Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Paragram noun [ Greek ... that which one writes beside. See Paragraph .] A pun.

Puns, which he calls paragrams .
Addison.

Paragrammatist noun A punster.

Paragrandine noun [ Italian , from parare to parry + grandine hail.] An instrument to avert the occurrence of hailstorms. See Paragrêle . Knight.

Paragraph noun [ French paragraphe , Late Latin paragraphus , from Greek para`grafos (sc. grammh` ) a line or stroke drawn in the margin, from paragra`fein to write beside; para` beside + gra`fein to write. See Para- , and Graphic , and confer Paraph .]
1. Originally, a marginal mark or note, set in the margin to call attention to something in the text, e. g. , a change of subject; now, the character ¶, commonly used in the text as a reference mark to a footnote, or to indicate the place of a division into sections.

» This character is merely a modification of a capital P (the initial of the word paragraph ), the letter being reversed, and the black part made white and the white part black for the sake of distinctiveness.

2. A distinct part of a discourse or writing; any section or subdivision of a writing or chapter which relates to a particular point, whether consisting of one or many sentences. The division is sometimes noted by the mark ..., but usually, by beginning the first sentence of the paragraph on a new line and at more than the usual distance from the margin.

3. A brief composition complete in one typographical section or paragraph; an item, remark, or quotation comprised in a few lines forming one paragraph; as, a column of news paragraphs ; an editorial paragraph .

Paragraph transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Paragraphed ; present participle & verbal noun Paragraphing .]


1. To divide into paragraphs; to mark with the character ¶.

2. To express in the compass of a paragraph; as, to paragraph an article.

3. To mention in a paragraph or paragraphs

Paragrapher noun A writer of paragraphs; a paragraphist.

Paragraphic, Paragraphical adjective Pertaining to, or consisting of, a paragraph or paragraphs. -- Par`a*graph"ic*al*ly , adverb

Paragraphist noun A paragrapher.

Paragraphistical adjective Of or relating to a paragraphist. [ R.] Beau. & Fl.

Paragrêle noun [ French, from parer to guard + grêle hail.] A lightning conductor erected, as in a vineyard, for drawing off the electricity in the atmosphere in order to prevent hailstorms. [ France] Knight.

Paraguay tea See Mate , the leaf of the Brazilian holly.

Paraguayan adjective Of or pertaining to Paraguay. -- noun A native or inhabitant of Paraguay.

Parail noun See Apparel . [ Obsolete] "In the parail of a pilgrim." Piers Plowman.

Parakeet noun (Zoology) Same as Parrakeet .

Parakite noun [ Para- + kite .] A train or series of kites on one string and flying tandem, used for attaining great heights and for sending up instruments for meteorological observations or a man for military reconnoissance; also, a kite of such a train.

Paralactic adjective [ Prefix para- + lactic .] (Physiol. Chem.) Designating an acid called paralactic acid . See Lactic acid , under Lactic .

Paralbumin noun [ Prefix para- + albumin .] (Physiol. Chem.) A proteidlike body found in the fluid from ovarian cysts and elsewhere. It is generally associated with a substance related to, if not identical with, glycogen.

Paraldehyde noun [ Prefix para- + aldehyde .] (Chemistry) A polymeric modification of aldehyde obtained as a white crystalline substance.

Paraleipsis noun [ New Latin , from Greek ..., from ... to leave on one side, to omit; para` beside + ... to leave.] (Rhet.) A pretended or apparent omission; a figure by which a speaker artfully pretends to pass by what he really mentions; as, for example, if an orator should say, "I do not speak of my adversary's scandalous venality and rapacity, his brutal conduct, his treachery and malice." [ Written also paralepsis , paralepsy , paralipsis .]

Paralepsis noun [ New Latin ] See Paraleipsis .

Paralgesia noun [ New Latin ; para- + Greek 'a`lghsis sense of pain.] (Medicine) Disordered sensibility to pain, including absence of sensibility to pain, excessive sensibility to pain, and abnormal painful results of stimuli. -- Par`al*ge"sic adjective

Paralian noun [ Greek ... near the sea; para` beside + ... the sea.] A dweller by the sea. [ R.]

Paralipomenon noun plural [ Latin , from Greek paraleipome`nwn of things omitted, pass. present participle (neuter genitive plural) from ... to omit.] A title given in the Douay Bible to the Books of Chronicles.

» In the Septuagint these books are called Paraleipome`nwn prw^ton and dey`teron , which is understood, after Jerome's explanation, as meaning that they are supplementary to the Books of Kings W. Smith.

Paralipsis noun [ New Latin ] See Paraleipsis .

Parallactic, Parallactical adjective [ Confer French parallactique .] Of or pertaining to a parallax.

Parallax noun [ Greek ... alternation, the mutual inclination of two lines forming an angle, from ... to change a little, go aside, deviate; para` beside, beyond + ... to change: confer French parallaxe . Confer Parallel .]
1. The apparent displacement, or difference of position, of an object, as seen from two different stations, or points of view.

2. (Astron.) The apparent difference in position of a body (as the sun, or a star) as seen from some point on the earth's surface, and as seen from some other conventional point, as the earth's center or the sun.

Annual parallax , the greatest value of the heliocentric parallax, or the greatest annual apparent change of place of a body as seen from the earth and sun; as, the annual parallax of a fixed star. -- Binocular parallax , the apparent difference in position of an object as seen separately by one eye, and then by the other, the head remaining unmoved. -- Diurnal , or Geocentric , parallax , the parallax of a body with reference to the earth's center. This is the kind of parallax that is generally understood when the term is used without qualification. -- Heliocentric parallax , the parallax of a body with reference to the sun, or the angle subtended at the body by lines drawn from it to the earth and sun; as, the heliocentric parallax of a planet. -- Horizontal parallax , the geocentric parallx of a heavenly body when in the horizon, or the angle subtended at the body by the earth's radius. -- Optical parallax , the apparent displacement in position undergone by an object when viewed by either eye singly. Brande & C. -- Parallax of the cross wires (of an optical instrument), their apparent displacement when the eye changes its position, caused by their not being exactly in the focus of the object glass. -- Stellar parallax , the annual parallax of a fixed star.

Parallel adjective [ French parallèle , Latin parallelus , from Greek ...; para` beside + ... of one another, from ... other, akin to Latin alius . See Allien .]
1. (Geom.) Extended in the same direction, and in all parts equally distant; as, parallel lines; parallel planes.

Revolutions . . . parallel to the equinoctial.
Hakluyt.

» Curved lines or curved planes are said to be parallel when they are in all parts equally distant.

2. Having the same direction or tendency; running side by side; being in accordance (with); tending to the same result; -- used with to and with .

When honor runs parallel with the laws of God and our country, it can not be too much cherished.
Addison.

3. Continuing a resemblance through many particulars; applicable in all essential parts; like; similar; as, a parallel case; a parallel passage. Addison.

Parallel bar . (a) (Steam Eng.) A rod in a parallel motion which is parallel with the working beam . (b) One of a pair of bars raised about five feet above the floor or ground, and parallel to each other, -- used for gymnastic exercises. -- Parallel circles of a sphere , those circles of the sphere whose planes are parallel to each other. -- Parallel columns , or Parallels (Printing) , two or more passages of reading matter printed side by side, for the purpose of emphasizing the similarity or discrepancy between them. -- Parallel forces (Mech.) , forces which act in directions parallel to each other. -- Parallel motion . (a) (Machinery) A jointed system of links, rods, or bars, by which the motion of a reciprocating piece, as a piston rod, may be guided, either approximately or exactly in a straight line . Rankine. (b) (Mus.) The ascending or descending of two or more parts at fixed intervals, as thirds or sixths. -- Parallel rod (Locomotive Eng.) , a metal rod that connects the crank pins of two or more driving wheels; -- called also couping rod , in distinction from the connecting rod . See Illust. of Locomotive , in App. -- Parallel ruler , an instrument for drawing parallel lines, so constructed as to have the successive positions of the ruling edge parallel to each other; also, one consisting of two movable parts, the opposite edges of which are always parallel. - - Parallel sailing (Nautical) , sailing on a parallel of latitude. -- Parallel sphere (Astron. & Geology) , that position of the sphere in which the circles of daily motion are parallel to the horizon, as to an observer at either pole. -- Parallel vise , a vise having jaws so guided as to remain parallel in all positions.

Parallel noun
1. A line which, throughout its whole extent, is equidistant from another line; a parallel line, a parallel plane, etc.

Who made the spider parallels design,
Sure as De Moivre, without rule or line ?
Pope.

2. Direction conformable to that of another line,

Lines that from their parallel decline.
Garth.

3. Conformity continued through many particulars or in all essential points; resemblance; similarity.

Twixt earthly females and the moon
All parallels exactly run.
Swift.

4. A comparison made; elaborate tracing of similarity; as, Johnson's parallel between Dryden and Pope.

5. Anything equal to, or resembling, another in all essential particulars; a counterpart.

None but thyself can be thy parallel .
Pope.

6. (Geology) One of the imaginary circles on the surface of the earth, parallel to the equator, marking the latitude; also, the corresponding line on a globe or map.

7. (Mil.) One of a series of long trenches constructed before a besieged fortress, by the besieging force, as a cover for troops supporting the attacking batteries. They are roughly parallel to the line of outer defenses of the fortress.

8. (Print.) A character consisting of two parallel vertical lines (thus,
Parallel transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Paralleled ; present participle & verbal noun Paralleling .]
1. To place or set so as to be parallel; to place so as to be parallel to, or to conform in direction with, something else.

The needle . . . doth parallel and place itself upon the true meridian.
Sir T. Browne.

2. Fig.: To make to conform to something else in character, motive, aim, or the like.

His life is paralleled
Even with the stroke and line of his great justice.
Shak.

3. To equal; to match; to correspond to. Shak.

4. To produce or adduce as a parallel. [ R.] Locke.

My young remembrance can not parallel
A fellow to it.
Shak.

Parallel intransitive verb To be parallel; to correspond; to be like. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Parallel noun (Electricity) That arrangement of an electrical system in which all positive poles, electrodes, terminals, etc., are joined to one conductor, and all negative poles, etc., to another conductor; -- called also multiple . Opposed to series .

» Parts of a system so arranged are said to be in parallel or in multiple .

Parallel standards (Numismatics) Two or more metals coined without any attempt by the government to regulate their values.

Parallel sulcus (Anat.) A sulcus parallel to, but some distance below, the horizontal limb of the fissure of Sylvius.

Parallel transformer (Electricity) A transformer connected in parallel.

Parallel vise A vise with jaws so guided as to remain parallel.

Parallelable adjective Capable of being paralleled, or equaled. [ R.] Bp. Hall.

Parallelism noun [ Greek ..., from ... to place side by side, or parallel: confer French parallélisme .]


1. The quality or state of being parallel.

2. Resemblance; correspondence; similarity.

A close parallelism of thought and incident.
T. Warton.

3. Similarity of construction or meaning of clauses placed side by side, especially clauses expressing the same sentiment with slight modifications, as is common in Hebrew poetry; e. g. : --

At her feet he bowed, he fell:
Where he bowed, there he fell down dead.
Judg. v. 27.

Parallelistic adjective Of the nature of a parallelism; involving parallelism.

The antithetic or parallelistic form of Hebrew poetry is entirely lost.
Milman.

Parallelize transitive verb To render parallel. [ R.]

Parallelless adjective Matchless. [ R.]

Parallelly adverb In a parallel manner; with parallelism. [ R.] Dr. H. More.

Parallelogram noun [ Greek ...; ... parallel + ... to write: confer French parallélogramme . See Parallel , and -gram .] (Geom.) A right-lined quadrilateral figure, whose opposite sides are parallel, and consequently equal; -- sometimes restricted in popular usage to a rectangle, or quadrilateral figure which is longer than it is broad, and with right angles.

Parallelogram of velocities , forces , accelerations , momenta , etc. (Mech.) , a parallelogram the diagonal of which represents the resultant of two velocities, forces, accelerations, momenta, etc., both in quantity and direction, when the velocities, forces, accelerations, momenta, etc., are represented in quantity and direction by the two adjacent sides of the parallelogram.

Parallelogrammatic adjective Of or pertaining to a parallelogram; parallelogrammic.

Parallelogrammic, Parallelogrammical adjective Having the properties of a parallelogram. [ R.]

Parallelopiped noun [ Greek ... a body with parallel surfaces; ... parallel + ... a plane surface, ... on the ground, or level with it, level, flat; ... on + ... the ground: confer French parallélopipède .] (Geom.) A solid, the faces of which are six parallelograms, the opposite pairs being parallel, and equal to each other; a prism whose base is a parallelogram.

Parallelopipedon noun [ New Latin ] A parallelopiped. Hutton.

Paralogical adjective Containing paralogism; illogical. " Paralogical doubt." Sir T. Browne.

Paralogism noun [ Greek ..., from ... to reason falsely; para` beside + ... to reason, ... discourse, reason: confer French paralogisme .] (Logic) A reasoning which is false in point of form, that is, which is contrary to logical rules or formulæ; a formal fallacy, or pseudo- syllogism, in which the conclusion does not follow from the premises.

Paralogize intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Paralogized ; present participle & verbal noun Paralogizing .] [ Greek ....] To reason falsely; to draw conclusions not warranted by the premises. [ R.]

Paralogy noun [ Greek ...; para` beside, beyond + ... reason.] False reasoning; paralogism.