Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Propionic adjective [ Pro to- + Greek pi`wn fat.] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, an organic acid which is produced in the distillation of wood, in the fermentation of various organic substances, as glycerin, calcium lactate, etc., and is obtained as a colorless liquid having a sharp, pungent odor. Propionic acid is so called because it is the first or lowest member of the fatty acid series whose salts have a fatty feel.

Propionyl noun (Chemistry) The hypothetical radical C 3 H 5 O, regarded as the essential residue of propionic acid and certain related compounds.

Propithecus noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... before, for + ... ape.] (Zoology) A genus including the long-tailed, or diadem, indris. See Indris .

Propitiable adjective [ Latin propitiabilis .] Capable of being propitiated.

Propitiate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Propitiated ; present participle & verbal noun Propitiating .] [ Latin propitiatus , past participle of propitiare to propitiate, from propitius favorable. See Propitious .] To appease to render favorable; to make propitious; to conciliate.

Let fierce Achilles, dreadful in his rage,
The god propitiate , and the pest assuage.
Pope.

Propitiate intransitive verb To make propitiation; to atone.

Propitiation noun [ Latin propitiatio : confer French propitiation .]


1. The act of appeasing the wrath and conciliating the favor of an offended person; the act of making propitious.

2. (Theol.) That which propitiates; atonement or atoning sacrifice; specifically, the influence or effects of the death of Christ in appeasing the divine justice, and conciliating the divine favor.

He [ Jesus Christ] is the propitiation for our sins.
1 John ii. 2.

Propitiator noun [ Latin ] One who propitiates or appeases.

Propitiatorily adverb By way of propitiation.

Propitiatory adjective [ Latin propitiatorius : confer French propitiatoire .] Having the power to make propitious; pertaining to, or employed in, propitiation; expiatory; as, a propitiatory sacrifice. Sharp.

Propitiatory noun [ Latin propitiatorium .] (Jewish Antiq.) The mercy seat; -- so called because a symbol of the propitiated Jehovah. Bp. Pearson.

Propitious adjective [ Latin propitius , perhaps originally a term of augury meaning, flying forward ( pro ) or well; confer Sanskrit pat to fly, English petition , feather .]


1. Convenient; auspicious; favorable; kind; as, a propitious season; a propitious breeze.

2. Hence, kind; gracious; merciful; helpful; - - said of a person or a divinity. Milton.

And now t' assuage the force of this new flame,
And make thee [ Love] more propitious in my need.
Spenser.

Syn. -- Auspicious; favorable; kind. -- Propitious , Auspicious . Auspicious (from the ancient idea of auspices , or omens) denotes "indicative of success," or "favored by incidental occurrences;" as, an auspicious opening; an auspicious event. Propitious denotes that which efficaciously protect us in some undertaking, speeds our exertions, and decides our success; as, propitious gales; propitious influences.

-- Pro*pi"tious*ly , adverb -- Pro*pi"tious*ness , noun

Proplasm noun [ Latin proplasma , Greek ...; ... before + ... a thing formed, from ... to mold.] A mold; a matrix. [ R.] Woodward.

Proplastic adjective Forming a mold.

Proplastics noun The art of making molds for castings. [ R.]

Propleg noun [ So called because it props up or supports the body.] (Zoology) Same as Proleg .

Propodial adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the propodialia, or the parts of the limbs to which they belong.

Propodiale noun ; plural Propodialia . . [ New Latin , from Greek ... before + ..., dim. of ..., ..., foot.] (Anat.) The bone of either the upper arm or the thing, the propodialia being the humerus and femur.

Propodite noun [ Prefix pro- + Greek ..., ..., foot.] (Zoology) The sixth joint of a typical leg of a crustacean; usually, the penultimate joint.

Propodium noun ; plural Propodia . [ New Latin See Propodiale .] (Zoology) (a) The anterior portion of the foot of a mollusk. (b) The segment which forms the posterior part of the thorax of a hymenopterous insect. [ Written also propodeum .]

Propolis noun [ Latin , from Greek ...; ... before + ... city.] Same as Bee glue , under Bee .

Propone transitive verb [ Latin proponere to propose. See Propound .] To propose; to bring forward.

Proponent adjective [ Latin proponens , present participle] Making proposals; proposing.

Proponent noun


1. One who makes a proposal, or lays down a proposition. Dryden.

2. (Law) The propounder of a thing.

Proportion noun [ French, from Latin proportio ; pro before + portio part or share. See Portion .]


1. The relation or adaptation of one portion to another, or to the whole, as respect magnitude, quantity, or degree; comparative relation; ratio; as, the proportion of the parts of a building, or of the body.

The image of Christ, made after his own proportion .
Ridley.

Formed in the best proportions of her sex.
Sir W. Scott.

Documents are authentic and facts are true precisely in proportion to the support which they afford to his theory.
Macaulay.

2. Harmonic relation between parts, or between different things of the same kind; symmetrical arrangement or adjustment; symmetry; as, to be out of proportion . "Let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith." Rom. xii. 6.

3. The portion one receives when a whole is distributed by a rule or principle; equal or proper share; lot.

Let the women . . . do the same things in their proportions and capacities.
Jer. Taylor.

4. A part considered comparatively; a share.

5. (Math.) (a) The equality or similarity of ratios, especially of geometrical ratios; or a relation among quantities such that the quotient of the first divided by the second is equal to that of the third divided by the fourth; -- called also geometrical proportion , in distinction from arithmetical proportion , or that in which the difference of the first and second is equal to the difference of the third and fourth.

» Proportion in the mathematical sense differs from ratio . Ratio is the relation of two quantities of the same kind, as the ratio of 5 to 10, or the ratio of 8 to 16. Proportion is the sameness or likeness of two such relations. Thus, 5 to 10 as 8 to 16; that is, 5 bears the same relation to 10 as 8 does to 16. Hence, such numbers are said to be in proportion . Proportion is expressed by symbols thus:

a:b::c:d , or a:b = c:d , or a/b = c/d .

(b) The rule of three, in arithmetic, in which the three given terms, together with the one sought, are proportional.

Continued proportion , Inverse proportion , etc. See under Continued , Inverse , etc. -- Harmonical, or Musical , proportion , a relation of three or four quantities, such that the first is to the last as the difference between the first two is to the difference between the last two; thus, 2, 3, 6, are in harmonical proportion; for 2 is to 6 as 1 to 3. Thus, 24, 16, 12, 9, are harmonical, for 24:9::8:3 . -- In proportion , according as; to the degree that. " In proportion as they are metaphysically true, they are morally and politically false." Burke.

Proportion transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Proportioned ; present participle & verbal noun Proportioning .] [ Confer French proportionner . Confer Proportionate , v. ]
1. To adjust in a suitable proportion, as one thing or one part to another; as, to proportion the size of a building to its height; to proportion our expenditures to our income.

In the loss of an object we do not proportion our grief to the real value . . . but to the value our fancies set upon it.
Addison.

2. To form with symmetry or suitableness, as the parts of the body.

Nature had proportioned her without any fault.
Sir P. Sidney.

3. To divide into equal or just shares; to apportion.

Proportionable adjective Capable of being proportioned, or made proportional; also, proportional; proportionate. -- Pro*por"tion*a*ble*ness , noun

But eloquence may exist without a proportionable degree of wisdom.
Burke.

Proportionable , which is no longer much favored, was of our [ i. e., English writers'] own coining.
Fitzed. Hall.

Proportionably adverb Proportionally. Locke.

Proportional adjective [ Latin proportionalis : confer French proportionnel .]
1. Having a due proportion, or comparative relation; being in suitable proportion or degree; as, the parts of an edifice are proportional . Milton.

2. Relating to, or securing, proportion. Hutton.

3. (Math.) Constituting a proportion; having the same, or a constant, ratio; as, proportional quantities; momentum is proportional to quantity of matter.

Proportional logarithms , logistic logarithms. See under Logistic . -- Proportional scale , a scale on which are marked parts proportional to the logarithms of the natural numbers; a logarithmic scale. -- Proportional scales, compasses, dividers , etc. (Draughting) , instruments used in making copies of drawings, or drawings of objects, on an enlarged or reduced scale.

Proportional noun
1. (Math.) Any number or quantity in a proportion; as, a mean proportional .

2. (Chemistry) The combining weight or equivalent of an element. [ Obsolete]

Proportionality noun [ Confer French proportionnalité .] The state of being in proportion. Coleridge.

Proportionally adverb In proportion; in due degree; adapted relatively; as, all parts of the building are proportionally large. Sir I. Newton.

Proportionate adjective [ Latin proportionatus . See Proportion .] Adjusted to something else according to a proportion; proportional. Longfellow.

What is proportionate to his transgression.
Locke.

Proportionate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Proportionated ; present participle & verbal noun Proportionating .] [ Confer Proportion , v. ] To make proportional; to adjust according to a settled rate, or to due comparative relation; to proportion; as, to proportionate punishment to crimes.

Proportionately adverb In a proportionate manner; with due proportion; proportionally.

Proportionateness noun The quality or state of being proportionate. Sir M. Hale.

Proportionless adjective Without proportion; unsymmetrical.

Proportionment noun The act or process of dividing out proportionally.

Proposal noun [ From Propose .]
1. That which is proposed, or propounded for consideration or acceptance; a scheme or design; terms or conditions proposed; offer; as, to make proposals for a treaty of peace; to offer proposals for erecting a building; to make proposals of marriage. "To put forth proposals for a book." Macaulay.

2. (Law) The offer by a party of what he has in view as to an intended business transaction, which, with acceptance, constitutes a contract.

Syn. -- Proffer; tender; overture. See Proposition .

Propose transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Proposed ; present participle & verbal noun Proposing .] [ French proposer ; prefix pro- (L. pro for, forward) + poser to place. See Pose , v. ]
1. To set forth. [ Obsolete]

That being proposed brimfull of wine, one scarce could lift it up.
Chapman.

2. To offer for consideration, discussion, acceptance, or adoption; as, to propose terms of peace; to propose a question for discussion; to propose an alliance; to propose a person for office.

3. To set before one's self or others as a purpose formed; hence, to purpose; to intend.

I propose to relate, in several volumes, the history of the people of New England.
Palfrey.

To propose to one's self , to intend; to design.

Propose intransitive verb
1. To speak; to converse. [ Obsolete]

There shalt thou find my cousin Beatrice,
Proposing with the prince and Claudio.
Shak.

2. To form or declare a purpose or intention; to lay a scheme; to design; as, man proposes , but God disposes.

3. To offer one's self in marriage.

Propose noun [ French propos , Latin propositum . See Propound , Purpose , noun ] Talk; discourse. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Proposer noun
1. One who proposes or offers anything for consideration or adoption.

2. A speaker; an orator. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Proposition noun [ Latin propositio : confer French proposition . See Propound .]
1. The act of setting or placing before; the act of offering. "Oblations for the altar of proposition ." Jer. Taylor.

2. That which is proposed; that which is offered, as for consideration, acceptance, or adoption; a proposal; as, the enemy made propositions of peace; his proposition was not accepted.

3. A statement of religious doctrine; an article of faith; creed; as, the propositions of Wyclif and Huss.

Some persons . . . change their propositions according as their temporal necessities or advantages do turn.
Jer. Taylor.

4. (Gram. & Logic) A complete sentence, or part of a sentence consisting of a subject and predicate united by a copula; a thought expressed or propounded in language; a from of speech in which a predicate is affirmed or denied of a subject; as, snow is white .

5. (Math.) A statement in terms of a truth to be demonstrated, or of an operation to be performed.

» It is called a theorem when it is something to be proved, and a problem when it is something to be done.

6. (Rhet.) That which is offered or affirmed as the subject of the discourse; anything stated or affirmed for discussion or illustration.

7. (Poetry) The part of a poem in which the author states the subject or matter of it.

Leaves of proposition (Jewish Antiq.) , the showbread. Wyclif (Luke vi. 4).

Syn. -- Proposal; offer; statement; declaration. -- Proposition , Proposal . These words are both from the Latin verb proponere , to set forth, and as here compared they mark different forms or stages of a negotiation. A proposition is something presented for discussion or consideration; as, propositions of peace. A proposal is some definite thing offered by one party to be accepted or rejected by the other. If the proposition is favorably received, it is usually followed by proposals which complete the arrangement.

Propositional adjective Pertaining to, or in the nature of, a proposition; considered as a proposition; as, a propositional sense. I. Watts.

Propound transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Propounded ; present participle & verbal noun Propounding .] [ From earlier propone , Latin proponere , propositum , to set forth, propose, propound; pro for, before + ponere to put. See Position , and confer Provost .]
1. To offer for consideration; to exhibit; to propose; as, to propound a question; to propound an argument. Shak.

And darest thou to the Son of God propound
To worship thee, accursed?
Milton.

It is strange folly to set ourselves no mark, to propound no end, in the hearing of the gospel.
Coleridge.

2. (Eccl.) To propose or name as a candidate for admission to communion with a church.

Propounder noun One who propounds, proposes, or offers for consideration. Chillingworth.

Propretor noun [ Latin propraetor ; pro for, before + praetor a pretor.] (Rom. Antiq.) A magistrate who, having been pretor at home, was appointed to the government of a province. [ Written also proprætor .]

Proprietary noun ; plural Proprietaries . [ Latin proprietarius : confer French propriétaire . See Propriety , and confer Proprietor .]
1. A proprietor or owner; one who has exclusive title to a thing; one who possesses, or holds the title to, a thing in his own right. Fuller.

2. A body proprietors, taken collectively.

3. (Eccl.) A monk who had reserved goods and effects to himself, notwithstanding his renunciation of all at the time of profession.

Proprietary adjective [ Latin proprietarius .] Belonging, or pertaining, to a proprietor; considered as property; owned; as, proprietary medicine.

Proprietary articles , manufactured articles which some person or persons have exclusive right to make and sell. U. S. Statutes.