Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Royalize transitive verb to make royal. Shak.

Royally adverb In a royal or kingly manner; like a king; as becomes a king.

His body shall be royally interred.
Dryden.

Royalty noun ; plural Royalties . [ Old French roialté , royaulté , French royauté . See Royal , and confer Regality .]
1. The state of being royal; the condition or quality of a royal person; kingship; kingly office; sovereignty.

Royalty by birth was the sweetest way of majesty.
Holyday.

2. The person of a king or sovereign; majesty; as, in the presence of royalty .

For thus his royalty doth speak.
Shak.

3. An emblem of royalty; -- usually in the plural, meaning regalia . [ Obsolete]

Wherefore do I assume
These royalties , and not refuse to reign?
Milton.

4. Kingliness; spirit of regal authority.

In his royalty of nature
Reigns that which would be fear'd.
Shak.

5. Domain; province; sphere. Sir W. Scott.

6. That which is due to a sovereign, as a seigniorage on gold and silver coined at the mint, metals taken from mines, etc.; the tax exacted in lieu of such share; imperiality.

7. A share of the product or profit (as of a mine, forest, etc.), reserved by the owner for permitting another to use the property.

8. Hence (Com.) , a duty paid by a manufacturer to the owner of a patent or a copyright at a certain rate for each article manufactured; or, a percentage paid to the owner of an article by one who hires the use of it.

Royne (roin) transitive verb [ French rogner , Old French rooignier , to clip, pare, scare, from Latin rotundus round See Rotund .] To bite; to gnaw. [ Written also roin .] [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Roynish adjective [ French rogneux , from rogne scab, mange, itch.] Mangy; scabby; hence, mean; paltry; troublesome. [ Written also roinish .] [ Obsolete] "The roynish clown." Shak.

Royster, Roysterer noun same as Roister , Roisterer .

Royston crow [ So called from Royston , a town in England.] (Zoology) See Hooded crow , under Hooded .

Roytelet noun [ French roitelet , dim. of roi king.] A little king. [ Archaic] Heylin. Bancroft.

Roytish adjective [ Prob. for riotish , from riot , like Scot. roytous for riotous .] Wild; irregular. [ Obsolete]

Ru bible noun A ribble. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Rub transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rubbed ; present participle & verbal noun Rubbing .] [ Probably of Celtic origin; confer W. rhwbiaw , gael. rub .]
1. To subject (a body) to the action of something moving over its surface with pressure and friction, especially to the action of something moving back and forth; as, to rub the flesh with the hand; to rub wood with sandpaper.

It shall be expedient, after that body is cleaned, to rub the body with a coarse linen cloth.
Sir T. Elyot.

2. To move over the surface of (a body) with pressure and friction; to graze; to chafe; as, the boat rubs the ground.

3. To cause (a body) to move with pressure and friction along a surface; as, to rub the hand over the body.

Two bones rubbed hard against one another.
Arbuthnot.

4. To spread a substance thinly over; to smear.

The smoothed plank, . . .
New rubbed with balm.
Milton.

5. To scour; to burnish; to polish; to brighten; to cleanse; -- often with up or over ; as, to rub up silver.

The whole business of our redemption is to rub over the defaced copy of the creation.
South.

6. To hinder; to cross; to thwart. [ R.]

'T is the duke's pleasure,
Whose disposition, all the world well knows,
Will not be rubbed nor stopped.
Shak.

To rub down . (a) To clean by rubbing; to comb or curry; as, to down a horse . (b) To reduce or remove by rubbing; as, to rub down the rough points. -- To rub off , to clean anything by rubbing; to separate by friction; as, to rub off rust. -- To rub out , to remove or separate by friction; to erase; to obliterate; as, to rub out a mark or letter; to rub out a stain. -- To rub up . (a) To burnish; to polish; to clean . (b) To excite; to awaken; to rouse to action; as, to rub up the memory.

Rub intransitive verb
1. To move along the surface of a body with pressure; to grate; as, a wheel rubs against the gatepost.

2. To fret; to chafe; as, to rub upon a sore.

3. To move or pass with difficulty; as, to rub through woods, as huntsmen; to rub through the world.

To rub along or on , to go on with difficulty; as, they manage, with strict economy, to rub along . [ Colloq.]

Rub noun [ Confer W. rhwb . See Rub, v,t,]
1. The act of rubbing; friction.

2. That which rubs; that which tends to hinder or obstruct motion or progress; hindrance; obstruction, an impediment; especially, a difficulty or obstruction hard to overcome; a pinch.

Every rub is smoothed on our way.
Shak.

To sleep, perchance to dream; ay, there's the rub .
Shak.

Upon this rub , the English ambassadors thought fit to demur.
Hayward.

One knows not, certainly, what other rubs might have been ordained for us by a wise Providence.
W. Besant.

3. Inequality of surface, as of the ground in the game of bowls; unevenness. Shak.

4. Something grating to the feelings; sarcasm; joke; as, a hard rub .

5. Imperfection; failing; fault. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.

6. A chance. [ Obsolete]

Flight shall leave no Greek a rub .
Chapman.

7. A stone, commonly flat, used to sharpen cutting tools; a whetstone; -- called also rubstone .

Rub iron , an iron guard on a wagon body, against which a wheel rubs when cramped too much.

Rub noun -- Rub of the green (Golf) , anything happening to a ball in motion, such as its being deflected or stopped by any agency outside the match, or by the fore caddie.

Ruba-dub noun The sound of a drum when continuously beaten; hence, a clamorous, repeated sound; a clatter.

The rubadub of the abolition presses.
D. Webster.

Rubaiyat noun plural ; sing. Rubai [ Arabic rubā'iyāh quatrian, plural of rubā'iy having four radicals, from rubā' four.] Quatrians; as, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Sometimes in plural construed as sing. , a poem in such stanzas.

Rubato adjective [ Italian ] Robbed; borrowed.

Rubbage noun Rubbish. [ Obsolete]

Rubber noun
1. One who, or that which, rubs. Specifically: (a) An instrument or thing used in rubbing, polishing, or cleaning. (b) A coarse file, or the rough part of a file. (c) A whetstone; a rubstone. (d) An eraser, usually made of caoutchouc. (e) The cushion of an electrical machine. (f) One who performs massage, especially in a Turkish bath. (g) Something that chafes or annoys; hence, something that grates on the feelings; a sarcasm; a rub. Thackeray.

2. In some games, as whist, the odd game, as the third or the fifth, when there is a tie between the players; as, to play the rubber ; also, a contest determined by the winning of two out of three games; as, to play a rubber of whist. Beaconsfield. "A rubber of cribbage." Dickens.

3. India rubber; caoutchouc.

4. An overshoe made of India rubber. [ Colloq.]

Antimony rubber , an elastic durable variety of vulcanized caoutchouc of a red color. It contains antimony sulphide as an important constituent. -- Hard rubber , a kind of vulcanized caoutchouc which nearly resembles horn in texture, rigidity, etc. -- India rubber , caoutchouc. See Caoutchouc . -- Rubber cloth , cloth covered with caoutchouc for excluding water or moisture. -- Rubber dam (Dentistry) , a shield of thin sheet rubber clasped around a tooth to exclude saliva from the tooth.

Rubberize transitive verb To coat or impregnate with rubber or a rubber solution or preparation, as silk.

Rubbidge noun Rubbish. [ Obsolete] Bp. Hall.

Rubbing adjective & noun from Rub , v.

Rubbish noun [ Middle English robows , robeux , rubble, originally an Old French plural from an assumed dim. of robe , probably in the sense of trash; confer Italian robaccia trash, roba stuff, goods, wares, robe. Thus, etymologically rubbish is the plural of rubble . See Robe , and confer Rubble .] Waste or rejected matter; anything worthless; valueless stuff; trash; especially, fragments of building materials or fallen buildings; ruins; débris.

What rubbish and what offal!
Shak.

he saw the town's one half in rubbish lie.
Dryden.

Rubbish pulley . See Gin block , under Gin .

Rubbish adjective Of or pertaining to rubbish; of the quality of rubbish; trashy. De Quincey.

Rubble noun [ From an assumed Old French dim. of robe See Rubbish .]
1. Water-worn or rough broken stones; broken bricks, etc., used in coarse masonry, or to fill up between the facing courses of walls.

Inside [ the wall] there was rubble or mortar.
Jowett (Thucyd.).

2. Rough stone as it comes from the quarry; also, a quarryman's term for the upper fragmentary and decomposed portion of a mass of stone; brash. Brande & C.

3. (Geol.) A mass or stratum of fragments or rock lying under the alluvium, and derived from the neighboring rock. Lyell.

4. plural The whole of the bran of wheat before it is sorted into pollard, bran, etc. [ Prov. Eng.] Simmonds.

Coursed rubble , rubble masonry in which courses are formed by leveling off the work at certain heights.

Rubblestone noun See Rubble , 1 and 2.

Rubblework noun Masonry constructed of unsquared stones that are irregular in size and shape.

Rubbly adjective Relating to, or containing, rubble.

Rubedinous adjective [ Latin rubedo redness, from rubere to be red.] Reddish. [ R.] M. Stuart.

Rubefacient adjective [ Latin rubefaciens , present participle of rubefacere to make red; rubere to be red + facere to make.] Making red. -- noun (Medicine) An external application which produces redness of the skin.

Rubefaction noun The act or process of making red.

Rubelet (ru"be*lĕt) noun A little ruby. Herrick.

Rubella noun [ New Latin , from Latin rubellus reddish.] (Medicine) An acute specific disease with a dusky red cutaneous eruption resembling that of measles, but unattended by catarrhal symptoms; -- called also German measles .

Rubelle noun [ Latin rubellus reddish.] A red color used in enameling. Weale.

Rubellite noun [ Latin rubellus reddish, dim. of ruber red.] (Min.) A variety of tourmaline varying in color from a pale rose to a deep ruby, and containing lithium.

Rubeola noun [ New Latin , from Latin ruber red.] (Medicine) (a) the measles. (b) Rubella.

Ruberythrinic adjective [ Latin ruber red + erythrin .] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid extracted from madder root. It is a yellow crystalline substance from which alizarin is obtained.

Rubescence noun The quality or state of being rubescent; a reddening; a flush.

Rubescent adjective [ Latin rubescens , -entis , present participle of rubescere to grow red, v. incho from rubere to be red: confer French rubescent . See Ruby .] Growing or becoming red; tending to redness.

Rubiaceous adjective [ Latin rubia madder, from rubeus red.] (Botany) Of or pertaining to a very large natural order of plants ( Rubiaceæ ) named after the madder ( Rubia tinctoria ), and including about three hundred and seventy genera and over four thousand species. Among them are the coffee tree, the trees yielding peruvian bark and quinine, the madder, the quaker ladies, and the trees bearing the edible fruits called genipap and Sierre Leone peach, besides many plants noted for the beauty or the fragrance of their blossoms.

Rubiacin noun [ Latin rubia madder, from rubeus red.] (Chem) A substance found in madder root, and probably identical with ruberythrinic acid.

Rubian noun [ Latin rubia madder, from rubeus red.] (Chemistry) One of several color-producing glycosides found in madder root.

Rubianic adjective (Chemistry) pertaining to, or derived from, rubian; specifically, designating an acid called also ruberythrinic acid. [ Obsolete]

Rubican adjective [ French] Colored a prevailing red, bay, or black, with flecks of white or gray especially on the flanks; -- said of horses. Smart.

Rubicelle noun [ Confer French rubacelle , rubicelle , from Latin rubeus red, reddish.] (Min.) A variety of ruby of a yellowish red color, from Brazil.

Rubicon noun (Anc. geog.) A small river which separated Italy from Cisalpine Gaul, the province alloted to Julius Cæsar.

» By leading an army across this river, contrary to the prohibition of the civil government at Rome, Cæsar precipitated the civil war which resulted in the death of Pompey and the overthrow of the senate; hence, the phrase to pass or cross the Rubicon signifies to take the decisive step by which one is committed to a hazardous enterprise from which there is no retreat.

Rubicund adjective [ Latin rubicundus , from rubere to be red, akin to ruber red. See Red .] Inclining to redness; ruddy; red. "His rubicund face." Longfellow.

Rubicundity noun [ Late Latin rubicunditas .] The quality or state of being rubicund; ruddiness.

To parade your rubicundity and gray hairs.
Walpole.

Rubidic adjective (Chemistry) Of or pertaining to rubidium; containing rubidium.

Rubidine noun (Chemistry) A nitrogenous base homologous with pyridine, obtained from coal tar as an oily liquid, C 11 H 17 N; also, any one of the group od metameric compounds of which rubidine is the type.