Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Girrock noun [ Confer Prov. French chicarou .] (Zoology) A garfish. Johnson.

Girt imperfect & past participle of Gird .

Girt transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Girted ; present participle & verbal noun Girting .] [ From Girt , noun , confer Girth , v. ] To gird; to encircle; to invest by means of a girdle; to measure the girth of; as, to girt a tree.

We here create thee the first duke of Suffolk,
And girt thee with the sword.
Shak.

Girt adjective (Nautical) Bound by a cable; -- used of a vessel so moored by two anchors that she swings against one of the cables by force of the current or tide.

Girt (gẽrt) noun Same as Girth .

Girth (gẽrth) noun [ Icelandic gjörð girdle, or gerð girth; akin to Goth. gaírda girdle. See Gird to girt, and confer Girdle , noun ]
1. A band or strap which encircles the body; especially, one by which a saddle is fastened upon the back of a horse.

2. The measure round the body, as at the waist or belly; the circumference of anything.

He's a lu
sty, jolly fellow, that lives well, at least three yards in the girth .
Addison.

3. A small horizontal brace or girder.

Girth transitive verb [ From Girth , noun , confer Girt , transitive verb ] To bind as with a girth. [ R.] Johnson.

Girtline noun (Nautical) A gantline.

Hammock girtline , a line rigged for hanging out hammocks to dry.

Gisarm noun [ Old French gisarme , guisarme .] (Mediæval Armor) A weapon with a scythe-shaped blade, and a separate long sharp point, mounted on a long staff and carried by foot soldiers.

Gise transitive verb [ See Agist .] To feed or pasture. [ Obsolete]

Gise noun Guise; manner. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Gisle noun [ Anglo-Saxon gīsel ; akin to German geisel , Icelandic gīsl .] A pledge. [ Obsolete] Bp. Gibson.

Gismondine, Gismondite noun [ From the name of the discoverer, Gismondi .] (Min.) A native hydrated silicate of alumina, lime, and potash, first noticed near Rome.

Gist noun [ Old French giste abode, lodgings, French gîte , from gésir to lie, Latin jac...re , prop., to be thrown, hence, to lie, from jac ... re to throw. In the second sense from Old French gist , French gît , 3d pers. sing. ind. of gésir to lie, used in a proverb, F., c'est là que gît le lièvre, it is there that the hare lies, i. e. , that is the point, the difficulty. See Jet a shooting forth, and confer Agist , Joist , noun , Gest a stage in traveling.]
1. A resting place. [ Obsolete]

These quails have their set gists ; to wit, ordinary resting and baiting places.
Holland.

2. The main point, as of a question; the point on which an action rests; the pith of a matter; as, the gist of a question.

Git noun (Founding) See Geat .

Gitana noun fem. ; Gi*ta"no noun masc. [ Spanish , from (assumed) Late Latin Aegyptanus , fem. Aegyptana , Egyptian. Confer Gypsy .] A Spanish gypsy.

Gite noun A gown. [ Obsolete]

She came often in a gite of red.
Chaucer.

Gith noun [ Prov. E., corn cockle; confer W. gith corn cockle.] (Botany) The corn cockle; also anciently applied to the Nigella , or fennel flower.

Gittern noun [ Middle English giterne , Old French guiterne , ultimately from same source as English guitar . See Guitar , and confer Cittern .] An instrument like a guitar. "Harps, lutes, and giternes ." Chaucer.

Gittern intransitive verb To play on gittern. Milton.

Gittith noun [ Hebrew ] A musical instrument, of unknown character, supposed by some to have been used by the people of Gath, and thence obtained by David. It is mentioned in the title of Psalms viii., lxxxi., and lxxxiv. Dr. W. Smith.

Giust (just) noun [ Obsolete] Same as Joust . Spenser.

Giusto adjective [ Italian , from Latin justus . See Just , adjective ] (Mus.) In just, correct, or suitable time.

Give (gĭv) transitive verb [ imperfect Gave (gāv); past participle Given (gĭv"'n); present participle & verbal noun Giving .] [ Middle English given , yiven , yeven , Anglo-Saxon gifan , giefan ; akin to Dutch geven , Old Saxon geðan , Old High German geban , German geben , Icelandic gefa , Swedish gifva , Danish give , Goth. giban . Confer Gift , noun ]
1. To bestow without receiving a return; to confer without compensation; to impart, as a possession; to grant, as authority or permission; to yield up or allow.

For generous lords had rather give than pay.
Young.

2. To yield possesion of; to deliver over, as property, in exchange for something; to pay; as, we give the value of what we buy.

What shall a man give in exchange for his soul ?
Matt. xvi. 26.

3. To yield; to furnish; to produce; to emit; as, flint and steel give sparks.

4. To communicate or announce, as advice, tidings, etc.; to pronounce; to render or utter, as an opinion, a judgment, a sentence, a shout, etc.

5. To grant power or license to; to permit; to allow; to license; to commission.

It is given me once again to behold my friend.
Rowe.

Then give thy friend to shed the sacred wine.
Pope.

6. To exhibit as a product or result; to produce; to show; as, the number of men, divided by the number of ships, gives four hundred to each ship.

7. To devote; to apply; used reflexively, to devote or apply one's self; as, the soldiers give themselves to plunder; also in this sense used very frequently in the past participle; as, the people are given to luxury and pleasure; the youth is given to study.

8. (Logic & Math.) To set forth as a known quantity or a known relation, or as a premise from which to reason; -- used principally in the passive form given .

9. To allow or admit by way of supposition.

I give not heaven for lost.
Mlton.

10. To attribute; to assign; to adjudge.

I don't wonder at people's giving him to me as a lover.
Sheridan.

11. To excite or cause to exist, as a sensation; as, to give offense; to give pleasure or pain.

12. To pledge; as, to give one's word.

13. To cause; to make; -- with the infinitive; as, to give one to understand, to know, etc.

But there the duke was given to understand
That in a gondola were seen together
Lorenzo and his amorous Jessica.
Shak.

To give away , to make over to another; to transfer.

Whatsoever we employ in charitable uses during our lives, is given away from ourselves.
Atterbury.

-- To give back , to return; to restore. Atterbury. -- To give the bag , to cheat. [ Obsolete]

I fear our ears have given us the bag .
J. Webster.

-- To give birth to . (a) To bear or bring forth, as a child. (b) To originate; to give existence to, as an enterprise, idea. -- To give chase , to pursue. -- To give ear to . See under Ear . -- To give forth , to give out; to publish; to tell. Hayward. -- To give ground . See under Ground , noun -- To give the hand , to pledge friendship or faith. -- To give the hand of , to espouse; to bestow in marriage. -- To give the head . See under Head , noun -- To give in . (a) To abate; to deduct. (b) To declare; to make known; to announce; to tender; as, to give in one's adhesion to a party. -- To give the lie to (a person), to tell (him) that he lies. -- To give line . See under Line . -- To give off , to emit, as steam, vapor, odor, etc. -- To give one's self away , to make an inconsiderate surrender of one's cause, an unintentional disclosure of one's purposes, or the like. [ Colloq.] -- To give out . (a) To utter publicly; to report; to announce or declare.

One that gives out himself Prince Florizel.
Shak.

Give out you are of Epidamnum.
Shak.

(b) To send out; to emit; to distribute; as, a substance gives out steam or odors. -- To give over . (a) To yield completely; to quit; to abandon. (b) To despair of. (c) To addict, resign, or apply (one's self).

The Babylonians had given themselves over to all manner of vice.
Grew.

-- To give place , to withdraw; to yield one's claim. -- To give points . (a) In games of skill, to equalize chances by conceding a certain advantage; to allow a handicap. (b) To give useful suggestions. [ Colloq.] -- To give rein . See under Rein , noun -- To give the sack . Same as To give the bag . -- To give and take . (a) To average gains and losses. (b) To exchange freely, as blows, sarcasms, etc. -- To give time (Law) , to accord extension or forbearance to a debtor. Abbott. -- To give the time of day , to salute one with the compliment appropriate to the hour, as "good morning." "good evening", etc. -- To give tongue , in hunter's phrase, to bark; -- said of dogs. -- To give up . (a) To abandon; to surrender. "Don't give up the ship."

He has . . . given up
For certain drops of salt, your city Rome.
Shak.

(b) To make public; to reveal.

I'll not state them
By giving up their characters.
Beau. & Fl.

(c) (Used also reflexively. ) -- To give up the ghost . See under Ghost . -- To give one's self up , to abandon hope; to despair; to surrender one's self. -- To give way . (a) To withdraw; to give place. (b) To yield to force or pressure; as, the scaffolding gave way . (c) (Nautical) To begin to row; or to row with increased energy. (d) (Stock Exchange) . To depreciate or decline in value; as, railroad securities gave way two per cent. -- To give way together , to row in time; to keep stroke.

Syn. -- To Give , Confer , Grant . To give is the generic word, embracing all the rest. To confer was originally used of persons in power, who gave permanent grants or privileges; as, to confer the order of knighthood; and hence it still denotes the giving of something which might have been withheld; as, to confer a favor. To grant is to give in answer to a petition or request, or to one who is in some way dependent or inferior.

Give intransitive verb
1. To give a gift or gifts.

2. To yield to force or pressure; to relax; to become less rigid; as, the earth gives under the feet.

3. To become soft or moist. [ Obsolete] Bacon .

4. To move; to recede.

Now back he gives , then rushes on amain.
Daniel.

5. To shed tears; to weep. [ Obsolete]

Whose eyes do never give
But through lust and laughter.
Shak.

6. To have a misgiving. [ Obsolete]

My mind gives ye're reserved
To rob poor market women.
J. Webster.

7. To open; to lead. [ A Gallicism]

This, yielding, gave into a grassy walk.
Tennyson.

To give back , to recede; to retire; to retreat.

They gave back and came no farther.
Bunyan.

-- To give in , to yield; to succumb; to acknowledge one's self beaten; to cease opposition.

The Scots battalion was enforced to give in .
Hayward.

This consideration may induce a translator to give in to those general phrases.
Pope.

-- To give off , to cease; to forbear. [ Obsolete] Locke. -- To give on or upon . (a) To rush; to fall upon. [ Obsolete] (b) To have a view of; to be in sight of; to overlook; to look toward; to open upon; to front; to face. [ A Gallicism: confer Fr. donner sur.]

Rooms which gave upon a pillared porch.
Tennyson.

The gloomy staircase on which the grating gave .
Dickens.

-- To give out . (a) To expend all one's strength. Hence: (b) To cease from exertion; to fail; to be exhausted; as, my feet being to give out ; the flour has given out . -- To give over , to cease; to discontinue; to desist.

It would be well for all authors, if they knew when to give over , and to desist from any further pursuits after fame.
Addison.

-- To give up , to cease from effort; to yield; to despair; as, he would never give up .

Give transitive verb To afford a view of; as, his window gave the park.

Given past participle & adjective from Give , v.


1. (Math. & Logic) Granted; assumed; supposed to be known; set forth as a known quantity, relation, or premise.

2. Disposed; inclined; -- used with an adverb ; as, virtuously given . Shak.

3. Stated; fixed; as, in a given time.

Given name , the Christian name, or name given by one's parents or guardians, as distinguished from the surname , which is inherited. [ Colloq.]

Giver noun One who gives; a donor; a bestower; a grantor; one who imparts or distributes.

It is the giver , and not the gift, that engrosses the heart of the Christian.
Kollock.

Gives noun plural [ See Give , noun ] Fetters.

Giving noun
1. The act of bestowing as a gift; a conferring or imparting.

2. A gift; a benefaction. [ R.] Pope.

3. The act of softening, breaking, or yielding. "Upon the first giving of the weather." Addison.

Giving in , a falling inwards; a collapse. -- Giving out , anything uttered or asserted; an outgiving.

His givings out were of an infinite distance
From his true meant design.
Shak.

Gizzard noun [ French gésier , Latin gigeria, plural, the cooked entrails of poultry. Confer Gigerium .]


1. (Anat.) The second, or true, muscular stomach of birds, in which the food is crushed and ground, after being softened in the glandular stomach (crop), or lower part of the esophagus; the gigerium.

2. (Zoology) (a) A thick muscular stomach found in many invertebrate animals. (b) A stomach armed with chitinous or shelly plates or teeth, as in certain insects and mollusks.

Gizzard shad (Zoology) , an American herring ( Dorosoma cepedianum ) resembling the shad, but of little value. -- To fret the gizzard , to harass; to vex one's self; to worry. [ Low] Hudibras. -- To stick in one's gizzard , to be difficult of digestion; to be offensive. [ Low]

Glabella noun ; plural Glabell... . [ New Latin , from Latin glabellus hairless, from glaber bald.] (Anat.) The space between the eyebrows, also including the corresponding part of the frontal bone; the mesophryon. -- Gla*bel"lar adjective

Glabellum noun ; plural Glabella . [ New Latin See Glabella .] (Zoology) The median, convex lobe of the head of a trilobite. See Trilobite .

Glabrate adjective [ Latin glabrare , from glaber smooth.] (Botany) Becoming smooth or glabrous from age. Gray.

Glabreate, Glabriate transitive verb [ See Glabrate .] To make smooth, plain, or bare. [ Obsolete]

Glabrity noun [ Latin glabritas .] Smoothness; baldness. [ R.]

Glabrous adjective [ Latin glaber ; confer Greek ... hollow, smooth, ... to hollow.] Smooth; having a surface without hairs or any unevenness.

Glacé adjective [ French, p.p. of glacer to freeze, to ice. Confer Glacier .] Coated with icing; iced; glazed; -- said of fruits, sweetmeats, cake, etc.

Glacial adjective [ Latin glacialis , from glacies ice: confer French glacial .]
1. Pertaining to ice or to its action; consisting of ice; frozen; icy; esp., pertaining to glaciers; as, glacial phenomena. Lyell.

2. (Chemistry) Resembling ice; having the appearance and consistency of ice; -- said of certain solid compounds; as, glacial phosphoric or acetic acids.

Glacial acid (Chemistry) , an acid of such strength or purity as to crystallize at an ordinary temperature, in an icelike form; as acetic or carbolic acid. -- Glacial drift (Geol.) , earth and rocks which have been transported by moving ice, land ice, or icebergs; bowlder drift. -- Glacial epoch or period (Geol.) , a period during which the climate of the modern temperate regions was polar, and ice covered large portions of the northern hemisphere to the mountain tops. -- Glacial theory or hypothesis . (Geol.) See Glacier theory , under Glacier .

Glacialist noun One who attributes the phenomena of the drift, in geology, to glaciers.

Glaciate intransitive verb [ Latin glaciatus , past participle of glaciare to freeze, from glacies ice.] To turn to ice.

Glaciate transitive verb
1. To convert into, or cover with, ice.

2. (Geol.) To produce glacial effects upon, as in the scoring of rocks, transportation of loose material, etc.

Glaciated rocks , rocks whose surfaces have been smoothed, furrowed, or striated, by the action of ice.

Glaciation noun
1. Act of freezing.

2. That which is formed by freezing; ice.

3. The process of glaciating, or the state of being glaciated; the production of glacial phenomena.

Glacier noun [ French glacier , from glace ice, Latin glacies .] An immense field or stream of ice, formed in the region of perpetual snow, and moving slowly down a mountain slope or valley, as in the Alps, or over an extended area, as in Greenland.

» The mass of compacted snow forming the upper part of a glacier is called the firn , or névé ; the glacier proper consist of solid ice, deeply crevassed where broken up by irregularities in the slope or direction of its path. A glacier usually carries with it accumulations of stones and dirt called moraines , which are designated, according to their position, as lateral , medial , or terminal (see Moraine ). The common rate of flow of the Alpine glaciers is from ten to twenty inches per day in summer, and about half that in winter.

Glacier theory (Geol.) , the theory that large parts of the frigid and temperate zones were covered with ice during the glacial , or ice , period , and that, by the agency of this ice, the loose materials on the earth's surface, called drift or diluvium , were transported and accumulated.

Glacious adjective Pertaining to, consisting of or resembling, ice; icy. Sir T. Browne.

Glacis noun [ French glacis ; -- so named from its smoothness. See Glacier .] A gentle slope, or a smooth, gently sloping bank; especially (Fort.) , that slope of earth which inclines from the covered way toward the exterior ground or country (see Illust. of Ravelin ).

Glad adjective [ Compar. Gladder ; superl. Gladdest .] [ Anglo-Saxon glæd bright, glad; akin to Dutch glad smooth, German glatt , Old High German glat smooth, shining, Icelandic gla...r glad, bright, Dan. & Swedish glad glad, Lithuanian glodas smooth, and probably to Latin glaber , and English glide . Confer Glabrous .]


1. Pleased; joyous; happy; cheerful; gratified; -- opposed to sorry , sorrowful , or unhappy ; -- said of persons, and often followed by of , at , that , or by the infinitive, and sometimes by with , introducing the cause or reason.

A wise son maketh a glad father.
Prov. x. 1.

He that is glad at calamities shall not be unpunished.
Prov. xvii. 5.

The Trojan, glad with sight of hostile blood.
Dryden.

He, glad of her attention gained.
Milton.

As we are now glad to behold your eyes.
Shak.

Glad am I that your highness is so armed.
Shak.

Glad on 't , glad of it. [ Colloq.] Shak.

2. Wearing a gay or bright appearance; expressing or exciting joy; producing gladness; exhilarating.

Her conversation
More glad to me than to a miser money is.
Sir P. Sidney.

Glad evening and glad morn crowned the fourth day.
Milton.

Syn. -- Pleased; gratified; exhilarated; animated; delighted; happy; cheerful; joyous; joyful; cheering; exhilarating; pleasing; animating. -- Glad , Delighted , Gratified . Delighted expresses a much higher degree of pleasure than glad . Gratified always refers to a pleasure conferred by some human agent, and the feeling is modified by the consideration that we owe it in part to another. A person may be glad or delighted to see a friend, and gratified at the attention shown by his visits.

Glad transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Gladded ; present participle & verbal noun Gladding .] [ Anglo-Saxon gladian . See Glad , adjective , and confer Gladden , transitive verb ] To make glad; to cheer; to gladden; to exhilarate. Chaucer.

That which gladded all the warrior train.
Dryden.

Each drinks the juice that glads the heart of man.
Pope.

Glad intransitive verb To be glad; to rejoice. [ Obsolete] Massinger.