Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Paraphernalia noun plural [ Late Latin paraphernalia bona , from Latin parapherna , plural, parapherna, Greek ...; para` beside + ... a bride's dowry, from fe`rein to bring. See 1st Bear .]


1. (Law) Something reserved to a wife, over and above her dower, being chiefly apparel and ornaments suited to her degree.

2. Appendages; ornaments; finery; equipments.

Paraphimosis noun [ New Latin , from Greek ...; ... beyond + ... to muzzle.] (Medicine) A condition in which the prepuce, after being retracted behind the glans penis, is constricted there, and can not be brought forward into place again.

Paraphosphoric adjective [ Prefix para- + phosphoric .] (Chemistry) Pyrophosphoric. [ Obsolete]

Paraphragma (-frăg"mȧ) noun ; plural Paraphragmata . [ New Latin , from Greek para` beside + ..., ..., an inclosure.] (Zoology) One of the outer divisions of an endosternite of Crustacea. -- Par`a*phrag"mal adjective

Paraphrase (păr"ȧ*frāz) noun [ Latin paraphrasis , Greek para`frasis , from parafra`zein to say the same thing in other words; para` beside + fra`zein to speak: confer French paraphrase . See Para- , and Phrase .] A restatement of a text, passage, or work, expressing the meaning of the original in another form, generally for the sake of its clearer and fuller exposition; a setting forth the signification of a text in other and ampler terms; a free translation or rendering; -- opposed to metaphrase .

In paraphrase , or translation with latitude, the author's words are not so strictly followed as his sense.
Dryden.

Excellent paraphrases of the Psalms of David.
I. Disraeli.

His sermons a living paraphrase upon his practice.
Sowth.

The Targums are also called the Chaldaic or Aramaic Paraphrases .
Shipley.

Paraphrase transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Paraphrased ; present participle & verbal noun Paraphrasing .] To express, interpret, or translate with latitude; to give the meaning of a passage in other language.

We are put to construe and paraphrase our own words.
Bp. Stillingfleet.

Paraphrase intransitive verb To make a paraphrase.

Paraphraser noun One who paraphrases.

Paraphrasian noun A paraphraser. [ R.]

Paraphrast noun [ Latin paraphrastes , Greek ...: confer French paraphraste .] A paraphraser. T. Warton.

Paraphrastic, Paraphrastical adjective [ Greek ...: confer French paraphrastique .] Paraphrasing; of the nature of paraphrase; explaining, or translating in words more clear and ample than those of the author; not literal; free. -- Par`a*phras"tic*al*ly , adverb

Paraphysis noun ; plural Paraphyses . [ New Latin , from Greek para` beside + ... growth.] (Botany) A minute jointed filament growing among the archegonia and antheridia of mosses, or with the spore cases, etc., of other flowerless plants.

Paraplegia, Paraplegy noun [ New Latin paraplegia , from Greek ... hemiplegia, from ... to strike at the side; para` beside + ... to strike: confer French paraplégie .] (Medicine) Palsy of the lower half of the body on both sides, caused usually by disease of the spinal cord. -- Par`a*pleg"ic adjective

Parapleura noun ; plural Parapleuræ . [ New Latin See Para- , and 2d Pleura .] (Zoology) A chitinous piece between the metasternum and the pleuron of certain insects.

Parapodium noun ; plural Parapodia . [ New Latin , from Greek para` beside + ..., dim. of ... foot.] (Zoology) One of the lateral appendages of an annelid; -- called also foot tubercle .

» They may serve for locomotion, respiration, and sensation, and often contain spines or setæ. When well developed, a dorsal part, or notopodium , and a ventral part, or neuropodium , are distinguished.

Parapophysis noun ; plural Parapophyses . [ New Latin See Para- , and Apophysis .] (Anat.) The ventral transverse, or capitular, process of a vertebra. See Vertebra . -- Par*ap`o*phys"ic*al adjective

Parapterum noun ; plural Paraptera . [ New Latin See Para- , and Pteron .] (Zoology) A special plate situated on the sides of the mesothorax and metathorax of certain insects.

Paraquet, Paraquito noun [ See Paroquet .] (Zoology) See Parrakeet .

Parasang noun [ Latin parasanga , Greek ..., from Old Persian; confer Persian farsang .] A Persian measure of length, which, according to Herodotus and Xenophon, was thirty stadia, or somewhat more than three and a half miles. The measure varied in different times and places, and, as now used, is estimated at from three and a half to four English miles.

Parascenium noun ; plural Parascenia . [ New Latin , from Greek ...; para` beside + ... stage.] (Greek & Rom. Antiq.) One of two apartments adjoining the stage, probably used as robing rooms.

Parasceve noun [ Latin , from Greek ..., lit., preparation.]
1. Among the Jews, the evening before the Sabbath. [ Obsolete] Mark xv. 42 (Douay ver.)

2. A preparation. [ R.] Donne.

Paraschematic adjective [ Greek ... to change from the true form.] Of or pertaining to a change from the right form, as in the formation of a word from another by a change of termination, gender, etc. Max Müller.

Paraselene noun ; plural Paraselenæ . [ New Latin , from Greek para` beside + ... the moon: confer French parasélène .] (Meteor.) A mock moon; an image of the moon which sometimes appears at the point of intersection of two lunar halos. Confer Parhelion .

Parashah noun ; plural - shoth or -shioth . [ Hebrew pārāshāh .] A lesson from the Torah, or Law, from which at least one section is read in the Jewish synagogue on every Sabbath and festival.

Parashoth noun ; plural of Parashah .

Parasita noun plural [ New Latin ] (Zoology) (a) An artificial group formerly made for parasitic insects, as lice, ticks, mites, etc. (b) A division of copepod Crustacea, having a sucking mouth, as the lerneans. They are mostly parasites on fishes. Called also Siphonostomata .

Parasital adjective (Bot. & Zoology) Of or pertaining to parasites; parasitic.

Parasite noun [ French, from Latin parasitus , Greek ..., lit., eating beside, or at the table of, another; para` beside + ... to feed, from ... wheat, grain, food.]


1. One who frequents the tables of the rich, or who lives at another's expense, and earns his welcome by flattery; a hanger-on; a toady; a sycophant.

Thou, with trembling fear,
Or like a fawning parasite , obey'st.
Milton.

Parasites were called such smell-feasts as would seek to be free guests at rich men's tables.
Udall.

2. (Botany) (a) A plant obtaining nourishment immediately from other plants to which it attaches itself, and whose juices it absorbs; -- sometimes, but erroneously, called epiphyte . (b) A plant living on or within an animal, and supported at its expense, as many species of fungi of the genus Torrubia .

3. (Zoology) (a) An animal which lives during the whole or part of its existence on or in the body of some other animal, feeding upon its food, blood, or tissues, as lice, tapeworms, etc. (b) An animal which steals the food of another, as the parasitic jager. (c) An animal which habitually uses the nest of another, as the cowbird and the European cuckoo.

Parasitic, Parasitical adjective [ Latin parasiticus , Greek ...: confer French parasitique .]


1. Of the nature of a parasite; fawning for food or favors; sycophantic. " Parasitic preachers." Milton.

2. (Bot. & Zoology) Of or pertaining to parasites; living on, or deriving nourishment from, some other living animal or plant. See Parasite , 2 & 3.

Parasitic gull , Parasitic jager . (Zoology) See Jager .

-- Par`a*sit"ic*al*ly , adverb -- Par`a*sit"ic*al*ness , noun

Parasiticide noun [ Parasite + Latin caedere to kill.] Anything used to destroy parasites. Quain.

Parasitism noun [ Confer French parasitisme .]


1. The state or behavior of a parasite; the act of a parasite. "Court parasitism ." Milton.

2. (Bot. & Zoology) The state of being parasitic.

Parasol noun [ French, from Spanish or Portuguese parasol , or Italian parasole ; Italian parare to ward off, Spanish & Portuguese parar (L. parare to prepare) + Italian sole sun, Spanish & Portuguese sol (L. sol ). See Parry , Solar .] A kind of small umbrella used by women as a protection from the sun.

Parasol transitive verb To shade as with a parasol. [ R.]

Parasolette noun A small parasol.

Parasphenoid adjective [ Prefix para- + sphenoid .] (Anat.) Near the sphenoid bone; - - applied especially to a bone situated immediately beneath the sphenoid in the base of the skull in many animals. -- noun The parasphenoid bone.

Parastichy noun [ Prefix para- + Greek ... a row.] (Botany) A secondary spiral in phyllotaxy, as one of the evident spirals in a pine cone.

Parasynaxis noun [ Latin , from Greek ..., from ... to assemble illegally or secretly.] (Civil Law) An unlawful meeting.

Parasynthetic adjective [ Greek .... See Para- , and Synthetic .] Formed from a compound word. " Parasynthetic derivatives." Dr. Murray.

Paratactic adjective (Gram.) Of pertaining to, or characterized by, parataxis.

Parataxis noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... a placing beside, from ... to place beside.] (Gram.) The mere ranging of propositions one after another, without indicating their connection or interdependence; -- opposed to syntax . Brande & C.

Parathesis noun ; plural Paratheses . [ New Latin , from Greek ... a putting beside, from ... to put beside.]


1. (Gram.) The placing of two or more nouns in the same case; apposition.

2. (Rhet.) A parenthetical notice, usually of matter to be afterward expanded. Smart.

3. (Print.) The matter contained within brackets.

4. (Eccl.) A commendatory prayer. Shipley.

Parathetic adjective Of or pertaining to parathesis.

Paratonnerre noun [ French, from parer to parry + tonnerre thunderbolt.] A conductor of lightning; a lightning rod.

Paraunter adverb [ Par + aunter .] Peradventure. See Paraventure . [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Parauque noun (Zoology) A bird ( Nyctidromus albicollis ) ranging from Texas to South America. It is allied to the night hawk and goatsucker.

Paravail adjective [ Old French par aval below; par through (L. per ) + aval down; a- (L. ad ) + val (L. vallis ) a valley. Confer Paramount .] (Eng. Law) At the bottom; lowest. Cowell.

» In feudal law, the tenant paravail is the lowest tenant of the fee, or he who is immediate tenant to one who holds over of another. Wharton.

Paravant, Paravant adverb [ Old French par avant . See Par , and lst Avaunt .]


1. In front; publicly. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

2. Beforehand; first. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Paraventure adverb [ Par + aventure .] Peradventure; perchance. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Paraxanthin noun [ Prefix Para- + xanthin .] (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline substance closely related to xanthin, present in small quantity in urine.

Paraxial adjective [ Prefix para- + axial .] (Anat.) On either side of the axis of the skeleton.