Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Rough-legged adjective (Zoology) Having the legs covered with feathers; -- said of a bird.

rough-legged hawk . (Zoology) See Roughleg .

Roughhead noun (Zoology) The redfin.

Roughhew transitive verb
1. To hew coarsely, without smoothing; as, to roughhew timber.

2. To give the first form or shape to; to form rudely; to shape approximately and rudely; to roughcast.

There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
Roughhew them how we will.

Roughhewer noun One who roughhews.

Roughhewn adjective
1. Hewn coarsely without smoothing; unfinished; not polished.

2. Of coarse manners; rude; uncultivated; rough-grained. "A roughhewn seaman." Bacon.

Roughing-in noun The first coat of plaster laid on brick; also, the process of applying it.

Roughings noun plural Rowen. [ Prov. Eng.]

Roughish adjective Somewhat rough.

Roughleg noun (Zoology) Any one of several species of large hawks of the genus Archibuteo , having the legs feathered to the toes. Called also rough-legged hawk , and rough-legged buzzard .

» The best known species is Archibuteo lagopus of Northern Europe, with its darker American variety ( Sancti- johannis ). The latter is often nearly or quite black. The ferruginous roughleg ( Archibuteo ferrugineus ) inhabits Western North America.

Roughly adverb In a rough manner; unevenly; harshly; rudely; severely; austerely.

Roughness noun The quality or state of being rough.

Roughrider noun One who breaks horses; especially (Mil.) , a noncommissioned officer in the British cavalry, whose duty is to assist the riding master.

Roughrider noun An officer or enlisted man in the 1st U. S. Volunteer Cavalry, a regiment raised for the Spanish war of 1898, composed mostly of Western cowboys and hunters and Eastern college athletes and sportsmen, largely organized, and later commanded, by Theodore Roosevelt. Sometimes, locally, a member of any of various volunteer cavalry commands raised in 1898. [ Colloq.]

Roughscuff noun [ Rough + scuff .] A rough, coarse fellow; collectively, the lowest class of the people; the rabble; the riffraff. [ Colloq. U.S.]

Roughsetter noun A mason who builds rough stonework.

Roughshod adjective Shod with shoes armed with points or calks; as, a roughshod horse.

To ride roughshod , to pursue a course regardless of the pain or distress it may cause others.

Roughstrings noun plural (Capr.) Pieces of undressed timber put under the steps of a wooden stair for their support.

Rought obsolete imperfect of Reach .

Roughtail noun (Zoology) Any species of small ground snakes of the family Uropeltidæ ; -- so called from their rough tails .

Roughwork transitive verb To work over coarsely, without regard to nicety, smoothness, or finish. Moxon.

Roughwrought adjective Wrought in a rough, unfinished way; worked over coarsely.

Rouk intransitive verb See 5th Ruck , and Roke . [ Obsolete]

Roulade noun [ French] (Mus.) A smoothly running passage of short notes (as semiquavers, or sixteenths) uniformly grouped, sung upon one long syllable, as in Handel's oratorios.

Rouleau noun ; plural French Rouleaux (F. ...; E. ...), English Rouleaus . [ French, a roll, dim. from fr. rôle , formerly also spelt roulle . See Roll .] A little roll; a roll of coins put up in paper, or something resembling such a roll.

Roulette noun [ French, properly, a little wheel or ball. See Rouleau , Roll .]
1. A game of chance, in which a small ball is made to move round rapidly on a circle divided off into numbered red and black spaces, the one on which it stops indicating the result of a variety of wagers permitted by the game.

2. (Fine Arts) (a) A small toothed wheel used by engravers to roll over a plate in order to order to produce rows of dots. (b) A similar wheel used to roughen the surface of a plate, as in making alterations in a mezzotint.

3. (Geom.) the curve traced by any point in the plane of a given curve when the latter rolls, without sliding, over another fixed curve. See Cycloid , and Epycycloid .

Roulette noun A small toothed wheel used to make short incisions in paper, as a sheet of postage stamps to facilitate their separation.

Roulette transitive verb To make short incisions in with a roulette; to separate by incisions made with a roulette; as, to roulette a sheet of postage stamps.

Rouly-pouly noun See Rolly- pooly .

Roumanian adjective [ Written also Rumanian .] [ From Roumania , the name of the country, Roumanian România , from Român Roumanian, Latin Romanus Roman.] Of or pertaining to Roumania.

Roumanian noun An inhabitant of Roumania; also, the language of Roumania, one of the Romance or Romanic languages descended from Latin, but containing many words from other languages, as Slavic, Turkish, and Greek.

Roun, Rown intransitive verb & t. [ Anglo-Saxon r...nian , from r...n a rune, secret, mystery; akin to German raunen to whisper. See Rune .] To whisper. [ obs.] Gower.

Another rouned to his fellow low.

Rounce (rouns) noun [ Confer French ronce bramble, brier, thorn, ranche a round, step, rack, or English round .] (Print.) The handle by which the bed of a hand press, holding the form of type, etc., is run in under the platen and out again; -- sometimes applied to the whole apparatus by which the form is moved under the platen.

Rounceval adjective [ French Ronceval , Roncevaux , a town at the foot of the foot of the Pyrenees, Spanish Roncesvalles .] Large; strong; -- from the gigantic bones shown at Roncesvalles, and alleged to be those of old heroes. [ Obsolete]

Rounceval noun A giant; anything large; a kind of pea called also marrowfat . [ Obsolete]

Rouncy noun A common hackney horse; a nag. [ Obsolete]

he rode upon a rouncy as he could.

Round intransitive verb & t. [ From Roun .] To whisper. [ obs.] Shak. Holland.

The Bishop of Glasgow rounding in his ear, "Ye are not a wise man," . . . he rounded likewise to the bishop, and said, "Wherefore brought ye me here?"

Round adjective [ Old French roond , roont , reond , French rond , from Latin rotundus , from rota wheel. See Rotary , and confer Rotund , roundel , Rundlet .]
1. Having every portion of the surface or of the circumference equally distant from the center; spherical; circular; having a form approaching a spherical or a circular shape; orbicular; globular; as, a round ball. "The big, round tears." Shak.

Upon the firm opacous globe
Of this round world.

2. Having the form of a cylinder; cylindrical; as, the barrel of a musket is round .

3. Having a curved outline or form; especially, one like the arc of a circle or an ellipse, or a portion of the surface of a sphere; rotund; bulging; protuberant; not angular or pointed; as, a round arch; round hills. "Their round haunches gored." Shak.

4. Full; complete; not broken; not fractional; approximately in even units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.; -- said of numbers.

Pliny put a round number near the truth, rather than the fraction.

5. Not inconsiderable; large; hence, generous; free; as, a round price.

Three thousand ducats; 'tis a good round sum.

Round was their pace at first, but slackened soon.

6. Uttered or emitted with a full tone; as, a round voice; a round note.

7. (Phonetics) Modified, as a vowel, by contraction of the lip opening, making the opening more or less round in shape; rounded; labialized; labial. See Guide to Pronunciation , § 11.

8. Outspoken; plain and direct; unreserved; unqualified; not mincing; as, a round answer; a round oath. "The round assertion." M. Arnold.

Sir Toby, I must be round with you.

9. Full and smoothly expanded; not defective or abrupt; finished; polished; -- said of style, or of authors with reference to their style. [ Obsolete]

In his satires Horace is quick, round , and pleasant.

10. Complete and consistent; fair; just; -- applied to conduct.

Round dealing is the honor of man's nature.

At a round rate , rapidly. Dryden. -- In round numbers , approximately in even units, tens, hundreds, etc.; as, a bin holding 99 or 101 bushels may be said to hold in round numbers 100 bushels. -- Round bodies (Geom.) , the sphere right cone, and right cylinder. -- Round clam (Zoology) , the quahog. -- Round dance one which is danced by couples with a whirling or revolving motion, as the waltz, polka, etc. -- Round game , a game, as of cards, in which each plays on his own account. -- Round hand , a style of penmanship in which the letters are formed in nearly an upright position, and each separately distinct; -- distinguished from running hand . -- Round robin . [ Perhaps French round round + ruban ribbon.] (a) A written petition, memorial, remonstrance, protest, etc., the signatures to which are made in a circle so as not to indicate who signed first. "No round robins signed by the whole main deck of the Academy or the Porch." De Quincey. (b) (Zoology) The cigar fish. -- Round shot , a solid spherical projectile for ordnance. -- Round Table , the table about which sat King Arthur and his knights. See Knights of the Round Table , under Knight . -- Round tower , one of certain lofty circular stone towers, tapering from the base upward, and usually having a conical cap or roof, which crowns the summit, -- found chiefly in Ireland. They are of great antiquity, and vary in heigh from thirty-five to one hundred and thiry feet. -- Round trot , one in which the horse throws out his feet roundly; a full, brisk, quick trot. Addison. -- Round turn (Nautical) , one turn of a rope round a timber, a belaying pin, etc. -- To bring up with a round turn , to stop abruptly. [ Colloq.]

Syn. -- Circular; spherical; globular; globase; orbicular; orbed; cylindrical; full; plump; rotund.

Round noun
1. Anything round, as a circle, a globe, a ring. "The golden round " [ the crown]. Shak.

In labyrinth of many a round self- rolled.

2. A series of changes or events ending where it began; a series of like events recurring in continuance; a cycle; a periodical revolution; as, the round of the seasons; a round of pleasures.

3. A course of action or conduct performed by a number of persons in turn, or one after another, as if seated in a circle.

Women to cards may be compared: we play
A round or two; which used, we throw away.

The feast was served; the bowl was crowned;
To the king's pleasure went the mirthful round .

4. A series of duties or tasks which must be performed in turn, and then repeated.

the trivial round , the common task.

5. A circular dance.

Come, knit hands, and beat the ground,
In a light fantastic round .

6. That which goes round a whole circle or company; as, a round of applause.

7. Rotation, as in office; succession. Holyday.

8. The step of a ladder; a rundle or rung; also, a crosspiece which joins and braces the legs of a chair.

All the rounds like Jacob's ladder rise.

9. A course ending where it began; a circuit; a beat; especially, one freguently or regulary traversed; also, the act of traversing a circuit; as, a watchman's round ; the rounds of the postman.

10. (Mil.) (a) A walk performed by a guard or an officer round the rampart of a garrison, or among sentinels, to see that the sentinels are faithful and all things safe; also, the guard or officer, with his attendants, who performs this duty; -- usually in the plural. (b) A general discharge of firearms by a body of troops in which each soldier fires once. (c) Ammunition for discharging a piece or pieces once; as, twenty rounds of ammunition were given out.

11. (Mus.) A short vocal piece, resembling a catch in which three or four voices follow each other round in a species of canon in the unison.

12. The time during which prize fighters or boxers are in actual contest without an intermission, as prescribed by their rules; a bout.

13. A brewer's vessel in which the fermentation is concluded, the yeast escaping through the bunghole.

14. A vessel filled, as for drinking. [ R.]

15. An assembly; a group; a circle; as, a round of politicians. Addison.

16. (Nautical) See Roundtop .

17. Same as Round of beef , below.

Gentlemen of the round . (a) Gentlemen soldiers of low rank who made the rounds. See 10 (a) , above. (b) Disbanded soldiers who lived by begging. [ Obsolete]

Worm-eaten gentlemen of the round , such as have vowed to sit on the skirts of the city, let your provost and his half dozen of halberdiers do what they can.
B. Jonson.

-- Round of beef , the part of the thigh below the aitchbone, or between the rump and the leg. See Illust. of beef . -- Round steak , a beefsteak cut from the round. -- Sculpture in the round , sculpture giving the full form, as of man; statuary, distinguished from relief.

Round adverb
1. On all sides; around.

Round he throws his baleful eyes.

2. Circularly; in a circular form or manner; by revolving or reversing one's position; as, to turn one's head round ; a wheel turns round .

3. In circumference; as, a ball is ten inches round .

4. From one side or party to another; as to come or turn round , -- that is, to change sides or opinions.

5. By or in a circuit; by a course longer than the direct course; back to the starting point.

6. Through a circle, as of friends or houses.

The invitations were sent round accordingly.
Sir W. Scott.

7. Roundly; fully; vigorously. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

All round , over the whole place; in every direction. -- All-round , of general capacity; as, an all-round man. [ Colloq.] -- To bring one round . (a) To cause one to change his opinions or line of conduct . (b) To restore one to health . [ Colloq.]

Round preposition On every side of, so as to encompass or encircle; around; about; as, the people atood round him; to go round the city; to wind a cable round a windlass.

The serpent Error twines round human hearts.

Round about , an emphatic form for round or about . "Moses . . . set them [ The elders] round about the tabernacle." Num. xi. 24. -- To come round , to gain the consent of, or circumvent, (a person) by flattery or deception. [ Colloq.]

Round transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rounded ; present participle & verbal noun Rounding .]
1. To make circular, spherical, or cylindrical; to give a round or convex figure to; as, to round a silver coin; to round the edges of anything.

Worms with many feet, which round themselves into balls, are bred chiefly under logs of timber.

The figures on our modern medals are raised and rounded to a very great perfection.

2. To surround; to encircle; to encompass.

The inclusive verge
Of golden metal that must round my brow.

3. To bring to fullness or completeness; to complete; hence, to bring to a fit conclusion.

We are such stuff
As dreams are made on, and our little life
Is rounded with a sleep.

4. To go round wholly or in part; to go about (a corner or point); as, to round a corner; to round Cape Horn.

5. To make full, smooth, and flowing; as, to round periods in writing. Swift.

To round in (Nautical) To haul up; usually, to haul the slack of (a rope) through its leading block, or to haul up (a tackle which hangs loose) by its fall. Totten. (b) To collect together (cattle) by riding around them, as on cattle ranches . [ Western U.S.]

Round intransitive verb
1. To grow round or full; hence, to attain to fullness, completeness, or perfection.

The queen your mother rounds apace.

So rounds he to a separate mind,
From whence clear memory may begin.

2. To go round, as a guard. [ Poetic]

They . . . nightly rounding walk.

3. To go or turn round; to wheel about. Tennyson.

To round to (Nautical) , to turn the head of a ship toward the wind.

Round-arm adjective (Cricket) Applied to the method delivering the ball in bowling, by swinging the arm horizontally. R. A. Proctor.

Round-backed adjective Having a round back or shoulders; round-shouldered.

Roundabout adjective
1. Circuitous; going round; indirect; as, roundabout speech.

We have taken a terrible roundabout road.

2. Encircling; enveloping; comprehensive. "Large, sound, roundabout sense." Locke.

Roundabout noun
1. A horizontal wheel or frame, commonly with wooden horses, etc., on which children ride; a merry-go-round. Smart.

2. A dance performed in a circle. Goldsmith.

3. A short, close jacket worn by boys, sailors, etc.

4. A state or scene of constant change, or of recurring labor and vicissitude. Cowper.

Roundaboutness noun The quality of being roundabout; circuitousness.

Rounded adjective (Phonetics) Modified by contraction of the lip opening; labialized; labial. See Guide to Pronunciation , § 11.

Roundel noun [ Old French rondel a roundelay, French rondel , rondeau , a dim. from rond ; for sense 2, confer French rondelle a round, a round shield. See Round , adjective , and confer Rondel , Rondelay .]
1. (Mus.) A rondelay. "Sung all the roundel lustily." Chaucer.

Come, now a roundel and a fairy song.

2. Anything having a round form; a round figure; a circle.

The Spaniards, casting themselves into roundels , . . . made a flying march to Calais.

Specifically: (a) A small circular shield, sometimes not more than a foot in diameter, used by soldiers in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. (b) (Her.) A circular spot; a sharge in the form of a small circle. (c) (Fort.) A bastion of a circular form.