Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Roble noun [ Spanish , oak.] (Botany) The California white oak ( Quercus lobata ).

Roborant adjective [ Latin roborans , present participle See Roborate .] Strengthening. -- noun (Medicine) A strengthening medicine; a tonic.

Roborate transitive verb [ Latin roboratus , present participle of roborare to strengthen, from robur , roboris , strength.] To give strength or support to; to confirm. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Roboration noun [ Late Latin roboratio .] The act of strengthening. [ Obsolete] Coles.

Roborean, Roboreous adjective [ Latin roboreus .] Made of oak. [ Obsolete]

Robust adjective [ Latin robustus oaken, hard, strong, from robur strength, a very hard kind of oak; confer Sanskrit rabhas violence: confer French robuste .]
1. Evincing strength; indicating vigorous health; strong; sinewy; muscular; vigorous; sound; as, a robust body; robust youth; robust health.

2. Violent; rough; rude.

While romp-loving miss
Is hauled about in gallantry robust .

3. Requiring strength or vigor; as, robust employment. Locke.

Syn. -- Strong; lusty; sinewy; sturdy; muscular; hale; hearty; vigorous; forceful; sound. -- Robust , Strong . Robust means, literally, made of oak , and hence implies great compactness and toughness of muscle, connected with a thick-set frame and great powers of endurance. Strong denotes the power of exerting great physical force. The robust man can bear heat or cold, excess or privation, and toil on through every kind of hardship; the strong man can lift a great weight, can give a heavy blow, and a hard gripe. " Robust , tough sinews bred to toil." Cowper.

Then 'gan the villain wax so fierce and strong ,
That nothing may sustain his furious force .

Robustious adjective [ Confer Latin robusteus of oak.] Robust. [ Obsolete or Humorous] W. Irving.

In Scotland they had handled the bishops in a more robustious manner.

-- Ro*bus"tious*ly , adverb -- Ro*bus"tious*ness , noun

Robustly adverb In a robust manner.

Robustness noun The quality or state of being robust.

Roc noun [ Arabic & Persian rokh or rukh . Confer Rook a castle.] A monstrous bird of Arabian mythology. [ Written also rock , and rukh .] Brande & C.

Rocaille noun [ French Confer Rock a stone.] (Art) (a) Artificial rockwork made of rough stones and cement, as for gardens. (b) The rococo system of scroll ornament, based in part on the forms of shells and water-worn rocks.

Rocambole noun [ French] [ Written also rokambole .] (Botany) A name of Allium Scorodoprasum and A. Ascalonium , two kinds of garlic, the latter of which is also called shallot .

Roccellic adjective [ French roccellique , from roccelle archil, Italian & New Latin roccella , from Italian rocca a rock, because archil grows on rock.] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or designating, a dibasic acid of the oxalic series found in archil ( Roccella tinctoria , etc.), and other lichens, and extracted as a white crystalline substance C 17 H 32 O 4 .

Roccellin noun A red dyestuff, used as a substitute for cochineal, archil, etc. It consists of the sodium salt of a complex azo derivative of naphtol.

Roche noun [ See Rock .] Rock. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Roche alum (Chemistry) A kind of alum occuring in small fragments; -- so called from Rocca , in Syria, whence alum is said to have been obtained; -- also called rock alum .

Roche moutonnée [ French, sheep-shaped rock.] (Geol.) See Sheepback .

Rochelime noun [ French roche rock + English lime .] Lime in the lump after it is burned; quicklime. [ Eng.]

Rochelle noun A seaport town in France.

Rochelle powders . Same as Seidlitz powders . -- Rochelle salt (Chemistry) , the double tartrate of sodium and potassium, a white crystalline substance. It has a cooling, saline, slightly bitter taste and is employed as a mild purgative. It was discovered by Seignette, an apothecary of Rochelle, and is called also Seignete's salt .

Rochet noun [ French, dim. from Old High German rocch coat, German rock .]
1. (Eccl.) A linen garment resembling the surplise, but with narrower sleeves, also without sleeves, worn by bishops, and by some other ecclesiastical dignitaries, in certain religious ceremonies.

They see no difference between an idler with a hat and national cockade, and an idler in a cowl or in a rochet .

2. A frock or outer garment worn in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. [ Obsolete] Rom. of R.

Rochet noun [ Probably corrupted from French rouget the red gurnet, from rouge red. CF. Rouge .] (Zoology) The red gurnard, or gurnet. See Gurnard .

Roching cask [ Probably from French roche a rock.] A tank in which alum is crystallized from a solution.

Rock noun See Roc .

Rock noun [ Middle English rocke ; akin to Dutch rok , rokken , German rocken , Old High German roccho , Danish rok , Icelandic rokkr . Confer Rocket a firework.] A distaff used in spinning; the staff or frame about which flax is arranged, and from which the thread is drawn in spinning. Chapman.

Sad Clotho held the rocke , the whiles the thread
By grisly Lachesis was spun with pain,
That cruel Atropos eftsoon undid.

Rock noun [ Old French roke , French roche ; confer Armor. roc'h , and Anglo-Saxon rocc .]
1. A large concreted mass of stony material; a large fixed stone or crag. See Stone .

Come one, come all! this rock shall fly
From its firm base as soon as I.
Sir W. Scott.

2. (Geol.) Any natural deposit forming a part of the earth's crust, whether consolidated or not, including sand, earth, clay, etc., when in natural beds.

3. That which resembles a rock in firmness; a defense; a support; a refuge.

The Lord is my rock , and my fortress.
2 Sam. xxii. 2.

4. Fig.: Anything which causes a disaster or wreck resembling the wreck of a vessel upon a rock.

5. (Zoology) The striped bass. See under Bass .

» This word is frequently used in the formation of self- explaining compounds; as, rock -bound, rock -built, rock -ribbed, rock -roofed, and the like.

Rock alum . [ Probably so called by confusion with French roche a rock.] Same as Roche alum . -- Rock barnacle (Zoology) , a barnacle ( Balanus balanoides ) very abundant on rocks washed by tides. -- Rock bass . (Zoology) (a) The stripped bass . See under Bass . (b) The goggle-eye. (c) The cabrilla. Other species are also locally called rock bass . -- Rock builder (Zoology) , any species of animal whose remains contribute to the formation of rocks, especially the corals and Foraminifera. -- Rock butter (Min.) , native alum mixed with clay and oxide of iron, usually in soft masses of a yellowish white color, occuring in cavities and fissures in argillaceous slate. -- Rock candy , a form of candy consisting of crystals of pure sugar which are very hard, whence the name. -- Rock cavy . (Zoology) See Moco . -- Rock cod (Zoology) (a) A small, often reddish or brown, variety of the cod found about rocks andledges . (b) A California rockfish. -- Rock cook . (Zoology) (a) A European wrasse ( Centrolabrus exoletus ) . (b) A rockling. -- Rock cork (Min.) , a variety of asbestus the fibers of which are loosely interlaced. It resembles cork in its texture. -- Rock crab (Zoology) , any one of several species of large crabs of the genus Cancer , as the two species of the New England coast ( C. irroratus and C. borealis ). See Illust. under Cancer . -- Rock cress (Botany) , a name of several plants of the cress kind found on rocks, as Arabis petræa , A. lyrata , etc. -- Rock crystal (Min.) , limpid quartz. See Quartz , and under Crystal . -- Rock dove (Zoology) , the rock pigeon; -- called also rock doo . -- Rock drill , an implement for drilling holes in rock; esp., a machine impelled by steam or compressed air, for drilling holes for blasting, etc. -- Rock duck (Zoology) , the harlequin duck. -- Rock eel . (Zoology) See Gunnel . -- Rock goat (Zoology) , a wild goat, or ibex. -- Rock hopper (Zoology) , a penguin of the genus Catarractes . See under Penguin . -- Rock kangaroo . (Zoology) See Kangaroo , and Petrogale . -- Rock lobster (Zoology) , any one of several species of large spinose lobsters of the genera Panulirus and Palinurus . They have no large claws. Called also spiny lobster , and sea crayfish . -- Rock meal (Min.) , a light powdery variety of calcite occuring as an efflorescence. -- Rock milk . (Min.) See Agaric mineral , under Agaric . -- Rock moss , a kind of lichen; the cudbear. See Cudbear . -- Rock oil . See Petroleum . -- Rock parrakeet (Zoology) , a small Australian parrakeet ( Euphema petrophila ), which nests in holes among the rocks of high cliffs. Its general color is yellowish olive green; a frontal band and the outer edge of the wing quills are deep blue, and the central tail feathers bluish green. -- Rock pigeon (Zoology) , the wild pigeon ( Columba livia ) Of Europe and Asia, from which the domestic pigeon was derived. See Illust. under Pigeon . -- Rock pipit . (Zoology) See the Note under Pipit . -- Rock plover . (Zoology) (a) The black-bellied, or whistling, plover . (b) The rock snipe. - - Rock ptarmigan (Zoology) , an arctic American ptarmigan ( Lagopus rupestris ), which in winter is white, with the tail and lores black. In summer the males are grayish brown, coarsely vermiculated with black, and have black patches on the back. -- Rock rabbit (Zoology) , the hyrax. See Cony , and Daman . -- Rock ruby (Min.) , a fine reddish variety of garnet. -- Rock salt (Min.) , cloride of sodium (common salt) occuring in rocklike masses in mines; mineral salt; salt dug from the earth. In the United States this name is sometimes given to salt in large crystals, formed by evaporation from sea water in large basins or cavities. -- Rock seal (Zoology) , the harbor seal. See Seal . -- Rock shell (Zoology) , any species of Murex, Purpura, and allied genera. -- Rock snake (Zoology) , any one of several large pythons; as, the royal rock snake ( Python regia ) of Africa, and the rock snake of India ( P. molurus ). The Australian rock snakes mostly belong to the allied genus Morelia . -- Rock snipe (Zoology) , the purple sandpiper ( Tringa maritima ); -- called also rock bird , rock plover , winter snipe . -- Rock soap (Min.) , a kind of clay having a smooth, greasy feel, and adhering to the tongue. -- Rock sparrow . (Zoology) (a) Any one of several species of Old World sparrows of the genus Petronia , as P. stulla , of Europe. (b) A North American sparrow ( Pucæa ruficeps ). -- Rock tar , petroleum. -- Rock thrush (Zoology) , any Old World thrush of the genus Monticola , or Petrocossyphus ; as, the European rock thrush ( M. saxatilis ), and the blue rock thrush of India ( M. cyaneus ), in which the male is blue throughout. -- Rock tripe (Botany) , a kind of lichen ( Umbilicaria Dillenii ) growing on rocks in the northen parts of America, and forming broad, flat, coriaceous, dark fuscous or blackish expansions. It has been used as food in cases of extremity. -- Rock trout (Zoology) , any one of several species of marine food fishes of the genus Hexagrammus , family Chiradæ , native of the North Pacific coasts; -- called also sea trout , boregat , bodieron , and starling . -- Rock warbler (Zoology) , a small Australian singing bird ( Origma rubricata ) which frequents rocky ravines and water courses; -- called also cataract bird . -- Rock wren (Zoology) , any one of several species of wrens of the genus Salpinctes , native of the arid plains of Lower California and Mexico.

Rock transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rocked ; present participle & verbal noun Rocking .] [ Anglo-Saxon roccian ; akin to Danish rokke to move, to snake; confer Icelandic rukkja to pull, move, German rücken to move, push, pull.]
1. To cause to sway backward and forward, as a body resting on a support beneath; as, to rock a cradle or chair; to cause to vibrate; to cause to reel or totter.

A rising earthquake rocked the ground.

2. To move as in a cradle; hence, to put to sleep by rocking; to still; to quiet. "Sleep rock thy brain." Shak.

» Rock differs from shake , as denoting a slower, less violent, and more uniform motion, or larger movements. It differs from swing , which expresses a vibratory motion of something suspended.

Rock intransitive verb
1. To move or be moved backward and forward; to be violently agitated; to reel; to totter.

The rocking town
Supplants their footsteps.
J. Philips .

2. To roll or saway backward and forward upon a support; as, to rock in a rocking-chair.

Rock shaft [ Confer Rock , intransitive verb ] (Machinery) A shaft that oscillates on its journals, instead of revolving, -- usually carrying levers by means of which it receives and communicates reciprocating motion, as in the valve gear of some steam engines; -- called also rocker , rocking shaft , and way shaft .

Rock staff [ Confer Rock , intransitive verb ] An oscillating bar in a machine, as the lever of the bellows of a forge.

Rockaway [ Probably from Rockaway beach, where it was used.] Formerly, a light, low, four-wheeled carriage, with standing top, open at the sides, but having waterproof curtains which could be let down when occasion required; now, a somewhat similar, but heavier, carriage, inclosed, except in front, and having a door at each side.

Rockelay, Rocklay noun See Rokelay . [ Scot.]

Rocker noun
1. One who rocks; specifically, one who rocks a cradle.

It was I, sir, said the rocker , who had the honor, some thirty years since, to attend on your highness in your infancy.

2. One of the curving pieces of wood or metal on which a cradle, chair, etc., rocks.

3. Any implement or machine working with a rocking motion, as a trough mounted on rockers for separating gold dust from gravel, etc., by agitation in water.

4. A play horse on rockers; a rocking- horse.

5. A chair mounted on rockers; a rocking- chair.

6. A skate with a curved blade, somewhat resembling in shape the rocker of a cradle.

7. (Machinery) Same as Rock shaft .

Rocker arm (Machinery) , an arm borne by a rock shaft.

Rockered adjective (Nautical) Shaped like a rocker; curved; as, a rockered keel.

Rockery noun (Gardening) A mound formed of fragments of rock, earth, etc., and set with plants.

Rocket noun [ French roquette (cf. Spanish ruqueta , It ruchetta ), from Latin eruca .] (Botany) (a) A cruciferous plant ( Eruca sativa ) sometimes eaten in Europe as a salad. (b) Damewort. (c) Rocket larkspur. See below.

Dyer's Rocket . (Botany) See Dyer's broom , under Broom . -- Rocket larkspur (Botany) , an annual plant with showy flowers in long racemes ( Delphinium Ajacis ). -- Sea rocket (Botany) , either of two fleshy cruciferous plants ( Cakile maritima and C. Americana ) found on the seashore of Europe and America. -- Yellow rocket (Botany) , a common cruciferous weed with yellow flowers ( Barbarea vulgaris ).

Rocket noun [ Italian rocchetta , from rocca a distaff, of German origin. Named from the resemblance in shape to a distaff. See Rock a distaff.]
1. An artificial firework consisting of a cylindrical case of paper or metal filled with a composition of combustible ingredients, as niter, charcoal, and sulphur, and fastened to a guiding stick. The rocket is projected through the air by the force arising from the expansion of the gases liberated by combustion of the composition. Rockets are used as projectiles for various purposes, for signals, and also for pyrotechnic display.

2. A blunt lance head used in the joust.

Congreve rocket , a powerful form of rocket for use in war, invented by Sir William Congreve. It may be used either in the field or for bombardment; in the former case, it is armed with shells or case shot; in the latter, with a combustible material inclosed in a metallic case, which is inextinguishable when kindled, and scatters its fire on every side.

Rocket intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rocketed ; present participle & verbal noun Rocketing .] (Sporting) To rise straight up; said of birds; usually in the present participle or as an adjective. [ Eng.]

An old cock pheasant came rocketing over me.
H. R. Haggard.

Rocketer noun (Sporting) A bird, especially a pheasant, which, being flushed, rises straight in the air like a rocket. [ Eng.]

Rockfish noun (Zoology) (a) Any one of several California scorpænoid food fishes of the genus Sebastichthys , as the red rockfish ( S. ruber ). They are among the most important of California market fishes. Called also rock cod , and garrupa . (b) The striped bass. See Bass . (c) Any one of several species of Florida and Bermuda groupers of the genus Epinephelus . (d) An American fresh- water darter; the log perch.

» The term is locally applied to various other fishes.

Rockiness noun [ From Rocky .] The state or quality of being rocky.

Rocking adjective Having a swaying, rolling, or back-and-forth movement; used for rocking.

Rocking shaft . (Machinery) See Rock shaft .

Rocking-chair noun A chair mounted on rockers, in which one may rock.

Rocking-horse noun The figure of a horse, mounted upon rockers, for children to ride.

Rocking-stone noun A stone, often of great size and weight, resting upon another stone, and so exactly poised that it can be rocked, or slightly moved, with but little force.

Rockless adjective Being without rocks. Dryden.

Rockling noun (Zoology) Any species of small marine fishes of the genera Onos and Rhinonemus (formerly Motella ), allied to the cod. They have three or four barbels.

Rockrose noun (Botany) A name given to any species of the genus Helianthemum , low shrubs or herbs with yellow flowers, especially the European H. vulgare and the American frostweed, H. Canadense .

Cretan rockrose , a related shrub ( Cistus Creticus ), one of the plants yielding the fragrant gum called ladanum .

Rocksucker noun (Zoology) A lamprey.

Rockweed noun (Botany) Any coarse seaweed growing on sea-washed rocks, especially Fucus.

Rockwood noun (Min.) Ligniform asbestus; also, fossil wood.