Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ French, from Latin ruralis
, from rus
, the country. Confer Room
.] 1. Of or pertaining to the country, as distinguished from a city or town; living in the country; suitable for, or resembling, the country; rustic; as, rural scenes; a rural prospect.
Here is a rural fellow; . . . Shak. 2. Of or pertaining to agriculture; as, rural economy. Rural dean
He brings you figs.
. (Eccl.) See under Dean .
-- Rural deanery (Eccl.)
, the state, office, or residence, of a rural dean. Syn.
-- Rustic. -- Rural
refers to the country itself; as, rural
scenes, prospects, delights, etc. Rustic
refers to the character, condition, taste, etc., of the original inhabitants of the country, who were generally uncultivated and rude; as, rustic
manners; a rustic
dress; a rustic
bridge; rustic architecture, etc.
We turn Thomson.
To where the silver Thames first rural grows.
Lay bashfulness, that rustic virtue, by; Dryden.
To manly confidence thy throughts apply.
Rurales (ru*rā"lēz) noun plural [ New Latin ] (Zoology) The gossamer-winged butterflies; a family of small butterflies, including the hairstreaks, violets, and theclas.
1. The quality or state of being rural; ruralness. 2. A rural idiom or expression.
Ruralist noun One who leads a rural life. Coventry.
. [ Confer Late Latin ruralitas
.] 1. The quality or state of being rural. 2. A rural place.
Ruralize transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Ruralized
; present participle & verbal noun Ruralizing
.] To render rural; to give a rural appearance to.
Ruralize intransitive verb To become rural; to go into the country; to rusticate.
Rurally adverb In a rural manner; as in the country.
Ruralness noun The quality or state of being rural.
Ruricolist noun [ Latin ruricola ; rus , ruris , the country + colere to inhabit.] An inhabitant of the country. [ R.] Bailey.
[ Latin rus
the country + decanus
the chief of ten. See Dean
.] Of or pertaining to a rural dean; as, a ruridecanal district; the ruridecanal intellect.
Rurigenous adjective [ Latin rurigena ; rus , ruris , the country + genere , gignere , to bring forth, pass., to be born.] Born in the country. [ Obsolete]
[ French, from Old French reüser
, to turn aside, to shuffle, retreat, from Latin recusare
to refuse; prefix re-
again + causa
cause. See Cause
, and confer Recusant
.] An artifice; trick; stratagem; wile; fraud; deceit.
[ Middle English rusche
, Anglo-Saxon risce
, akin to LG. rusk
, D. & German rusch
; all probably from Latin ruscum
butcher's broom; akin to Goth. raus
reed, German rohr
.] 1. (Botany) A name given to many aquatic or marsh-growing endogenous plants with soft, slender stems, as the species of Juncus and Scirpus .
» Some species are used in bottoming chairs and plaiting mats, and the pith is used in some places for wicks to lamps and rushlights. 2. The merest trifle; a straw.
John Bull's friendship is not worth a rush . Arbuthnot. Bog rush
. See under Bog .
-- Club rush
, any rush of the genus Scirpus .
-- Flowering rush
. See under Flowering .
-- Nut rush (a) Any plant of the genus Scleria , rushlike plants with hard nutlike fruits
. (b) A name for several species of Cyperus having tuberous roots.
-- Rush broom
, an Australian leguminous plant ( Viminaria denudata ), having long, slender branches. Also, the Spanish broom. See under Spanish .
-- Rush candle
, See under Candle .
-- Rush grass
, any grass of the genus Vilfa , grasses with wiry stems and one-flowered spikelets.
-- Rush toad (Zoology)
, the natterjack.
-- Scouring rush
. (Botany) Same as Dutch rush , under Dutch. -- Spike rush , any rushlike plant of the genus Eleocharis , in which the flowers grow in dense spikes.
-- Sweet rush
, a sweet-scented grass of Arabia, etc. ( Andropogon schœnanthus ), used in Oriental medical practice.
-- Wood rush
, any plant of the genus Luzula , which differs in some technical characters from Juncus .
(rŭsh) intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Rushed
(rŭsht); present participle & verbal noun Rushing
.] [ Middle English ruschen
; confer Anglo-Saxon hryscan
to make a noise, Dutch ruischen
to rustle, German rauschen
, Middle High German rūschen
to rush, to rustle, LG. rusken
, OSw. ruska
, Icelandic & Swedish ruska
to shake, Danish ruske
to shake, and English rouse
.] 1. To move forward with impetuosity, violence, and tumultuous rapidity or haste; as, armies rush to battle; waters rush down a precipice.
Like to an entered tide, they all rush by. Shak. 2. To enter into something with undue haste and eagerness, or without due deliberation and preparation; as, to rush business or speculation.
They . . . never think it to be a part of religion to rush into the office of princes and ministers. Sprat.
Rush transitive verb
1. To push or urge forward with impetuosity or violence; to hurry forward. 2. To recite (a lesson) or pass (an examination) without an error. [ College Cant, U.S.]
Rush noun 1. A moving forward with rapidity and force or eagerness; a violent motion or course; as, a rush of troops; a rush of winds; a rush of water.
A gentleman of his train spurred up his horse, and, with a violent rush , severed him from the duke. Sir H. Wotton. 2. Great activity with pressure; as, a rush of business.
[ Colloq.] 3. A perfect recitation.
[ College Cant, U.S.] 4. (Football) (a) A rusher; as, the center rush , whose place is in the center of the rush line; the end rush . (b) The act of running with the ball. Bunt rush (Football)
, a combined rush by main strength.
-- Rush line (Football)
, the line composed of rushers.
Rush-bearing noun A kind of rural festival at the dedication of a church, when the parishioners brought rushes to strew the church. [ Eng.] Nares.
Rushbuckler noun A bullying and violent person; a braggart; a swashbuckler.
That flock of stout, bragging rushbucklers . Robynson (More's Utopia).
Rushed adjective Abounding or covered with rushes.
Rusher noun One who rushes. Whitlock.
Rusher noun One who strewed rushes on the floor at dances. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.
[ From Rushy
.] The quality or state of abounding with rushes.
Rushingly adverb In a rushing manner.
Rushlight noun A rush candle, or its light; hence, a small, feeble light.
Rushlike adjective Resembling a rush; weak.
Rushy adjective 1. Abounding with rushes. 2. Made of rushes.
My rushy couch and frugal fare. Goldsmith.
Rusine adjective [ New Latin rusa , the name of the genus, Malay rūsa deer.] (Zoology) Of, like, or pertaining to, a deer of the genus Rusa , which includes the sambur deer ( Rusa Aristotelis ) of India. Rusine antler (Zoology) , an antler with the brow tyne simple, and the beam forked at the tip.
Rusk noun [ Spanish rosca de mar sea rusks, a kind of biscuit, rosca properly meaning, a screw, spiral.]
1. A kind of light, soft bread made with yeast and eggs, often toasted or crisped in an oven; or, a kind of sweetened biscuit. 2. A kind of light, hard cake or bread, as for stores. Smart. 3. Bread or cake which has been made brown and crisp, and afterwards grated, or pulverized in a mortar.
[ Corrupt. from Turk. khyryzma
a paste used as a depilatory, from Greek ... an unguent; confer French rusma
.] A depilatory made of orpiment and quicklime, and used by the Turks. See Rhusma .
Russ noun sing. & plural
1. A Russian, or the Russians. [ Rare, except in poetry.] 2. The language of the Russians.
Russ adjective Of or pertaining to the Russians.
[ French rousset
, dim. of roux
red, Latin russus
), akin to English red
. See Red
, and confer Roussette
.] 1. Of a reddish brown color, or (by some called) a red gray; of the color composed of blue, red, and yellow in equal strength, but unequal proportions, namely, two parts of red to one each of blue and yellow; also, of a yellowish brown color.
The morn, in russet mantle clad. Shak.
Our summer such a russet livery wears. Dryden. 2. Coarse; homespun; rustic.
[ R.] Shak.
1. A russet color; a pigment of a russet color. 2. Cloth or clothing of a russet color. 3. A country dress; -- so called because often of a russet color. Dryden. 4. An apple, or a pear, of a russet color; as, the English russet , and the Roxbury russet .
Russeting noun See Russet , noun , 2 and 4.
Russety adjective Of a russet color; russet.
Russia noun A country of Europe and Asia. Russia iron , a kind of sheet iron made in Russia, having a lustrous blue-black surface. -- Russia leather , a soft kind of leather, made originally in Russia but now elsewhere, having a peculiar odor from being impregnated with an oil obtained from birch bark. It is much used in bookbinding, on account of its not being subject to mold, and being proof against insects. -- Russia matting , matting manufactured in Russia from the inner bark of the linden ( Tilia Europæa ).
Russian adjective Of or pertaining to Russia, its inhabitants, or language.
-- noun A native or inhabitant of Russia; the language of Russia. Russian bath
. See under Bath .
Russian Church The established church of the Russian empire. It forms a portion, by far the largest, of the Eastern Church and is governed by the Holy Synod. The czar is the head of the church, but he has never claimed the right of deciding questions of theology and dogma.
Russianize transitive verb To make Russian, or more or less like the Russians; as, to Russianize the Poles.
+ Latin -ficare
(in comp.) to make. See -fy
.] The act or process of Russifying, or the state of being Russified.
Russify transitive verb
[ Confer French russifier.
.] To Russianize; as, to Russify conquered tribes.
Russophile, Russophilist noun [ Russia + Greek filei^n to love: confer French russophile .] One who, not being a Russian, favors Russian policy and aggrandizement. -- Rus*soph"ilism noun [ Chiefly newspaper words.]
Russophobe, Russophobist [ Russia + Greek fobei^n to fear.] One who dreads Russia or Russian influence. [ Words sometimes found in the newspapers.]
Russophobia noun Morbid dread of Russia or of Russian influence.
[ Anglo-Saxon rust
; akin to Dutch roest
, G. & Swedish rost
, Icelandic ryð
; -- named from its color, and akin to English red
. √113. See Red
.] 1. (Chemistry) The reddish yellow coating formed on iron when exposed to moist air, consisting of ferric oxide or hydroxide; hence, by extension, any metallic film of corrosion. 2. (Botany) A minute mold or fungus forming reddish or rusty spots on the leaves and stems of cereal and other grasses ( Trichobasis Rubigo-vera ), now usually believed to be a form or condition of the corn mildew ( Puccinia graminis ). As rust, it has solitary reddish spores; as corn mildew, the spores are double and blackish.
is also applied to many other minute fungi which infest vegetation, such as the species of Ustilago
, and Lecythea
. 3. That which resembles rust in appearance or effects.
Specifically: (a) A composition used in making a rust joint. See Rust joint , below. (b) Foul matter arising from degeneration; as, rust on salted meat. (c) Corrosive or injurious accretion or influence.
Sacred truths cleared from all rust and dross of human mixtures. Eikon Basilike.
is used in the formation of compounds of obvious meaning; as, rust
- eaten, and the like. Rust joint
, a joint made between surfaces of iron by filling the space between them with a wet mixture of cast-iron borings, sal ammoniac, and sulphur, which by oxidation becomes hard, and impervious to steam, water, etc.
-- Rust mite (Zoology)
, a minute mite ( Phytopius oleivorus ) which, by puncturing the rind, causes the rust-colored patches on oranges.
Rust intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Rusted
; present participle & verbal noun Rusting
.] [ Anglo-Saxon rustian
.] 1. To contract rust; to be or become oxidized.
If gold ruste , what shall iron do? Chaucer.
Our armors now may rust . Dryden. 2. To be affected with the parasitic fungus called rust; also, to acquire a rusty appearance, as plants. 3.
Fig.: To degenerate in idleness; to become dull or impaired by inaction.
Must I rust in Egypt? never more Dryden.
Appear in arms, and be the chief of Greece?
Rust transitive verb 1. To cause to contract rust; to corrode with rust; to affect with rust of any kind.
Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them. Shak. 2.
Fig.: To impair by time and inactivity. Johnson.
Rustful adjective Full of rust; resembling rust; causing rust; rusty. " Rustful sloth." Quarles.