Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Rote noun A root. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Rote noun [ Middle English rote , probably of German origin; confer Middle High German rotte , Old High German rota , hrota , Late Latin chrotta . Confer Crowd a kind of violin.] (Mus.) A kind of guitar, the notes of which were produced by a small wheel or wheel-like arrangement; an instrument similar to the hurdy-gurdy.

Well could he sing and play on a rote .
Chaucer.

extracting mistuned dirges from their harps, crowds, and rotes .
Sir W. Scott.

Rote noun [ Confer Rut roaring.] The noise produced by the surf of the sea dashing upon the shore. See Rut .

Rote noun [ Old French rote , French route , road, path. See Route , and confer Rut a furrow, Routine .] A frequent repetition of forms of speech without attention to the meaning; mere repetition; as, to learn rules by rote . Swift.

till he the first verse could [ i. e. , knew] all by rote .
Chaucer.

Thy love did read by rote , and could not spell.
Shak.

Rote transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Roted ; present participle & verbal noun Roting .] To learn or repeat by rote. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Rote intransitive verb To go out by rotation or succession; to rotate. [ Obsolete] Z. Grey.

Rotella noun [ New Latin , dim. of rota wheel; confer Late Latin rotella a little whell.] (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of small, polished, brightcolored gastropods of the genus Rotella , native of tropical seas.

Rotgut noun
1. Bad small beer. [ Slang]

2. Any bad spirituous liquor, especially when adulterated so as to be very deleterious. [ Slang]

Rother adjective [ Anglo-Saxon hryðer ; confer Dutch rund .] (Zoology) Bovine. -- noun A bovine beast. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Rother beasts , cattle of the bovine genus; black cattle. [ Obsolete] Golding. -- Rother soil , the dung of rother beasts.

Rother noun [ Middle English See Rudder .] A rudder.

Rother nail , a nail with a very full head, used for fastening the rudder irons of ships; -- so called by shipwrights.

Rotifer noun [ New Latin see Rotifera .] (Zoology) One of the Rotifera. See Illust. in Appendix.

Rotifera noun ; plural [ New Latin , from Latin rota ... wheel + ferre to bear.] (Zoology) An order of minute worms which usually have one or two groups of vibrating cilia on the head, which, when in motion, often give an appearance of rapidly revolving wheels. The species are very numerous in fresh waters, and are very diversified in form and habits.

Rotiform adjective [ Latin rota wheel + -form .]
1. Wheel-shaped; as, rotiform appendages.

2. (Botany) Same as Rotate .

Rotograph noun (Photography) A photograph printed by a process in which a strip or roll of sensitized paper is automatically fed over the negative so that a series of prints are made, and are then developed, fixed, cut apart, and washed at a very rapid rate.

Rotor noun (Electricity) The rotating part of a generator or motor.

Rotta noun (Mus.) See Rota .

Rotten adjective [ Icelandic rotinn ; akin to Swedish rutten , Danish radden . See Rot .] Having rotted; putrid; decayed; as, a rotten apple; rotten meat. Hence: (a) Offensive to the smell; fetid; disgusting.

You common cry of curs! whose breath I hate
As reek of the rotten fens.
Shak.

(b) Not firm or trusty; unsound; defective; treacherous; unsafe; as, a rotten plank, bone, stone. "The deepness of the rotten way." Knolles.

Rotten borough . See under Borough . -- Rotten stone (Min.) , a soft stone, called also Tripoli (from the country from which it was formerly brought), used in all sorts of finer grinding and polishing in the arts, and for cleaning metallic substances. The name is also given to other friable siliceous stones applied to like uses.

Syn. -- Putrefied; decayed; carious; defective; unsound; corrupt; deceitful; treacherous.

-- Rot"ten*ly , adverb -- Rot"ten*ness , noun

Rotula noun [ Latin , a little wheel; confer Italian rotula .] (Anat.) The patella, or kneepan.

Rotular adjective [ Latin rotula , dim. of rota wheel.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the rotula, or kneepan.

Rotund adjective [ Latin rotundus . See Round , and confer Rotunda .]
1. Round; circular; spherical.

2. Hence, complete; entire.

3. (Botany) Orbicular, or nearly so. Gray.

Rotund noun A rotunda. [ Obsolete] Burke.

Rotunda noun [ Confer Italian rotonda , French rotonde ; both from Latin rotundus round. See Rotund , adjective ] (Architecture) A round building; especially, one that is round both on the outside and inside, like the Pantheon at Rome. Less properly, but very commonly, used for a large round room; as, the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington.

Rotundate adjective Rounded; especially, rounded at the end or ends, or at the corners.

Rotundifolious adjective [ Latin rotundus round + folium a leaf.] (Botany) Having round leaves.

Rotundity noun [ Latin rotunditas : confer French rotondité .]
1. The state or quality of being rotu...; roundness; sphericity; circularity.

Smite flat the thick rotundity o'the world!
Shak.

2. Hence, completeness; entirety; roundness.

For the more rotundity of the number and grace of the matter, it passeth for a full thousand.
Fuller.

A boldness and rotundity of speech.
Hawthorne.

Rotundness noun Roundness; rotundity.

Rotundo noun See Rotunda .

Roture noun [ French]
1. The condition of being a roturier.

2. (Fr. & Canadian Law) A feudal tenure of lands by one who has no privileges of nobility, but is permitted to discharge all his obligations to his feudal lord or superior by a payment of rent in money or kind and without rendering any personal services.

Roturer noun A roturier. [ Obsolete] Howell.

Roturier noun [ French] A person who is not of noble birth; specif., a freeman who during the prevalence of feudalism held allodial land.

Roty transitive verb [ See Rot .] To make rotten. [ Obsolete]

Well bet is rotten apple out of hoard,
Than that it roty all the remenant.
Chaucer.

Rouble noun A coin. See Ruble .

Rouche noun See Ruche .

Roué noun [ French, properly past participle of rouer to break upon the wheel, from roue a wheel, Latin rota . See Rotate , Rotary .] One devoted to a life of sensual pleasure; a debauchee; a rake.

Rouet noun [ French] A small wheel formerly fixed to the pan of firelocks for discharging them. Crabb.

Rouge adjective [ French, from Latin rubeus red, akin to rubere to be red, ruber red. See Red .] red. [ R.]

Rouge noun [ French]
1. (Chemistry) A red amorphous powder consisting of ferric oxide. It is used in polishing glass, metal, or gems, and as a cosmetic, etc. Called also crocus , jeweler's rouge , etc.

2. A cosmetic used for giving a red color to the cheeks or lips. The best is prepared from the dried flowers of the safflower, but it is often made from carmine. Ure.

Rouge intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rouged ; present participle & verbal noun Rouging .] To paint the face or cheeks with rouge.

Rouge transitive verb To tint with rouge; as, to rouge the face or the cheeks.

Rouge dragon noun [ French, literally, red dragon.] (Her.) One of the four pursuivants of the English college of arms.

Rougecroix noun [ French, literally, red cross.] (Her.) One of the four pursuivants of the English college of arms.

Rough adjective [ Compar. Rougher ; superl. Roughest .] [ Middle English rou... , rou , row , rugh , ruh , Anglo-Saxon r...h ; akin to LG. rug , Dutch rug , Dutch ruig , ruw , Old High German r...h , German rauh , rauch ; confer Lithuanian raukas wrinkle, rukti to wrinkle. √ 18. Confer Rug , noun ]
1. Having inequalities, small ridges, or points, on the surface; not smooth or plain; as, a rough board; a rough stone; rough cloth. Specifically: (a) Not level; having a broken surface; uneven; -- said of a piece of land, or of a road. "Rough, uneven ways." Shak.

(b) Not polished; uncut; -- said of a gem; as, a rough diamond. (c) Tossed in waves; boisterous; high; -- said of a sea or other piece of water.

More unequal than the roughest sea.
T. Burnet.

(d) Marked by coarseness; shaggy; ragged; disordered; -- said of dress, appearance, or the like; as, a rough coat. "A visage rough ." Dryden. " Rough satyrs." Milton.

2. Hence, figuratively, lacking refinement, gentleness, or polish. Specifically: (a) Not courteous or kind; harsh; rude; uncivil; as, a rough temper.

A fiend, a fury, pitiless and rough .
Shak.

A surly boatman, rough as wayes or winds.
Prior.

(b) Marked by severity or violence; harsh; hard; as, rough measures or actions.

On the rough edge of battle.
Milton.

A quicker and rougher remedy.
Clarendon.

Kind words prevent a good deal of that perverseness which rough and imperious usage often produces.
Locke.

(c) Loud and hoarse; offensive to the ear; harsh; grating; -- said of sound, voice, and the like; as, a rough tone; rough numbers. Pope.

(d) Austere; harsh to the taste; as, rough wine. (e) Tempestuous; boisterous; stormy; as, rough weather; a rough day.

He stayeth his rough wind.
Isa. xxvii. 8.

Time and the hour runs through the roughest day.
Shak.

(f) Hastily or carelessly done; wanting finish; incomplete; as, a rough estimate; a rough draught.

Rough diamond , an uncut diamond; hence, colloquially, a person of intrinsic worth under a rude exterior. -- Rough and ready . (a) Acting with offhand promptness and efficiency . "The rough and ready understanding." Lowell.

(b) Produced offhand. "Some rough and ready theory." Tylor.

Rough noun
1. Boisterous weather. [ Obsolete] Fletcher.

2. A rude fellow; a coarse bully; a rowdy.

In the rough , in an unwrought or rude condition; unpolished; as, a diamond or a sketch in the rough .

Contemplating the people in the rough .
Mrs. Browning.

Rough adverb In a rough manner; rudely; roughly.

Sleeping rough on the trenches, and dying stubbornly in their boats.
Sir W. Scott.

Rough transitive verb
1. To render rough; to roughen.

2. To break in, as a horse, especially for military purposes. Crabb.

3. To cut or make in a hasty, rough manner; -- with out ; as, to rough out a carving, a sketch.

Roughing rolls , rolls for reducing, in a rough manner, a bloom of iron to bars. -- To rough it , to endure hard conditions of living; to live without ordinary comforts.

Rough-footed adjective (Zoology) Feather-footed; as, a rough-footed dove. [ R.] Sherwood.

Rough-grained adjective Having a rough grain or fiber; hence, figuratively, having coarse traits of character; not polished; brisque.

Roughcast transitive verb
1. To form in its first rudiments, without revision, correction, or polish. Dryden.

2. To mold without nicety or elegance; to form with asperities and inequalities.

3. To plaster with a mixture of lime and shells or pebbles; as, to roughcast a building.

Roughcast noun
1. A rude model; the rudimentary, unfinished form of a thing.

2. A kind of plastering made of lime, with a mixture of shells or pebbles, used for covering buildings. Shak.

Roughcaster noun One who roughcasts.

Roughdraw transitive verb To draw or delineate rapidly and by way of a first sketch.

Roughdry transitive verb in laundry work, to dry without smoothing or ironing.

Roughen transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Roughened ; present participle & verbal noun Roughening .] [ From Rough .] To make rough.

Roughen intransitive verb To grow or become rough.