Webster's Dictionary, 1913
. [ See Gin
] Began; commenced.
was formerly used with the infinitive to form compound imperfects, as did
is now employed. Gan
regularly denotes the singular; the plural is usually denoted by gunne
This man gan fall ( i.e. , fell) in great suspicion. Chaucer.
The little coines to their play gunne hie ( i. e. , hied). Chaucer.
Later writers use gan
both for singular and plural.
Yet at her speech their rages gan relent. Spenser.
Ganancial adjective [ Spanish , pertaining to gain, held in common, from ganancia gain.] (Law) Designating, pertaining to, or held under, the Spanish system of law (called ganancial system ) which controls the title and disposition of the property acquired during marriage by the husband or wife.
Ganch transitive verb
[ Confer French ganche
, also Spanish & Portuguese gancho
hook, Italian gancio
.] To drop from a high place upon sharp stakes or hooks, as the Turks dropped malefactors, by way of punishment.
Ganching , which is to let fall from on high upon hooks, and there to hang until they die. Sandys.
[ Anglo-Saxon gandra
, akin to Prov. German gander
, and English goose
. See Goose
.] The male of any species of goose.
Gane intransitive verb
[ See Yawn
.] To yawn; to gape.
[ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Ganesa noun (Hind. Myth.) The Hindoo god of wisdom or prudence. » He is represented as a short, fat, red-colored man, with a large belly and the head of an elephant. Balfour.
Gang intransitive verb
[ Anglo-Saxon gangan
, akin to Old Saxon & Old High German gangan
, Icelandic ganga
, Goth. gaggan
; confer Lithuanian ...engti
to walk, Sanskrit ja...gha
leg. √48. Confer Go
.] To go; to walk.
» Obsolete in English literature, but still used in the North of England, and also in Scotland.
[ Icelandic gangr
a going, gang, akin to Anglo-Saxon , D., G., & Danish gang
a going, Goth. gaggs
street, way. See Gang
, intransitive verb
] 1. A going; a course.
[ Obsolete] 2. A number going in company; hence, a company, or a number of persons associated for a particular purpose; a group of laborers under one foreman; a squad; as, a gang of sailors; a chain gang ; a gang of thieves. 3. A combination of similar implements arranged so as, by acting together, to save time or labor; a set; as, a gang of saws, or of plows. 4. (Nautical) A set; all required for an outfit; as, a new gang of stays. 5.
[ Confer Gangue
.] (Mining) The mineral substance which incloses a vein; a matrix; a gangue. Gang board
, or Gang plank
. (Nautical) (a) A board or plank, with cleats for steps, forming a bridge by which to enter or leave a vessel. (b) A plank within or without the bulwarks of a vessel's waist, for the sentinel to walk on.
-- Gang cask
, a small cask in which to bring water aboard ships or in which it is kept on deck.
-- Gang cultivator
, Gang plow
, a cultivator or plow in which several shares are attached to one frame, so as to make two or more furrows at the same time.
-- Gang days
, Rogation days; the time of perambulating parishes. See Gang week (below).
-- Gang drill
, a drilling machine having a number of drills driven from a common shaft.
-- Gang master
, a master or employer of a gang of workmen.
-- Gang plank
. See Gang board (above).
-- Gang plow
. See Gang cultivator (above).
-- Gang press
, a press for operating upon a pile or row of objects separated by intervening plates.
-- Gang saw
, a saw fitted to be one of a combination or gang of saws hung together in a frame or sash, and set at fixed distances apart.
-- Gang tide
. See Gang week (below).
-- Gang tooth
, a projecting tooth.
[ Obsolete] Halliwell.
-- Gang week
, Rogation week, when formerly processions were made to survey the bounds of parishes. Halliwell.
-- Live gang
, or Round gang
, the Western and the Eastern names, respectively, for a gang of saws for cutting the round log into boards at one operation. Knight.
-- Slabbing gang
, an arrangement of saws which cuts slabs from two sides of a log, leaving the middle part as a thick beam.
Gang-flower noun (Botany) The common English milkwort ( Polygala vulgaris ), so called from blossoming in gang week. Dr. Prior.
Gange transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Ganged
; present participle & verbal noun Ganging
.] [ Of uncertain origin.] 1. To protect (the part of a line next a fishhook, or the hook itself) by winding it with wire. 2. To attach (a fishhook) to a line or snell, as by knotting the line around the shank of the hook.
Ganger noun One who oversees a gang of workmen. [ R.] Mayhew.
Gangetic adjective Pertaining to, or inhabiting, the Ganges; as, the Gangetic shark.
[ Etymol. uncertain.] A short line attached to a trawl. See Trawl , noun
Gangliac, Ganglial adjective (Anat.) Relating to a ganglion; ganglionic.
Gangliate, Gangliated adjective (Anat.) Furnished with ganglia; as, the gangliated cords of the sympathetic nervous system.
Gangliform, Ganglioform adjective [ Ganglion + -form .] (Anat.) Having the form of a ganglion.
, English Ganglions
. [ Latin ganglion
a sort of swelling or excrescence, a tumor under the skin, Greek ...: confer French ganglion
.] 1. (Anat.) (a) A mass or knot of nervous matter, including nerve cells, usually forming an enlargement in the course of a nerve. (b) A node, or gland in the lymphatic system; as, a lymphatic ganglion . 2. (Medicine) A globular, hard, indolent tumor, situated somewhere on a tendon, and commonly formed by the effusion of a viscid fluid into it; -- called also weeping sinew . Ganglion cell
, a nerve cell. See Illust. under Bipolar .
Ganglionary adjective [ Confer French ganglionnarie .] (Anat.) Ganglionic.
Ganglionic adjective [ Confer French ganglionique .] (Anat.) Pertaining to, containing, or consisting of, ganglia or ganglion cells; as, a ganglionic artery; the ganglionic columns of the spinal cord.
[ Confer Gang
, intransitive verb
] Wandering; vagrant.
[ Scot.] Sir W. Scott.
Gangrenate transitive verb To gangrene. [ Obsolete]
Gangrene noun [ French gangrène , Latin gangraena , from Greek ..., from ... to gnaw, eat; confer Sanskrit gras , gar , to devour, and English voracious , also canker , noun , in sense 3.] (Medicine) A term formerly restricted to mortification of the soft tissues which has not advanced so far as to produce complete loss of vitality; but now applied to mortification of the soft parts in any stage.
Gangrene transitive verb & i.
[ imperfect & past participle Gangrened
; present participle & verbal noun Gangrening
.] [ Confer French gangréner
.] To produce gangrene in; to be affected with gangrene.
Gangrenescent adjective Tending to mortification or gangrene.
Gangrenous adjective [ Confer French gangréneux .] Affected by, or produced by, gangrene; of the nature of gangrene.
[ French gangue
, from German gang
a metallic vein, a passage. See Gang
] (Mining) The mineral or earthy substance associated with metallic ore.
[ See Gang
, intransitive verb
] 1. A passage or way into or out of any inclosed place; esp., a temporary way of access formed of planks. 2. In the English House of Commons, a narrow aisle across the house, below which sit those who do not vote steadly either with the government or with the opposition. 3. (Nautical) The opening through the bulwarks of a vessel by which persons enter or leave it. 4. (Nautical) That part of the spar deck of a vessel on each side of the booms, from the quarter-deck to the forecastle; -- more properly termed the waist . Totten. Gangway ladder
, a ladder rigged on the side of a vessel at the gangway.
-- To bring to the gangway
, to punish (a seaman) by flogging him at the gangway.
Ganil noun [ French] A kind of brittle limestone. [ Prov. Eng.] Kirwan.
Ganister, Gannister noun (Mech.) A refractory material consisting of crushed or ground siliceous stone, mixed with fire clay; -- used for lining Bessemer converters; also used for macadamizing roads.
Ganja noun [ Hind. gānjhā .] The dried hemp plant, used in India for smoking. It is extremely narcotic and intoxicating.
[ Middle English gant
, Anglo-Saxon ganet
, ganot, a sea fowl, a fen duck; akin to Dutch gent
gander, Old High German ganazzo
. See Gander
.] (Zoology) One of several species of sea birds of the genus Sula , allied to the pelicans.
» The common gannet of Europe and America ( S. bassana
), is also called solan goose
, chandel goose
, and gentleman
. In Florida the wood ibis is commonly called gannet
. Booby gannet
. See Sula .
Ganocephala noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek ... brightness + ... head.] (Paleon.) A group of fossil amphibians allied to the labyrinthodonts, having the head defended by bony, sculptured plates, as in some ganoid fishes.
Ganocephalous adjective (Paleon.) Of or pertaining to the Ganocephala.
Ganoid adjective [ Greek ... brightness + -oid .] (Zoology) Of or pertaining to Ganoidei. -- noun One of the Ganoidei. Ganoid scale (Zoology) , one kind of scales of the ganoid fishes, composed of an inner layer of bone, and an outer layer of shining enamel. They are often so arranged as to form a coat of mail.
Ganoidal adjective (Zoology) Ganoid.
Ganoidei noun plural
[ New Latin See Ganoid
.] (Zoology) One of the subclasses of fishes. They have an arterial cone and bulb, spiral intestinal valve, and the optic nerves united by a chiasma. Many of the species are covered with bony plates, or with ganoid scales; others have cycloid scales.
» They were numerous, and some of them of large size, in early geological periods; but they are represented by comparatively few living species, most of which inhabit fresh waters, as the bowfin, gar pike, bichir, Ceratodus, paddle fish, and sturgeon.
Ganoidian adjective & noun (Zoology) Ganoid.
Ganoine noun (Zoology) A peculiar bony tissue beneath the enamel of a ganoid scale.
Gansa noun Same as Ganza . Bp. Hall.
is corrupted from gantlope
is for gatelope
, Swedish gatlopp
, orig., a running down a lane; gata street, lane + lopp course, career, akin to löpa to run. See Gate
a way, and Leap
.] A military punishment formerly in use, wherein the offender was made to run between two files of men facing one another, who struck him as he passed. To run the gantlet
, to suffer the punishment of the gantlet; hence, to go through the ordeal of severe criticism or controversy, or ill-treatment at many hands.
Winthrop ran the gantlet of daily slights. Palfrey.
» Written also, but less properly, gauntlet
Gantline noun A line rigged to a mast; -- used in hoisting rigging; a girtline.
Gantlope noun See Gantlet .
Ganz system A haulage system for canal boats, in which an electric locomotive running on a monorail has its adhesion materially increased by the pull of the tow rope on a series of inclined gripping wheels.
[ Spanish gansa
, goose; of Gothic origin. See Gannet
.] A kind of wild goose, by a flock of which a virtuoso was fabled to be carried to the lunar world.
[ Also gansa
[ See Jail
.] A place of confinement, especially for minor offenses or provisional imprisonment; a jail.
[ Preferably, and in the United States usually, written jail
.] Commission of general gaol delivery
, an authority conferred upon judges and others included in it, for trying and delivering every prisoner in jail when the judges, upon their circuit, arrive at the place for holding court, and for discharging any whom the grand jury fail to indict.
[ Eng.] -- Gaol delivery
. (Law) See Jail delivery , under Jail .
Gaoler noun The keeper of a jail. See Jailer .