Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Rufflement noun The act of ruffling. [ R.]

Ruffler noun
1. One who ruffles; a swaggerer; a bully; a ruffian.

Assaults, if not murders, done at his own doors by that crew of rufflers .
Milton.

2. That which ruffles; specifically, a sewing machine attachment for making ruffles.

Rufigallic adjective [ Rufi opin + gallic .] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid which is obtained from gallic acid as a brown or red crystalline substance, and is related to rufiopin and anthracene.

Rufiopin noun [ Latin rufus reddish + op ianic.] (Chemistry) A yellowish red crystalline substance related to anthracene, and obtained from opianic acid.

Rufol noun [ Latin rufus reddish + -ol .] (Chemistry) A phenol derivative of anthracene obtained as a white crystalline substance, which on oxidation produces a red dyestuff related to anthraquinone.

Rufous adjective [ Latin rufus .] Reddish; of a yellowish red or brownish red color; tawny.

Ruft noun (Medicine) Eructation; belching. [ Obsolete]

Rufterhood noun [ Confer Ruff a plaited collar.] (Falconry) A kind of hood for a hawk.

Rug noun [ Confer Swedish rugg entanglend hair, ruggig rugged, shaggy, probably akin to English rough . See Rough , adjective ]
1. A kind of coarse, heavy frieze, formerly used for garments.

They spin the choicest rug in Ireland. A friend of mine . . . repaired to Paris Garden clad in one of these Waterford rugs . The mastiffs, . . . deeming he had been a bear, would fain have baited him.
Holinshed.

2. A piece of thick, nappy fabric, commonly made of wool, -- used for various purposes, as for covering and ornamenting part of a bare floor, for hanging in a doorway as a potière, for protecting a portion of carpet, for a wrap to protect the legs from cold, etc.

3. A rough, woolly, or shaggy dog.

Rug gown , a gown made of rug, of or coarse, shaggy cloth. B. Johnson.

Rug transitive verb To pull roughly or hastily; to plunder; to spoil; to tear. [ Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Rug-gowned adjective Wearing a coarse gown or shaggy garment made of rug. Beau. & Fl.

Rug-headed adjective Having shaggy hair; shock-headed. [ Obsolete]

Those rough rug-headed kerns.
Shak.

Ruga noun ; plural Rugæ . [ Latin ] (Nat. Hist.) A wrinkle; a fold; as, the rugæ of the stomach.

Rugate adjective [ Latin rugatus , past participle of rugare to wrinkle, from ruga a wrinkle.] Having alternate ridges and depressions; wrinkled. Dana.

Rugged adjective [ See Rug , noun ]
1. Full of asperities on the surface; broken into sharp or irregular points, or otherwise uneven; not smooth; rough; as, a rugged mountain; a rugged road.

The rugged bark of some broad elm.
Milton.

2. Not neat or regular; uneven.

His well-proportioned beard made rough and rugged .
Shak.

3. Rough with bristles or hair; shaggy. "The rugged Russian bear." Shak.

4. Harsh; hard; crabbed; austere; -- said of temper, character, and the like, or of persons.

Neither melt nor endear him, but leave him as hard, rugged , and unconcerned as ever.
South.

5. Stormy; turbulent; tempestuous; rude. Milton.

6. Rough to the ear; harsh; grating; -- said of sound, style, and the like.

Through the harsh cadence of a rugged line.
Dryden.

7. Sour; surly; frowning; wrinkled; -- said of looks, etc. "Sleek o'er your rugged looks." Shak.

8. Violent; rude; boisterrous; -- said of conduct, manners, etc.

9. Vigorous; robust; hardy; -- said of health, physique, etc. [ Colloq. U.S.]

Syn. -- Rough; uneven; wrinkled; cragged; coarse; rude; harsh; hard; crabbed; severe; austere; surly; sour; frowning; violent; boisterous; tumultuous; turbulent; stormy; tempestuous; inclement.

-- Rug"ged*ly adverb -- Rug"ged*ness , noun

Rugging noun A coarse kind of woolen cloth, used for wrapping, blanketing, etc.

Ruggy adjective Rugged; rough. [ Obsolete] "With ruggy , ashy hairs." Chaucer.

Rugin noun A nappy cloth. [ Obsolete] Wiseman.

Rugine noun [ French] (Surg.) An instrument for scraping the periosteum from bones; a raspatory.

Rugine transitive verb [ French ruginer to scrape.] To scrape or rasp, as a bone; to scale. [ R.] Wiseman.

Rugosa noun plural [ New Latin See Rugose .] (Paleon.) An extinct tribe of fossil corals, including numerous species, many of them of large size. They are characteristic of the Paleozoic formations. The radiating septs, when present, are usually in multiples of four. See Cyathophylloid .

Rugose adjective [ Latin rugosus , r. ruga a wrinkle.] Wrinkled; full of wrinkles; specifically (Botany) , having the veinlets sunken and the spaces between them elevated, as the leaves of the sage and horehound.

Rugosity noun [ Latin rugositas : confer French rugosité .] The quality or state of being rugose.

Rugous adjective [ Confer French rugueux .] Wrinkled; rugose.

Rugulose adjective Somewhat rugose.

Ruhmkorff's coil [ So called from its inventor, Ruhmkorff , a german physicist.] (Electricity) See Induction coil , under Induction .

Ruin noun [ Middle English ruine , French ruine , from Latin ruina , from ruere, rutum, to fall with violence, to rush or tumble down.]
1. The act of falling or tumbling down; fall. [ Obsolete] "His ruin startled the other steeds." Chapman.

2. Such a change of anything as destroys it, or entirely defeats its object, or unfits it for use; destruction; overthrow; as, the ruin of a ship or an army; the ruin of a constitution or a government; the ruin of health or hopes. " Ruin seize thee, ruthless king!" Gray.

3. That which is fallen down and become worthless from injury or decay; as, his mind is a ruin ; especially, in the plural, the remains of a destroyed, dilapidated, or desolate house, fortress, city, or the like.

The Veian and the Gabian towers shall fall,
And one promiscuous ruin cover all;
Nor, after length of years, a stone betray
The place where once the very ruins lay.
Addison.

The labor of a day will not build up a virtuous habit on the ruins of an old and vicious character.
Buckminster.

4. The state of being dcayed, or of having become ruined or worthless; as, to be in ruins ; to go to ruin .

5. That which promotes injury, decay, or destruction.

The errors of young men are the ruin of business.
Bacon.

Syn. -- Destruction; downfall; perdition; fall; overthrow; subversion; defeat; bane; pest; mischief.

Ruin transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Ruined ; present participle & verbal noun Ruining .] [ Confer French ruiner , Late Latin ruinare . See Ruin , noun ] To bring to ruin; to cause to fall to pieces and decay; to make to perish; to bring to destruction; to bring to poverty or bankruptcy; to impair seriously; to damage essentially; to overthrow.

this mortal house I'll ruin .
Shak.

By thee raised, I ruin all my foes.
Milton.

The eyes of other people are the eyes that ruin us.
Franklin.

By the fireside there are old men seated,
Seeling ruined cities in the ashes.
Longfellow.

Ruin intransitive verb To fall to ruins; to go to ruin; to become decayed or dilapidated; to perish. [ R.]

Though he his house of polished marble build,
Yet shall it ruin like the moth's frail cell.
Sandys.

If we are idle, and disturb the industrious in their business, we shall ruin the faster.
Locke.

Ruinable adjective Capable of being ruined.

Ruinate transitive verb [ Late Latin ruinatus , past participle of ruinare to ruin. See Ruin .]
1. To demolish; to subvert; to destroy; to reduce to poverty; to ruin.

I will not ruinate my f...ther's house.
Shak.

Ruinating thereby the health of their bodies.
Burton.

2. To cause to fall; to cast down.

On the other side they saw that perilous rock
Threatening itself on them to ruinate .
Spenser.

Ruinate intransitive verb To fall; to tumble. [ Obsolete]

Ruinate adjective [ Latin ruinatus , past participle ] Involved in ruin; ruined.

My brother Edward lives in pomp and state,
I in a mansion here all ruinate .
J. Webster.

Ruination noun [ Late Latin ruinatio .] The act of ruining, or the state of being ruined.

Ruiner noun One who, or that which, ruins.

Ruiniform adjective [ Ruin + - form : confer French ruiniforme .] Having the appearance of ruins, or of the ruins of houses; -- said of certain minerals.

Ruinous adjective [ Latin ruinosus : confer French ruineux . See Ruin .]
1. Causing, or tending to cause, ruin; destructive; baneful; pernicious; as, a ruinous project.

After a night of storm so ruinous .
Milton.

2. Characterized by ruin; ruined; dilapidated; as, an edifice, bridge, or wall in a ruinous state.

3. Composed of, or consisting in, ruins.

Behold, Damascus . . . shall be a ruinous heap.
Isa. xvii. 1.

Syn. -- Dilapidated; decayed; demolished; pernicious; destructive; baneful; wasteful; mischievous.

-- Ru"in*ous*ly adverb -- Ru"in*ous*ness , noun

Rukh noun [ Srr Roc .]
1. The roc.

2. (Zoology) A large bird, supposed by some to be the same as the extinct Epiornis of Madagascar. [ Obsolete]

Rulable adjective That may be ruled; subject to rule; accordant or conformable to rule. Bacon.

Rule noun [ Middle English reule , riule , Old French riule , reule , French régle , from Latin regula a ruler, rule, model, from regere , rectum , to lead straight, to direct. See Right , adjective , and confer Regular .]
1. That which is prescribed or laid down as a guide for conduct or action; a governing direction for a specific purpose; an authoritative enactment; a regulation; a prescription; a precept; as, the rules of various societies; the rules governing a school; a rule of etiquette or propriety; the rules of cricket.

We profess to have embraced a religion which contains the most exact rules for the government of our lives.
Tillotson.

2. Hence: (a) Uniform or established course of things.

'T is against the rule of nature.
Shak.

(b) Systematic method or practice; as, my ule is to rise at six o'clock. (c) Ordibary course of procedure; usual way; comon state or condition of things; as, it is a rule to which there are many exeptions. (d) Conduct in general; behavior. [ Obsolete]

This uncivil rule ; she shall know of it.
Shak.

3. The act of ruling; administration of law; government; empire; authority; control.

Obey them that have the rule over you.
Hebrew xiii. 17.

His stern rule the groaning land obeyed.
Pope.

4. (Law) An order regulating the practice of the courts, or an order made between parties to an action or a suit. Wharton.

5. (Math.) A determinate method prescribed for performing any operation and producing a certain result; as, a rule for extracting the cube root.

6. (Gram.) A general principle concerning the formation or use of words, or a concise statement thereof; thus, it is a rule in England, that s or es , added to a noun in the singular number, forms the plural of that noun; but "man" forms its plural "men", and is an exception to the rule .

7. (a) A straight strip of wood, metal, or the like, which serves as a guide in drawing a straight line; a ruler. (b) A measuring instrument consisting of a graduated bar of wood, ivory, metal, or the like, which is usually marked so as to show inches and fractions of an inch, and jointed so that it may be folded compactly.

A judicious artist will use his eye, but he will trust only to his rule .
South.

8. (Print.) (a) A thin plate of metal (usually brass) of the same height as the type, and used for printing lines, as between columns on the same page, or in tabular work. (b) A composing rule. See under Conposing .

As a rule , as a general thing; in the main; usually; as, he behaves well, as a rule . -- Board rule , Caliber rule , etc. See under Board , Caliber , etc. -- Rule joint , a knuckle joint having shoulders that abut when the connected pieces come in line with each other, and thus permit folding in one direction only. -- Rule of three (Arith.) , that rule which directs, when three terms are given, how to find a fourth, which shall have the same ratio to the third term as the second has to the first; proportion. See Proportion , 5 (b) . -- Rule of thumb , any rude process or operation, like that of using the thumb as a rule in measuring; hence, judgment and practical experience as distinguished from scientific knowledge.

Syn. -- regulation; law; precept; maxim; guide; canon; order; method; direction; control; government; sway; empire.

Rule transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Ruled ; present participle & verbal noun Ruling .] [ Confer OF . riuler , ruiler , Latin regulare . See Rule , noun , and confer Regulate .]
1. To control the will and actions of; to exercise authority or dominion over; to govern; to manage. Chaucer.

A bishop then must be blameless; . . . one that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection.
1 Tim. iii. 2, 4.

2. To control or direct by influence, counsel, or persuasion; to guide; -- used chiefly in the passive.

I think she will be ruled
In all respects by me.
Shak.

3. To establish or settle by, or as by, a rule; to fix by universal or general consent, or by common practice.

That's are ruled case with the schoolmen.
Atterbury.

4. (Law) To require or command by rule; to give as a direction or order of court.

5. To mark with lines made with a pen, pencil, etc., guided by a rule or ruler; to print or mark with lines by means of a rule or other contrivance effecting a similar result; as, to rule a sheet of paper of a blank book.

Ruled surface (Geom.) , any surface that may be described by a straight line moving according to a given law; -- called also a scroll .

Rule intransitive verb
1. To have power or command; to exercise supreme authority; -- often followed by over .

By me princes rule , and nobles.
Prov. viii. 16.

We subdue and rule over all other creatures.
Ray.

2. (Law) To lay down and settle a rule or order of court; to decide an incidental point; to enter a rule. Burril. Bouvier.

3. (Com.) To keep within a (certain) range for a time; to be in general, or as a rule; as, prices ruled lower yesterday than the day before.

Rule noun -- Rule of the road (Law) , any of the various regulations imposed upon travelers by land or water for their mutual convenience or safety. In the United States it is a rule of the road that land travelers passing in opposite directions shall turn out each to his own right, and generally that overtaking persons or vehicles shall turn out to the left; in England the rule for vehicles (but not for pedestrians) is the opposite of this.

Rule-monger noun A stickler for rules; a slave of rules [ R.] Hare.

Ruleless adjective Destitute of rule; lawless. Spenser.

Ruler (rul"ẽr) noun
1. One who rules; one who exercises sway or authority; a governor.

And he made him ruler over all the land.
Gen. xli. 43.

A prince and ruler of the land.
Shak.

2. A straight or curved strip of wood, metal, etc., with a smooth edge, used for guiding a pen or pencil in drawing lines. Confer Rule , noun , 7 (a) .

Parallel ruler . See under Parallel .

Ruling adjective
1. Predominant; chief; reigning; controlling; as, a ruling passion; a ruling sovereign.

2. Used in marking or engraving lines; as, a ruling machine or pen.

Syn. -- Predominant; chief; controlling; directing; guiding; governing; prevailing; prevalent.

Ruling noun
1. The act of one who rules; ruled lines.

2. (Law) A decision or rule of a judge or a court, especially an oral decision, as in excluding evidence.

Rulingly adverb In a ruling manner; so as to rule.

Rullichies (rŭl"lĭ*chĭz) noun plural [ Confer Dutch rolletje a little roll.] Chopped meat stuffed into small bags of tripe. They are cut in slices and fried. [ Local, New York]