Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Prononcé adjective [ French See Pronounce .] Strongly marked; decided, as in manners, etc.

Pronotary noun See Prothonotary .

Pronotum noun ; plural Pronota . [ New Latin See Pro- , and Notum .] (Zoology) The dorsal plate of the prothorax in insects. See Illust. of Coleoptera .

Pronoun noun [ Prefix pro- + noun : confer French pronom , Latin pronomen . See Noun .] (Gram.) A word used instead of a noun or name, to avoid the repetition of it. The personal pronouns in English are I , thou or you , he , she , it , we , ye , and they .

Pronounce transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Pronounced ; present participle & verbal noun Pronounging .] [ French prononcer , Latin pronunciare ; pro before, forth + nunciare , nuntiare , to announce. See Announce .]


1. To utter articulately; to speak out or distinctly; to utter, as words or syllables; to speak with the proper sound and accent as, adults rarely learn to pronounce a foreign language correctly.

2. To utter officially or solemnly; to deliver, as a decree or sentence; as, to pronounce sentence of death.

Sternly he pronounced
The rigid interdiction.
Milton.

3. To speak or utter rhetorically; to deliver; to recite; as, to pronounce an oration.

Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you.
Shak.

4. To declare or affirm; as, he pronounced the book to be a libel; he pronounced the act to be a fraud.

The God who hallowed thee and blessed,
Pronouncing thee all good.
Keble.

Syn. -- To deliver; utter; speak. See Deliver .

Pronounce intransitive verb


1. To give a pronunciation; to articulate; as, to pronounce faultlessly. Earle.

2. To make declaration; to utter on opinion; to speak with confidence. [ R.] Dr. H. More.

Pronounce noun Pronouncement; declaration; pronunciation. [ Obsolete] Milton.

Pronounceable adjective [ Confer Latin pronunciabilis declarative.] Capable of being pronounced.

Pronounced adjective [ French prononcé .] Strongly marked; unequivocal; decided. [ A Gallicism]

[ His] views became every day more pronounced .
Thackeray.

Pronouncement noun The act of pronouncing; a declaration; a formal announcement.

Pronouncer noun One who pronounces, utters, or declares; also, a pronouncing book.

Pronouncing adjective Pertaining to, or indicating, pronunciation; as, a pronouncing dictionary.

Pronubial adjective [ Latin pronuba bridesmaid; pro before + nubere to marry.] Presiding over marriage. [ R.]

Pronucleus noun ; plural Pronuclei (-ī). [ New Latin See Pro- , and Nucleus .] (Biol.) One of the two bodies or nuclei (called male and female pronuclei ) which unite to form the first segmentation nucleus of an impregnated ovum.

» In the maturing of the ovum preparatory to impregnation, a part of the germinal vesicle (see Polar body , under Polar ) becomes converted into a number of small vesicles, which aggregate themselves into a single clear nucleus. which travels towards the center of the egg and is called the female pronucleus . In impregnation, the spermatozoön which enters the egg soon loses its tail, while the head forms a nucleus, called the male pronucleus , which gradually travels towards the female pronucleus and eventually fuses with it, forming the first segmentation nucleus.

Pronuncial adjective Of or pertaining to pronunciation; pronunciative.

Pronunciamento noun A proclamation or manifesto; a formal announcement or declaration.

Pronunciamiento noun [ Spanish See Pronounce .] See Pronunciamento .

Pronunciation noun [ French pronunciation , Latin pronunciatio . See Pronounce .]


1. The act of uttering with articulation; the act of giving the proper sound and accent; utterance; as, the pronunciation of syllables of words; distinct or indistinct pronunciation .

2. The mode of uttering words or sentences.

3. (Rhet.) The art of manner of uttering a discourse publicly with propriety and gracefulness; -- now called delivery . J. Q. Adams.

Pronunciative adjective [ Latin pronunciativus .]


1. Of or pertaining to pronunciation.

2. Uttering confidently; dogmatical. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Pronunciator noun [ Latin , a reciter.] One who pronounces; a pronouncer.

Pronunciatory adjective Of or pertaining to pronunciation; that pronounces.

Proof noun [ Old French prove , proeve , French preuve , from Latin proba , from probare to prove. See Prove .]


1. Any effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial.

For whatsoever mother wit or art
Could work, he put in proof .
Spenser.

You shall have many proofs to show your skill.
Ford.

Formerly, a very rude mode of ascertaining the strength of spirits was practiced, called the proof .
Ure.

2. That degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments that induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration.

I'll have some proof .
Shak.

It is no proof of a man's understanding to be able to confirm whatever he pleases.
Emerson.

» Properly speaking, proof is the effect or result of evidence, evidence is the medium of proof. Confer Demonstration , 1.

3. The quality or state of having been proved or tried; firmness or hardness that resists impression, or does not yield to force; impenetrability of physical bodies.

4. Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken.

5. (Print.) A trial impression, as from type, taken for correction or examination; -- called also proof sheet .

6. (Math.) A process for testing the accuracy of an operation performed. Confer Prove , transitive verb , 5.

7. Armor of excellent or tried quality, and deemed impenetrable; properly, armor of proof . [ Obsolete] Shak.

Artist's proof , a very early proof impression of an engraving, or the like; -- often distinguished by the artist's signature. -- Proof reader , one who reads, and marks correction in, proofs. See def. 5, above.

Syn. -- Testimony; evidence; reason; argument; trial; demonstration. See Testimony .

Proof adjective


1. Used in proving or testing; as, a proof load, or proof charge.

2. Firm or successful in resisting; as, proof against harm; water proof ; bomb proof .

I . . . have found thee
Proof against all temptation.
Milton.

This was a good, stout proof article of faith.
Burke.

3. Being of a certain standard as to strength; -- said of alcoholic liquors.

Proof charge (Firearms) , a charge of powder and ball, greater than the service charge, fired in an arm, as a gun or cannon, to test its strength. -- Proof impression . See under Impression . -- Proof load (Engineering) , the greatest load than can be applied to a piece, as a beam, column, etc., without straining the piece beyond the elastic limit. -- Proof sheet . See Proof , noun , 5. - - Proof spirit (Chemistry) , a strong distilled liquor, or mixture of alcohol and water, containing not less than a standard amount of alcohol. In the United States "proof spirit is defined by law to be that mixture of alcohol and water which contains one half of its volume of alcohol, the alcohol when at a temperature of 60° Fahrenheit being of specific gravity 0.7939 referred to water at its maximum density as unity. Proof spirit has at 60° Fahrenheit a specific gravity of 0.93353, 100 parts by volume of the same consisting of 50 parts of absolute alcohol and 53.71 parts of water," the apparent excess of water being due to contraction of the liquids on mixture. In England proof spirit is defined by Act 58, George III., to be such as shall at a temperature of 51° Fahrenheit weigh exactly the ½x13; part of an equal measure of distilled water. This contains 49.3 per cent by weight, or 57.09 by volume, of alcohol. Stronger spirits, as those of about 60, 70, and 80 per cent of alcohol, are sometimes called second , third , and fourth proof spirits respectively. -- Proof staff , a straight-edge used by millers to test the flatness of a stone. -- Proof stick (Sugar Manuf.) , a rod in the side of a vacuum pan, for testing the consistency of the sirup. -- Proof text , a passage of Scripture used to prove a doctrine.

Proof-arm transitive verb To arm with proof armor; to arm securely; as, to proof-arm herself. [ R.] Beau. & Fl.

Proof-proof adjective Proof against proofs; obstinate in the wrong. "That might have shown to any one who was not proof-proof ." Whateley.

Proofless adjective Wanting sufficient evidence to induce belief; not proved. Boyle. -- Proof"less*ly , adverb

Prop noun A shell, used as a die. See Props .

Prop transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Propped ; present participle & verbal noun Propping .] [ Akin to LG. & Dutch proppen to cram, stuff, thrust into, stop, German pfropfen , Danish proppe , Swedish proppa ; of uncertain origin, confer German pfropfen to graft, from Latin propago set, layer of a plant, slip, shoot. Confer 3d. Prop , Propagate .] To support, or prevent from falling, by placing something under or against; as, to prop up a fence or an old building; (Fig.) to sustain; to maintain; as, to prop a declining state. Shak.

Till the bright mountains prop the incumbent sky.
Pope.

For being not propp'd by ancestry.
Shak.

I prop myself upon those few supports that are left me.
Pope.

Prop noun [ Akin to LG., D., & Danish prop stopple, stopper, cork, Swedish propp , German pfropf . See Prop , v. ] That which sustains an incumbent weight; that on which anything rests or leans for support; a support; a stay; as, a prop for a building. "Two props of virtue." Shak.

Propagable adjective [ See Propagate .]


1. Capable of being propagated, or of being continued or multiplied by natural generation or production.

2. Capable of being spread or extended by any means; -- said of tenets, doctrines, or principles.

Propaganda noun [ Abbrev. from Latin de propaganda fide : confer French propagande . See Propagate .]


1. (R. C. Ch.) (a) A congregation of cardinals, established in 1622, charged with the management of missions. (b) The college of the Propaganda, instituted by Urban VIII. (1623-1644) to educate priests for missions in all parts of the world.

2. Hence, any organization or plan for spreading a particular doctrine or a system of principles.

Propagandism noun [ Confer French propagandisme .] The art or practice of propagating tenets or principles; zeal in propagating one's opinions.

Propagandist noun [ Confer French propagandiste .] A person who devotes himself to the spread of any system of principles. "Political propagandists ." Walsh.

Propagate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Propagated ; present participle & verbal noun Propagating .] [ Latin propagatus , past participle of propagare to propagate, akin to propages , propago , a layer of a plant, slip, shoot. See Pro- , and confer Pact , Prop , Prune , transitive verb ]


1. To cause to continue or multiply by generation, or successive production; -- applied to animals and plants; as, to propagate a breed of horses or sheep; to propagate a species of fruit tree.

2. To cause to spread to extend; to impel or continue forward in space; as, to propagate sound or light.

3. To spread from person to person; to extend the knowledge of; to originate and spread; to carry from place to place; to disseminate; as, to propagate a story or report; to propagate the Christian religion.

The infection was propagated insensibly.
De Foe.

4. To multiply; to increase. [ Obsolete]

Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breast,
Which thou wilt propagate .
Shak.

5. To generate; to produce.

Motion propagated motion, and life threw off life.
De Quincey.

Syn. -- To multiply; continue; increase; spread; diffuse; disseminate; promote.

Propagate intransitive verb To have young or issue; to be produced or multiplied by generation, or by new shoots or plants; as, rabbits propagate rapidly.

No need that thou
Should'st propagate , already infinite.
Milton.

Propagation noun [ Latin propagatio : confer French propagation .]


1. The act of propagating; continuance or multiplication of the kind by generation or successive production; as, the propagation of animals or plants.

There is not in nature any spontaneous generation, but all come by propagation .
Ray.

2. The spreading abroad, or extension, of anything; diffusion; dissemination; as, the propagation of sound; the propagation of the gospel. Bacon.

Propagative adjective Producing by propagation, or by a process of growth.

Propagator noun [ Latin : confer French propagateur .] One who propagates; one who continues or multiplies.

Propagulum noun ; plural Propagula . [ New Latin See Propagate .] (Botany) A runner terminated by a germinating bud.

Propane noun [ Propy l + meth ane .] (Chemistry) A heavy gaseous hydrocarbon, C 3 H 8 , of the paraffin series, occurring naturally dissolved in crude petroleum, and also made artificially; -- called also propyl hydride .

Propargyl noun [ Prop inyl + Greek ... silver + -yl . So called because one hydrogen atom may be replaced by silver.] (Chemistry) Same as Propinyl .

Proparoxytone noun [ Greek .... See Pro- , and Paroxytone .] (Gr. Gram.) A word which has the acute accent on the antepenult.

Proped noun [ Prefix pro- + Latin pes , pedis , foot.] (Zoology) Same as Proleg .

Propel transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Propelled ; present participle & verbal noun Propelling .] [ Latin propellere , propulsum ; pro forward + pellere to drive. See Pulse a beating.] To drive forward; to urge or press onward by force; to move, or cause to move; as, the wind or steam propels ships; balls are propelled by gunpowder.

Propeller noun


1. One who, or that which, propels.

2. A contrivance for propelling a steam vessel, usually consisting of a screw placed in the stern under water, and made to revolve by an engine; a propeller wheel.

3. A steamboat thus propelled; a screw steamer.

Propeller wheel , the screw, usually having two or more blades, used in propelling a vessel.

Propend intransitive verb [ Latin propendere , propensum ; pro forward, forth + pendere to hang. See Pendent .] To lean toward a thing; to be favorably inclined or disposed; to incline; to tend. [ R.] Shak.

We shall propend to it, as a stone falleth down.
Barrow.

Propædeutic, Propædeutical adjective [ Greek ... to teach beforehand; ... before + ... to bring up a child, to educate, teach, from ..., ..., a child.] Of, pertaining to, or conveying, preliminary instruction; introductory to any art or science; instructing beforehand.

Propædeutics noun The preliminary learning connected with any art or science; preparatory instruction.

Proöstracum noun ; plural Proöstraca . [ New Latin , from Greek ... before + ... shell of a testacean.] (Zoology) The anterior prolongation of the guard of the phragmocone of belemnites and allied fossil cephalopods, whether horny or calcareous. See Illust. of Phragmocone .

Proötic adjective [ Prefix pro- + Greek ..., ..., an ear.] (Anat.) In front of the auditory capsule; -- applied especially to a bone, or center of ossification, in the periotic capsule. -- noun A proötic bone.