Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ French estocade
, from Spanish estocada
, or Italian stoccata
, from Spanish estoque
, or Italian stocco
, a rapier, from German stock
a stick. See Stock
.] A stab; a thrust with a rapier. Shak.
Stochastic (sto*kăs"tĭk) adjective [ Greek stochastiko`s , from stocha`zesqai to aim, to guess, from sto`chos mark or aim.]
1. Conjectural; able to conjecture. [ Obsolete] Whitefoot.
[ Anglo-Saxon stocc
a stock, trunk, stick; akin to Dutch stok
, German stock
, Old High German stoc
, Icelandic stokkr
, Swedish stock
, Danish stok
, and Anglo-Saxon stycce
a piece; confer Sanskrit tuj
to urge, thrust. Confer Stokker
, and Tuck
a rapier.] 1. The stem, or main body, of a tree or plant; the fixed, strong, firm part; the trunk.
Though the root thereof wax old in the earth, and the stock thereof die in the ground, yet through the scent of water it will bud, and bring forth boughs like a plant. Job xiv. 8,9. 2. The stem or branch in which a graft is inserted.
The scion overruleth the stock quite. Bacon. 3. A block of wood; something fixed and solid; a pillar; a firm support; a post.
All our fathers worshiped stocks and stones. Milton.
Item, for a stock of brass for the holy water, seven shillings; which, by the canon, must be of marble or metal, and in no case of brick. Fuller. 4. Hence, a person who is as dull and lifeless as a stock or post; one who has little sense.
Let's be no stoics, nor no stocks . Shak. 5. The principal supporting part; the part in which others are inserted, or to which they are attached.
Specifically: -- (a) The wood to which the barrel, lock, etc., of a musket or like firearm are secured; also, a long, rectangular piece of wood, which is an important part of several forms of gun carriage. (b) The handle or contrivance by which bits are held in boring; a bitstock; a brace. (c) (Joinery) The block of wood or metal frame which constitutes the body of a plane, and in which the plane iron is fitted; a plane stock. (d) (Nautical) The wooden or iron crosspiece to which the shank of an anchor is attached. See Illust. of Anchor . (e) The support of the block in which an anvil is fixed, or of the anvil itself. (f) A handle or wrench forming a holder for the dies for cutting screws; a diestock. (g) The part of a tally formerly struck in the exchequer, which was delivered to the person who had lent the king money on account, as the evidence of indebtedness. See Counterfoil .
[ Eng.] 6. The original progenitor; also, the race or line of a family; the progenitor of a family and his direct descendants; lineage; family.
And stand betwixt them made, when, severally, Chapman.
All told their stock .
Thy mother was no goddess, nor thy stock Denham. 7. Money or capital which an individual or a firm employs in business; fund; in the United States, the capital of a bank or other company, in the form of transferable shares, each of a certain amount; money funded in government securities, called also the public funds ; in the plural, property consisting of shares in joint-stock companies, or in the obligations of a government for its funded debt; -- so in the United States, but in England the latter only are called stocks , and the former shares . 8. (Bookkeeping) Same as Stock account , below. 9. Supply provided; store; accumulation; especially, a merchant's or manufacturer's store of goods; as, to lay in a stock of provisions.
Add to that stock which justly we bestow. Dryden. 10. (Agriculture) Domestic animals or beasts collectively, used or raised on a farm; as, a stock of cattle or of sheep, etc.; -- called also live stock . 11. (Card Playing) That portion of a pack of cards not distributed to the players at the beginning of certain games, as gleek, etc., but which might be drawn from afterward as occasion required; a bank.
I must buy the stock ; send me good cardings. Beau. & Fl. 12. A thrust with a rapier; a stoccado.
[ Obsolete] 13.
[ Confer Stocking
.] A covering for the leg, or leg and foot; as, upper stocks (breeches); nether stocks (stockings).
With a linen stock on one leg. Shak. 14. A kind of stiff, wide band or cravat for the neck; as, a silk stock . 15. plural A frame of timber, with holes in which the feet, or the feet and hands, of criminals were formerly confined by way of punishment.
He shall rest in my stocks . Piers Plowman. 16. plural (Shipbuilding) The frame or timbers on which a ship rests while building. 17. plural Red and gray bricks, used for the exterior of walls and the front of buildings.
[ Eng.] 18. (Botany) Any cruciferous plant of the genus Matthiola ; as, common stock ( Matthiola incana ) (see Gilly-flower ); ten-weeks stock ( M. annua ). 19. (Geol.) An irregular metalliferous mass filling a large cavity in a rock formation, as a stock of lead ore deposited in limestone. 20. A race or variety in a species. 21. (Biol.) In tectology, an aggregate or colony of persons (see Person ), as trees, chains of salpæ, etc. 22. The beater of a fulling mill. Knight. 23. (Cookery) A liquid or jelly containing the juices and soluble parts of meat, and certain vegetables, etc., extracted by cooking; -- used in making soup, gravy, etc. Bit stock
. See Bitstock .
-- Dead stock (Agriculture)
, the implements of husbandry, and produce stored up for use; -- in distinction from live stock , or the domestic animals on the farm. See def. 10, above.
-- Head stock
. See Headstock .
-- Paper stock
, rags and other material of which paper is made.
-- Stock account (Bookkeeping)
, an account on a merchant's ledger, one side of which shows the original capital, or stock, and the additions thereto by accumulation or contribution, the other side showing the amounts withdrawn.
-- Stock car
, a railway car for carrying cattle.
-- Stock company (Com.)
, an incorporated company the capital of which is represented by marketable shares having a certain equal par value.
-- Stock duck (Zoology)
, the mallard.
-- Stock exchange
. (a) The building or place where stocks are bought and sold; stock market; hence, transactions of all kinds in stocks
. (b) An association or body of stockbrokers who meet and transact business by certain recognized forms, regulations, and usages
. Wharton. Brande & C.
-- Stock farmer
, a farmer who makes it his business to rear live stock.
-- Stock gillyflower (Botany)
, the common stock. See Stock , noun , 18.
-- Stock gold
, gold laid up so as to form a stock, or hoard.
-- Stock in trade
, the goods kept for sale by a shopkeeper; the fittings and appliances of a workman. Simmonds.
-- Stock list
, a list of stocks, or shares, dealt in, of transactions, and of prices.
-- Stock lock
, a lock inclosed in a wooden case and attached to the face of a door.
-- Stock market
. (a) A place where stocks are bought and sold; the stock exchange
. (b) A market for live stock.
-- Stock pigeon
. (Zoology) Same as Stockdove .
-- Stock purse
. (a) A common purse, as distinguished from a private purse. (b) (Mil.) Moneys saved out of the expenses of a company or regiment, and applied to objects of common interest
. [ Eng.] -- Stock shave
, a tool used by blockmakers.
-- Stock station
, a place or district for rearing stock.
[ Australia] W. Howitt.
-- Stock tackle (Nautical)
, a tackle used when the anchor is hoisted and secured, to keep its stock clear of the ship's sides. Totten.
-- Stock taking
, an examination and inventory made of goods or stock in a shop or warehouse; -- usually made periodically.
-- Tail stock
. See Tailstock .
-- To have something on the stock
, to be at work at something.
-- To take stock
, to take account of stock; to make an inventory of stock or goods on hand. Dickens.
-- To take stock in
. (a) To subscribe for, or purchase, shares in a stock company. (b) To put faith in; to accept as trustworthy; as, to take stock in a person's fidelity
. [ Slang] -- To take stock of
, to take account of the stock of; to take an inventory of; hence, to ascertain the facts in regard to (something).
At the outset of any inquiry it is proper to take stock of the results obtained by previous explorers of the same field. Leslie Stephen. Syn.
-- Fund; capital; store; supply; accumulation; hoard; provision.
(stŏk) transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Stocked
(stŏkt); present participle & verbal noun Stocking
.] 1. To lay up; to put aside for future use; to store, as merchandise, and the like. 2. To provide with material requisites; to store; to fill; to supply; as, to stock a warehouse, that is, to fill it with goods; to stock a farm, that is, to supply it with cattle and tools; to stock land, that is, to occupy it with a permanent growth, especially of grass. 3. To suffer to retain milk for twenty-four hours or more previous to sale, as cows. 4. To put in the stocks.
[ R.] Shak. To stock an anchor (Nautical)
, to fit it with a stock, or to fasten the stock firmly in place.
-- To stock cards (Card Playing)
, to arrange cards in a certain manner for cheating purposes.
[ Cant] -- To stock down (Agriculture)
, to sow, as plowed land, with grass seed, in order that it may become swarded, and produce grass.
-- To stock up
, to extirpate; to dig up.
Stock adjective Used or employed for constant service or application, as if constituting a portion of a stock or supply; standard; permanent; standing; as, a stock actor; a stock play; a stock sermon. "A stock charge against Raleigh." C. Kingsley. Stock company (Theater) , a company of actors regularly employed at one theater, or permanently acting together in various plays under one management.
1. Raw material; that out of which something is manufactured; as, paper stock . 2. (Soap Making) A plain soap which is made into toilet soap by adding perfumery, coloring matter, etc.
Stock-blind adjective Blind as a stock; wholly blind.
[ CF. German stock- still
.] Still as a stock, or fixed post; perfectly still.
His whole work stands stock-still . Sterne.
[ French estacade
stockade, boom (confused in French with estocade
; see 1st Stoccado
); from Italian steccata
a palisade (influenced by Old French estach
, a stake, post), or from Spanish estacada
a palisade; both of German origin, and akin to English stake
; confer German stecken
stick, Old High German steccho
. See Stake
& transitive verb
, and confer Estacade
.] 1. (Mil.) A line of stout posts or timbers set firmly in the earth in contact with each other (and usually with loopholes) to form a barrier, or defensive fortification.
[ Written also stoccade
.] 2. An inclosure, or pen, made with posts and stakes.
Stockade transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Stockaded
; present participle & verbal noun Stockading
.] To surround, fortify, or protect with a stockade.
Stockbroker noun A broker who deals in stocks.
Stockdove noun (Zoology) A common European wild pigeon ( Columba ænas ), so called because at one time believed to be the stock of the domestic pigeon, or, according to some, from its breeding in the stocks, or trunks, of trees. » The name is applied, also, to other related species, as the Indian stockdove ( Palumbæna Eversmanni ).
Stocker noun One who makes or fits stocks, as of guns or gun carriages, etc.
Stockfish noun [ Confer Dutch stokvisch .]
1. Salted and dried fish, especially codfish, hake, ling, and torsk; also, codfish dried without being salted. 2. (Zoology) Young fresh cod.
Stockholder noun One who is a holder or proprietor of stock in the public funds, or in the funds of a bank or other stock company.
Stockinet noun An elastic textile fabric imitating knitting, of which stockings, under-garments, etc., are made.
[ From Stock
, which was formerly used of a covering for the legs and feet, combining breeches, or upper stocks, and stockings
, or nether stocks.] A close-fitting covering for the foot and leg, usually knit or woven. Blue stocking
. See Bluestocking .
-- Stocking frame
, a machine for knitting stockings or other hosiery goods.
Stocking transitive verb To dress in GBs. Dryden.
Stocking noun Any of various things resembling, or likened to, a stocking; as: (a) A broad ring of color, differing from the general color, on the lower part of the leg of a quadruped; esp., a white ring between the coronet and the hock or knee of a dark-colored horse. (b) A knitted hood of cotton thread which is eventually converted by a special process into an incandescent mantle for gas lighting.
Stockinger noun A stocking weaver.
Stockish adjective Like a stock; stupid; blockish.
Since naught so stockish , hard, and full of rage, Shak.
But music for the time doth change his nature.
Stockjobber noun [ Stock + job .] One who speculates in stocks for gain; one whose occupation is to buy and sell stocks. In England a jobber acts as an intermediary between brokers.
Stockjobbing noun The act or art of dealing in stocks; the business of a stockjobber.
; plural Stockmen A herdsman; a ranchman; one owning, or having charge of, herds of live stock.
[ Australia & U.S.] W. Howitt.
Stockwork noun [ German stockwerk .]
1. (Mining) A system of working in ore, etc., when it lies not in strata or veins, but in solid masses, so as to be worked in chambers or stories. 2. (Geol.) A metalliferous deposit characterized by the impregnation of the mass of rock with many small veins or nests irregularly grouped. This kind of deposit is especially common with tin ore. Such deposits are worked in floors or stories.
[ From Stock
.] 1. Short and thick; thick rather than tall or corpulent. Addison.
Stocky , twisted, hunchback stems. Mrs. H. H. Jackson. 2. Headstrong.
[ Prov. Eng.] G. Eliot.
Stodgy adjective Wet. [ Prov. Eng.] G. Eliot.
[ Etym. uncertain. Confer Stocky
.] heavy; coarse; clumsy.
; plural Stogies
[ Written also stogie
.] [ Colloq
.] 1. A stout, coarse boot or shoe; a brogan. 2. A kind of cheap, but not necessary inferior, cigar made in the form of a cylindrical roll.
[ Latin stoicus
, Greek ..., from ..., adj., literally, of or pertaining to a colonnade, from ... a roofed colonnade, a porch, especially, a porch in Athens where Zeno and his successors taught.] 1. A disciple of the philosopher Zeno; one of a Greek sect which held that men should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and should submit without complaint to unavoidable necessity, by which all things are governed. 2. Hence, a person not easily excited; an apathetic person; one who is apparently or professedly indifferent to pleasure or pain.
A Stoic of the woods, a man without a tear. Campbell. School of Stoics
. See The Porch , under Porch .
Stoic, Stoical adjective
[ Latin stoicus
, Greek ...: confer French stoïque
. See Stoic
] 1. Of or pertaining to the Stoics; resembling the Stoics or their doctrines. 2. Not affected by passion; manifesting indifference to pleasure or pain.
Stoichiological adjective Of or pertaining to stoichiology.
Stoichiology noun [ Greek ... a first element + -logy .] [ Written also stœchiology .]
1. That part of the science of physiology which treats of the elements, or principles, composing animal tissues. 2. (Logic) The doctrine of the elementary requisites of mere thought. Sir W. Hamilton. 3. The statement or discussion of the first principles of any science or art.
Stoichiometric, Stoichiometrical adjective Of or pertaining to stoichiometry; employed in, or obtained by, stoichiometry.
Stoichiometry noun [ Greek ... a first principle, or element + -metry .] The art or process of calculating the atomic proportions, combining weights, and other numerical relations of chemical elements and their compounds.
Stoicism noun [ Confer French stoïcisme .]
1. The opinions and maxims of the Stoics. 2. A real or pretended indifference to pleasure or pain; insensibility; impassiveness.
Stoicity noun Stoicism. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.
Stoke transitive verb
[ Middle English stoken
, from Dutch stoken
, from stok
a stick (cf. Old French estoquier
to thrust, stab; of Teutonic origin, and akin to Dutch stok
). See Stock
.] 1. To stick; to thrust; to stab.
Nor short sword for to stoke , with point biting. Chaucer. 2. To poke or stir up, as a fire; hence, to tend, as the fire of a furnace, boiler, etc.
Stoke intransitive verb To poke or stir up a fire; hence, to tend the fires of furnaces, steamers, etc.
Stokehold noun (Nautical) The space, or any of the spaces, in front of the boilers of a ship, from which the furnaces are fed; the stokehole of a ship; also, a room containing a ship's boilers; as, forced draft with closed stokehold ; -- called also, in American ships, fireroom .
Stokehole noun The mouth to the grate of a furnace; also, the space in front of the furnace, where the stokers stand.
[ Dutch See Stoke
, transitive verb
] 1. One who is employed to tend a furnace and supply it with fuel, especially the furnace of a locomotive or of a marine steam boiler; also, a machine for feeding fuel to a fire. 2. A fire poker.
[ R.] C. Richardson (Dict.).
Stokey adjective Close; sultry. [ Prov. Eng.]
; plural Stolæ
. [ Latin See Stole
a garment.] (Rom. Antiq.) A long garment, descending to the ankles, worn by Roman women.
The stola was not allowed to be worn by courtesans, or by women who had been divorced from their husbands. Fairholt.
Stole imperfect of Steal .
Stole noun [ Latin stolo , - onis .] (Botany) A stolon.
[ Anglo-Saxon stole
, Latin stola
, Greek ... a stole, garment, equipment, from ... to set, place, equip, send, akin to English stall
. See Stall
.] 1. A long, loose garment reaching to the feet. Spenser.
But when mild morn, in saffron stole , T. Warton. 2. (Eccl.) A narrow band of silk or stuff, sometimes enriched with embroidery and jewels, worn on the left shoulder of deacons, and across both shoulders of bishops and priests, pendent on each side nearly to the ground. At Mass, it is worn crossed on the breast by priests. It is used in various sacred functions. Groom of the stole
First issues from her eastern goal.
, the first lord of the bedchamber in the royal household.
[ Eng.] Brande & C.
Stoled adjective Having or wearing a stole.
After them flew the prophets, brightly stoled G. Fletcher.
In shining lawn.
Stolen past participle of Steal .