Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Roach noun (Zoology) A cockroach.

Roach noun [ Middle English rroche ; confer Anglo-Saxon reohha , Dutch rog , roch , German roche , LG. ruche , Danish rokke ray, Swedish rocka , and English ray a fish.]
1. (Zoology) (a) A European fresh-water fish of the Carp family ( Leuciscus rutilus ). It is silver-white, with a greenish back. (b) An American chub ( Semotilus bullaris ); the fallfish. (c) The redfin, or shiner.

2. (Nautical) A convex curve or arch cut in the edge of a sail to prevent chafing, or to secure a better fit.

As sound as a roach [ roach perhaps being a corruption of a French roche a rock], perfectly sound.

Roach transitive verb
1. To cause to arch.

2. To cut off, as a horse's mane, so that the part left shall stand upright.

Roach-backed adjective Having a back like that of roach; -- said of a horse whose back a convex instead of a concave curve.

Road noun [ Anglo-Saxon rād a riding, that on which one rides or travels, a road, from rīdan to ride. See Ride , and confer Raid .]
1. A journey, or stage of a journey. [ Obsolete]

With easy roads he came to Leicester.
Shak.

2. An inroad; an invasion; a raid. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

3. A place where one may ride; an open way or public passage for vehicles, persons, and animals; a track for travel, forming a means of communication between one city, town, or place, and another.

The most villainous house in all the London road .
Shak.

» The word is generally applied to highways, and as a generic term it includes highway , street , and lane .

4. [ Possibly akin to Icelandic reiði the rigging of a ship, English ready .] A place where ships may ride at anchor at some distance from the shore; a roadstead; -- often in the plural; as, Hampton Roads . Shak.

Now strike your saile, ye jolly mariners,
For we be come unto a quiet rode [ road].
Spenser.

On , or Upon , the road , traveling or passing over a road; coming or going; on the way.

My hat and wig will soon be here,
They are upon the road .
Cowper.

-- Road agent , a highwayman, especially on the stage routes of the unsettled western parts of the United States; -- a humorous euphemism. [ Western U.S.]

The highway robber -- road agent he is quaintly called.
The century.

-- Road book , a guidebook in respect to roads and distances. -- Road metal , the broken, stone used in macadamizing roads. -- Road roller , a heavy roller, or combinations of rollers, for making earth, macadam, or concrete roads smooth and compact. -- often driven by steam. -- Road runner (Zoology) , the chaparral cock. -- Road steamer , a locomotive engine adapted to running on common roads. -- To go on the road , to engage in the business of a commercial traveler. [ Colloq.] -- To take the road , to begin or engage in traveling. -- To take to the road , to engage in robbery upon the highways.

Syn. -- Way; highway; street; lane; pathway; route; passage; course. See Way .

Roadbed noun In railroads, the bed or foundation on which the superstructure (ties, rails, etc.) rests; in common roads, the whole material laid in place and ready for travel.

Roadless adjective Destitute of roads.

Roadmaker noun One who makes roads.

Roadside noun Land adjoining a road or highway; the part of a road or highway that borders the traveled part. Also used ajectively.

Roadstead noun [ Road , 4 + stead a place.] An anchorage off shore. Same as Road , 4.

Moored in the neighboring roadstead .
Longfellow.

Roadster noun
1. (Nautical) A clumsy vessel that works its way from one anchorage to another by means of the tides. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

2. A horse that is accustomed to traveling on the high road, or is suitable for use on ordinary roads.

A sound, swift, well-fed hunter and roadster .
Thackeray.

3. A bicycle or tricycle adapted for common roads rather than for the racing track.

4. One who drives much; a coach driver. [ Eng.]

5. A hunter who keeps to the roads instead of following the hounds across country. [ Eng. Slang.]

Roadway noun A road; especially, the part traveled by carriages. Shak.

Roam intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Roamed ; present participle & verbal noun Roaming .] [ Middle English romen , ramen ; confer Anglo-Saxon ār...man to raise, rise, Dutch ramen to hit, plan, aim, Old Saxon r...m...n to strive after, Old High German rāmen . But the word was probably influenced by Rome ; confer Old French romier a pilgrim, originally, a pilgrim going to Rome, Italian romeo , Spanish romero . Confer Ramble .] To go from place to place without any certain purpose or direction; to rove; to wander.

He roameth to the carpenter's house.
Chaucer.

Daphne roaming through a thorny wood.
Shak.

Syn. -- To wander; rove; range; stroll; ramble.

Roam transitive verb To range or wander over.

And now wild beasts came forth the woods to roam .
Milton.

Roam noun The act of roaming; a wandering; a ramble; as, he began his roam o'er hill amd dale. Milton.

Roamer noun One who roams; a wanderer.

Roan adjective [ French rouan ; confer Spanish roano , ruano , Italian rovano , roano .]
1. Having a bay, chestnut, brown, or black color, with gray or white thickly interspersed; -- said of a horse.

Give my roan a drench.
Shak.

2. Made of the leather called roan; as, roan binding.

Roan antelope (Zoology) , a very large South African antelope ( Hippotragus equinus ). It has long sharp horns and a stiff bright brown mane. Called also mahnya , equine antelope , and bastard gemsbok .

Roan noun
1. The color of a roan horse; a roan color.

2. A roan horse.

3. A kind of leather used for slippers, bookbinding, etc., made from sheepskin, tanned with sumac and colored to imitate ungrained morocco. DeColange.

Roan tree . (Botany) See Rowan tree .

Roar intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Roared ; present participle & vverbal noun Roaring .] [ Middle English roren , raren , Anglo-Saxon rārian ; akin to German röhten , Old High German r...r...n . √112.]
1. To cry with a full, loud, continued sound. Specifically: (a) To bellow, or utter a deep, loud cry, as a lion or other beast.

Roaring bulls he would him make to tame.
Spenser.

(b) To cry loudly, as in pain, distress, or anger.

Sole on the barren sands, the suffering chief
Roared out for anguish, and indulged his grief.
Dryden.

He scorned to roar under the impressions of a finite anger.
South.

2. To make a loud, confused sound, as winds, waves, passing vehicles, a crowd of persons when shouting together, or the like.

The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar .
Milton.

How oft I crossed where carts and coaches roar .
Gay.

3. To be boisterous; to be disorderly.

It was a mad, roaring time, full of extravagance.
Bp. Burnet.

4. To laugh out loudly and continuously; as, the hearers roared at his jokes.

5. To make a loud noise in breathing, as horses having a certain disease. See Roaring , 2.

Roaring boy , a roaring, noisy fellow; -- name given, at the latter end Queen Elizabeth's reign, to the riotous fellows who raised disturbances in the street. "Two roaring boys of Rome, that made all split." Beau. & Fl. -- Roaring forties (Nautical) , a sailor's name for the stormy tract of ocean between 40° and 50° north latitude.

Roar transitive verb To cry aloud; to proclaim loudly.

This last action will roar thy infamy.
Ford.

Roar noun The sound of roaring. Specifically: (a) The deep, loud cry of a wild beast; as, the roar of a lion. (b) The cry of one in pain, distress, anger, or the like. (c) A loud, continuous, and confused sound; as, the roar of a cannon, of the wind, or the waves; the roar of ocean.

Arm! arm! it is, it is the cannon's opening roar !
Byron.

(d) A boisterous outcry or shouting, as in mirth.

Pit, boxes, and galleries were in a constant roar of laughter.
Macaulay.

Roarer noun
1. One who, or that which, roars. Specifically: (a) A riotous fellow; a roaring boy.

A lady to turn roarer , and break glasses.
Massinger.

(b) (Far.) A horse subject to roaring. See Roaring , 2.

2. (Zoology) The barn owl. [ Prov. Eng.]

Roaring noun
1. A loud, deep, prolonged sound, as of a large beast, or of a person in distress, anger, mirth, etc., or of a noisy congregation.

2. (Far.) An affection of the windpipe of a horse, causing a loud, peculiar noise in breathing under exertion; the making of the noise so caused. See Roar , intransitive verb , 5.

Roaring forties (Nautical) The middle latitudes of the southern hemisphere. So called from the boisterous and prevailing westerly winds, which are especially strong in the South Indian Ocean up to 50° S.

Roaringly adverb In a roaring manner.

Roast transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Roasted ; present participle & verbal noun Roasting .] [ Middle English rosten , Old French rostir , French rôtir ; of German origin; confer Old High German rōsten , German rösten , from Old High German rōst , rōsta , gridiron, German rost ; confer Anglo-Saxon hyrstan to roast.]
1. To cook by exposure to radiant heat before a fire; as, to roast meat on a spit, or in an oven open toward the fire and having reflecting surfaces within; also, to cook in a close oven.

2. To cook by surrounding with hot embers, ashes, sand, etc.; as, to roast a potato in ashes.

In eggs boiled and roasted there is scarce difference to be discerned.
BAcon.

3. To dry and parch by exposure to heat; as, to roast coffee; to roast chestnuts, or peanuts.

4. Hence, to heat to excess; to heat violently; to burn. " Roasted in wrath and fire." Shak.

5. (Metal.) To dissipate by heat the volatile parts of, as ores.

6. To banter severely. [ Colloq.] Atterbury.

Roast intransitive verb
1. To cook meat, fish, etc., by heat, as before the fire or in an oven.

He could roast , and seethe, and broil, and fry.
Chaucer.

2. To undergo the process of being roasted.

Roast noun That which is roasted; a piece of meat which has been roasted, or is suitable for being roasted.

A fat swan loved he best of any roost [ roast].
Chaucer.

To rule the roast , to be at the head of affairs. "The new-made duke that rules the roast ." Shak.

Roast adjective [ For roasted .] Roasted; as, roast beef.

Roaster noun
1. One who roasts meat.

2. A contrivance for roasting.

3. A pig, or other article of food fit for roasting.

Roasting adjective & noun , from Roast , v.

Roasting ear , an ear of Indian corn at that stage of development when it is fit to be eaten roasted. -- Roasting jack , a machine for turning a spit on which meat is roasted.

Rob noun [ F.; confer Spanish rob , Italian rob , robbo , Portuguese robe , arrobe , Arabic rubb , robb , Persian rub .] The inspissated juice of ripe fruit, obtained by evaporation of the juice over a fire till it acquires the consistence of a sirup. It is sometimes mixed with honey or sugar. [ Written also rhob , and rohob .]

Rob transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Robbed ; present participle & verbal noun Robbing .] [ Old French rober , of German origin; confer Old High German roub...n , German rauben , and Old High German roub robbing, booty, German raub . √114. See Reave ,and confer Robe .]
1. To take (something) away from by force; to strip by stealing; to plunder; to pillage; to steal from.

Who would rob a hermit of his weeds,
His few books, or his beads, or maple dish?
Milton.

He that is robbed , not wanting what is stolen,
Let him not know it, and he's not robbed at all.
Shak.

To be executed for robbing a church.
Shak.

2. (Law) To take the property of (any one) from his person, or in his presence, feloniously, and against his will, by violence or by putting him in fear.

3. To deprive of, or withhold from, unjustly or injuriously; to defraud; as, to rob one of his rest, or of his good name; a tree robs the plants near it of sunlight.

I never robbed the soldiers of their pay.
Shak.

Rob intransitive verb To take that which belongs to another, without right or permission, esp. by violence.

I am accursed to rob in that thief's company.
Shak.

Robalo noun [ Spanish róbalo .] Any of several pikelike marine fishes of the West Indies and tropical America constituting the family Oxylabracidæ, esp. the largest species ( Oxylabrax, syn. Centropomus, undecimalis ), a valuable food fish called also snook , the smaller species being called Rob`a*li"to

Roband noun (Nautical) See Roperand .

Robber noun One who robs; in law, one who feloniously takes goods or money from the person of another by violence or by putting him in fear.

Some roving robber calling to his fellows.
Milton.

Syn. -- Thief; depredator; despoiler; plunderer; pillager; rifler; brigang; freebooter; pirate. See Thief .

Robber crab . (Zoology) (a) A purse crab . (b) Any hermit crab. -- Robber fly . (Zoology) Same as Hornet fly , under Hornet . -- Robber gull (Zoology) , a jager gull.

Robbery noun ; plural Robberies . [ Old French roberie .]
1. The act or practice of robbing; theft.

Thieves for their robbery have authority
When judges steal themselves.
Shak.

2. (Law) The crime of robbing. See Rob , transitive verb , 2.

» Robbery , in a strict sense, differs from theft , as it is effected by force or intimidation, whereas theft is committed by stealth, or privately.

Syn. -- Theft; depredation; spoliation; despoliation; despoilment; plunder; pillage; rapine; larceny; freebooting; piracy.

Robbin noun (Com.) A kind of package in which pepper and other dry commodities are sometimes exported from the East Indies. The robbin of rice in Malabar weighs about 84 pounds. Simmonds.

Robbin noun (Nautical) See Ropeband .

Robe noun [ French, from Late Latin rauba a gown, dress, garment; originally, booty, plunder. See Rob , transitive verb , and confer Rubbish .]
1. An outer garment; a dress of a rich, flowing, and elegant style or make; hence, a dress of state, rank, office, or the like.

Through tattered clothes small vices do appear;
Robes and furred gowns hide all.
Shak.

2. A skin of an animal, especially, a skin of the bison, dressed with the fur on, and used as a wrap. [ U.S.]

Master of the robes , an officer of the English royal household (when the sovereign is a king) whose duty is supposed to consist in caring for the royal robes. -- Mistress of the robes , a lady who enjoys the highest rank of the ladies in the service of the English sovereign (when a queen), and is supposed to have the care her robes.

Robe transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Robed ; present participle & verbal noun Robing .] To invest with a robe or robes; to dress; to array; as, fields robed with green.

The sage Chaldeans robed in white appeared.
Pope.

Such was his power over the expression of his countenance, that he could in an instant shake off the sternness of winter, and robe it in the brightest smiles of spring.
Wirt.

Robe-de-chambre noun [ French, lit., a chamber gown.] A dressing gown, or morning gown.

Roberdsman, Robertsman noun ; plural -men . (Old Statutes of Eng.) A bold, stout robber, or night thief; -- said to be so called from Robin Hood.

Robert noun (Botany) See Herb Robert , under Herb .

Robin noun [ Properly a pet name for Robert , originally meaning, famebright; F., fron Old High German Roudperht ; ruod (in comp.; akin to Anglo-Saxon hr...... glory, fame, Goth. hr...peigs victorius) + beraht bright. See Bright , Hob a clown.] (Zoology) (a) A small European singing bird ( Erythacus rubecula ), having a reddish breast; -- called also robin redbreast , robinet , and ruddock . (b) An American singing bird ( Merula migratoria ), having the breast chestnut, or dull red. The upper parts are olive-gray, the head and tail blackish. Called also robin redbreast , and migratory thrush . (c) Any one of several species of Australian warblers of the genera Petroica , Melanadrays , and allied genera; as, the scarlet-breasted robin ( Petroica mullticolor ). (d) Any one of several Asiatic birds; as, the Indian robins . See Indian robin , below.

Beach robin (Zoology) , the robin snipe, or knot. See Knot . -- Blue-throated robin . (Zoology) See Bluethroat . - - Canada robin (Zoology) , the cedar bird. -- Golden robin (Zoology) , the Baltimore oriole. -- Ground robin (Zoology) , the chewink. -- Indian robin (Zoology) , any one of several species of Asiatic saxoline birds of the genera Thamnobia and Pratincola . They are mostly black, usually with some white on the wings. -- Magrie robin (Zoology) , an Asiatic singing bird ( Corsycus saularis ), having the back, head, neck, and breast black glossed with blue, the wings black, and the belly white. -- Ragged robin . (Botany) See under Ragged . -- Robin accentor (Zoology) , a small Asiatic singing bird ( Accentor rubeculoides ), somewhat resembling the European robin. -- Robin redbreast . (Zoology) (a) The European robin . (b) The American robin . (c) The American bluebird. -- Robin snipe . (Zoology) (a) The red-breasted snipe, or dowitcher . (b) The red-breasted sandpiper, or knot. -- Robin's plantain . (Botany) See under Plantain . -- Sea robin . (Zoology) (a) Any one of several species of American gurnards of the genus Prionotus . They are excellent food fishes. Called also wingfish . The name is also applied to a European gurnard. (b) The red-breasted merganser, or sheldrake . [ Local, U.S.] -- Water robin (Zoology) , a redstart ( Ruticulla fuliginosa ), native of India.

Robin Goodfellow A celebrated fairy; Puck. See Puck . Shak.

Robinet noun
1. (Zoology) (a) The chaffinch; -- called also roberd . (b) The European robin.

2. A military engine formerly used for throwing darts and stones.

Robing noun The act of putting on a robe.

Robing room , a room where official robes are put on, as by judges, etc.

Robinia noun [ New Latin So called after Jean Robin , a French herbalist.] (Botany) A genus of leguminous trees including the common locust of North America ( Robinia Pseudocacia ).