vehicle; also, a thill. (d) The part of a candlestick which supports its branches.

Thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold . . . his shaft , and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same.
Ex. xxv. 31.

(e) The handle or helve of certain tools, instruments, etc., as a hammer, a whip, etc. (f) A pole, especially a Maypole. [ Obsolete] Stow. (g) (Architecture) The body of a column; the cylindrical pillar between the capital and base (see Illust. of Column ). Also, the part of a chimney above the roof. Also, the spire of a steeple. [ Obsolete or R.] Gwilt. (h) A column, an obelisk, or other spire-shaped or columnar monument.

Bid time and nature gently spare
The shaft we raise to thee.

(i) (Weaving) A rod at the end of a heddle. (j) (Machinery) A solid or hollow cylinder or bar, having one or more journals on which it rests and revolves, and intended to carry one or more wheels or other revolving parts and to transmit power or motion; as, the shaft of a steam engine. See Illust. of Countershaft .

4. (Zoology) A humming bird ( Thaumastura cora ) having two of the tail feathers next to the middle ones very long in the male; -- called also cora humming bird .

5. [ Confer German schacht .] (Mining) A well-like excavation in the earth, perpendicular or nearly so, made for reaching and raising ore, for raising water, etc.

6. A long passage for the admission or outlet of air; an air shaft.

7. The chamber of a blast furnace.

Line shaft (Machinery) , a main shaft of considerable length, in a shop or factory, usually bearing a number of pulleys by which machines are driven, commonly by means of countershafts; -- called also line , or main line . - - Shaft alley (Nautical) , a passage extending from the engine room to the stern, and containing the propeller shaft. -- Shaft furnace (Metal.) , a furnace, in the form of a chimney, which is charged at the top and tapped at the bottom.

Shafted adjective
1. Furnished with a shaft, or with shafts; as, a shafted arch.

2. (Her.) Having a shaft; -- applied to a spear when the head and the shaft are of different tinctures.

Shafting noun (Machinery) Shafts, collectivelly; a system of connected shafts for communicating motion.

Shaftman, Shaftment noun [ Anglo-Saxon sceaftmund .] A measure of about six inches. [ Obsolete]

Shag noun [ Anglo-Saxon sceacga a bush of hair; akin to Icelandic skegg the beard, Swedish skägg , Danish skj...g . Confer Schock of hair.]
1. Coarse hair or nap; rough, woolly hair.

True Witney broadcloth, with its shag unshorn.

2. A kind of cloth having a long, coarse nap.

3. (Com.) A kind of prepared tobacco cut fine.

4. (Zoology) Any species of cormorant.

Shag adjective Hairy; shaggy. Shak.

Shag transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Shagged ; present participle & verbal noun Shagging .] To make hairy or shaggy; hence, to make rough.

Shag the green zone that bounds the boreal skies.
J. Barlow.

Shag-haired adjective Having shaggy hair. Shak.

Shag-rag noun The unkempt and ragged part of the community. [ Colloq. or Slang.] R. Browning.

Shagbark noun (Botany) A rough-barked species of hickory ( Carya alba ), its nut. Called also shellbark . See Hickory . (b) The West Indian Pithecolobium micradenium , a legiminous tree with a red coiled-up pod.

Shagebush noun A sackbut. [ Obsolete]

Shagged adjective Shaggy; rough. Milton. -- Shag"ged*ness , noun Dr. H. More.

Shagginess noun The quality or state of being shaggy; roughness; shaggedness.

Shaggy adjective [ Compar. Shaggier ; superl. Shaggiest .] [ From Shag , noun ] Rough with long hair or wool.

About his shoulders hangs the shaggy skin.

2. Rough; rugged; jaggy. Milton.

[ A rill] that winds unseen beneath the shaggy fell.

Shagreen transitive verb To chagrin. [ Obsolete]

Shagreen noun [ French chagrin , Italian zigrino , from Turk. saghri the back of a horse or other beast of burden, shagreen. Confer Chagrin .]
1. A kind of untanned leather prepared in Russia and the East, from the skins of horses, asses, and camels, and grained so as to be covered with small round granulations. This characteristic surface is produced by pressing small seeds into the grain or hair side when moist, and afterward, when dry, scraping off the roughness left between them, and then, by soaking, causing the portions of the skin which had been compressed or indented by the seeds to swell up into relief. It is used for covering small cases and boxes.

2. The skin of various small sharks and other fishes when having small, rough, bony scales. The dogfishes of the genus Scyllium furnish a large part of that used in the arts.

Shagreen, Shagreened adjective
1. Made or covered with the leather called shagreen. "A shagreen case of lancets." T. Hook.

2. (Zoology) Covered with rough scales or points like those on shagreen.

Shah (shä) noun [ Persian shāh a king, sovereign, prince. Confer Checkmate , Chess , Pasha .] The title of the supreme ruler in certain Eastern countries, especially Persia. [ Written also schah .]

Shah Nameh . [ Persian , Book of Kings.] A celebrated historical poem written by Firdousi, being the most ancient in the modern Persian language. Brande & C.

Shahin noun [ Arabic shāhīn .] (Zoology) A large and swift Asiatic falcon ( Falco pregrinator ) highly valued in falconry.

Shaik noun See Sheik .

Shail intransitive verb [ Confer Anglo-Saxon sceolh squinting, Icelandic skjāgr wry, oblique, Danish skele to squint.] To walk sidewise. [ Obsolete] L'Estrange.

Shaitan Shei"tan noun [ Written also sheytan .] [ Hind. shaitān , from Arabic shaitān .]
1. Among Mohammedans: (a) An evil spirit; the evil one; the devil. (b) One of bad disposition; a fiend. [ Colloq.]

2. (Meteor.) A dust storm. [ India]

Shake obsolete past participle of Shake . Chaucer.

Shake transitive verb [ imperfect Shook ; past participle Shaken , ( Shook , obsolete ); present participle & verbal noun Shaking .] [ Middle English shaken , schaken , Anglo-Saxon scacan , sceacan ; akin to Icelandic & Swedish skaka , Old Saxon skakan , to depart, to flee. √161. Confer Shock , v. ]
1. To cause to move with quick or violent vibrations; to move rapidly one way and the other; to make to tremble or shiver; to agitate.

As a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.
Rev. vi. 13.

Ascend my chariot; guide the rapid wheels
That shake heaven's basis.

2. Fig.: To move from firmness; to weaken the stability of; to cause to waver; to impair the resolution of.

When his doctrines grew too strong to be shook by his enemies, they persecuted his reputation.

Thy equal fear that my firm faith and love
Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced.

3. (Mus.) To give a tremulous tone to; to trill; as, to shake a note in music.

4. To move or remove by agitating; to throw off by a jolting or vibrating motion; to rid one's self of; -- generally with an adverb, as off , out , etc.; as, to shake fruit down from a tree.

Shake off the golden slumber of repose.

'Tis our fast intent
To shake all cares and business from our age.

I could scarcely shake him out of my company.

To shake a cask (Nautical) , to knock a cask to pieces and pack the staves. -- To shake hands , to perform the customary act of civility by clasping and moving hands, as an expression of greeting, farewell, good will, agreement, etc. -- To shake out a reef (Nautical) , to untile the reef points and spread more canvas. -- To shake the bells . See under Bell . -- To shake the sails (Nautical) , to luff up in the wind, causing the sails to shiver. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Shake intransitive verb To be agitated with a waving or vibratory motion; to tremble; to shiver; to quake; to totter.

Under his burning wheels
The steadfast empyrean shook throughout,
All but the throne itself of God.

What danger? Who 's that that shakes behind there?
Beau. & Fl.

Shaking piece , a name given by butchers to the piece of beef cut from the under side of the neck. See Illust. of Beef .

Shake noun
1. The act or result of shaking; a vacillating or wavering motion; a rapid motion one way and other; a trembling, quaking, or shivering; agitation.

The great soldier's honor was composed
Of thicker stuff, which could endure a shake .

Our salutations were very hearty on both sides, consisting of many kind shakes of the hand.

2. A fissure or crack in timber, caused by its being dried too suddenly. Gwilt.

3. A fissure in rock or earth.

4. (Mus.) A rapid alternation of a principal tone with another represented on the next degree of the staff above or below it; a trill.

5. (Nautical) One of the staves of a hogshead or barrel taken apart. Totten.

6. A shook of staves and headings. Knight.

7. (Zoology) The redshank; -- so called from the nodding of its head while on the ground. [ Prov. Eng.]

No great shakes , of no great importance. [ Slang] Byron. -- The shakes , the fever and ague. [ Colloq. U.S.]

Shakedown noun A temporary substitute for a bed, as one made on the floor or on chairs; -- perhaps originally from the shaking down of straw for this purpose. Sir W. Scott.

Shakefork noun A fork for shaking hay; a pitchfork. [ Obsolete]

Shaken adjective
1. Caused to shake; agitated; as, a shaken bough.

2. Cracked or checked; split. See Shake , noun , 2.

Nor is the wood shaken or twisted.

3. Impaired, as by a shock.

Shaker noun
1. A person or thing that shakes, or by means of which something is shaken.

2. One of a religious sect who do not marry, popularly so called from the movements of the members in dancing, which forms a part of their worship.

» The sect originated in England in 1747, and came to the United States in 1774, under the leadership of Mother Ann Lee. The Shakers are sometimes nicknamed Shaking Quakers , but they differ from the Quakers in doctrine and practice. They style themselves the "United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing." The sect is now confined in the United States.

3. (Zoology) A variety of pigeon. P. J. Selby.

Shakeress noun A female Shaker.

Shakerism noun Doctrines of the Shakers.

Shakespearean adjective Of, pertaining to, or in the style of, Shakespeare or his works. [ Written also Shakespearian , Shakspearean , Shakspearian , Shaksperean , Shaksperian .etc.]

Shakiness noun Quality of being shaky.

Shakings noun plural (Nautical) Deck sweepings, refuse of cordage, canvas, etc. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Shako noun [ Hung. csákó : confer French shako , schako .] A kind of military cap or headdress.

Shakudo noun [ Jap.] An alloy of copper, invented by the Japanese, having a very dark blue color approaching black.

Shaky adjective [ Compar. Shakier ; superl. Shakiest .]
1. Shaking or trembling; as, a shaky spot in a marsh; a shaky hand. Thackeray.

2. Full of shakes or cracks; cracked; as, shaky timber. Gwilt.

3. Easily shaken; tottering; unsound; as, a shaky constitution; shaky business credit. [ Colloq.]

Shale noun [ Anglo-Saxon scealy , scalu . See Scalme , and confer Shell .]
1. A shell or husk; a cod or pod. "The green shales of a bean." Chapman.

2. [ German shale .] (Geol.) A fine- grained sedimentary rock of a thin, laminated, and often friable, structure.

Bituminous shale . See under Bituminous .

Shale transitive verb To take off the shell or coat of; to shell.

Life, in its upper grades, was bursting its shell, or was shaling off its husk.
I. Taylor.

Shall intransitive verb & auxiliary. [ imperfect Should .] [ Middle English shal , schal , imperfect sholde , scholde , Anglo-Saxon scal , sceal , I am obliged, imperfect scolde , sceolde , inf. sculan ; akin to Old Saxon skulan , present skal , imperfect skolda , Dutch zullen , present zal , imperfect zoude , zou , Old High German solan , scolan , present scal , sol . imperfect scolta , solta , German sollen , present soll , imperfect sollte , Icelandic skulu , present skal , imperfect skyldi , SW. skola , present skall , imperfect skulle , Danish skulle , present skal , imperfect skulde , Goth. skulan , present skal , imperfect skulda , and to Anglo-Saxon scyld guilt, German schuld guilt, fault, debt, and perhaps to Latin scelus crime.] [ Shall is defective, having no infinitive, imperative, or participle.]
1. To owe; to be under obligation for. [ Obsolete] "By the faith I shall to God" Court of Love.

2. To be obliged; must. [ Obsolete] "Me athinketh [ I am sorry] that I shall rehearse it her." Chaucer.

3. As an auxiliary, shall indicates a duty or necessity whose obligation is derived from the person speaking; as, you shall go; he shall go; that is, I order or promise your going. It thus ordinarily expresses, in the second and third persons, a command, a threat, or a promise. If the auxillary be emphasized, the command is made more imperative, the promise or that more positive and sure. It is also employed in the language of prophecy; as, "the day shall come when . . . , " since a promise or threat and an authoritative prophecy nearly coincide in significance. In shall with the first person, the necessity of the action is sometimes implied as residing elsewhere than in the speaker; as, I shall suffer; we shall see; and there is always a less distinct and positive assertion of his volition than is indicated by will . "I shall go" implies nearly a simple futurity; more exactly, a foretelling or an expectation of my going, in which, naturally enough, a certain degree of plan or intention may be included; emphasize the shall , and the event is described as certain to occur, and the expression approximates in meaning to our emphatic "I will go." In a question, the relation of speaker and source of obligation is of course transferred to the person addressed; as, " Shall you go?" (answer, "I shall go"); " Shall he go?" i. e. , "Do you require or promise his going?" (answer, "He shall go".) The same relation is transferred to either second or third person in such phrases as "You say, or think, you shall go;" "He says, or thinks, he shall go." After a conditional conjunction (as if , whether) shall is used in all persons to express futurity simply; as, if I, you, or he shall say they are right. Should is everywhere used in the same connection and the same senses as shall , as its imperfect. It also expresses duty or moral obligation; as, he should do it whether he will or not. In the early English, and hence in our English Bible, shall is the auxiliary mainly used, in all the persons, to express simple futurity. (Cf. Will , transitive verb ) Shall may be used elliptically; thus, with an adverb or other word expressive of motion go may be omitted. "He to England shall along with you." Shak.

» Shall and will are often confounded by inaccurate speakers and writers. Say: I shall be glad to see you. Shall I do this? Shall I help you? (not Will I do this?) See Will .

Shalli noun See Challis .

Shallon noun (Botany) An evergreen shrub ( Gaultheria Shallon ) of Northwest America; also, its fruit. See Salal-berry .