Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Cheap (chēp) noun [ Anglo-Saxon ceáp bargain, sale, price; akin to Dutch koop purchase, German kauf , Icelandic kaup bargain. Confer Cheapen , Chapman , Chaffer , Cope , intransitive verb ] A bargain; a purchase; cheapness. [ Obsolete]

The sack that thou hast drunk me would have bought me lights as good cheap at the dearest chandler's in Europe.
Shak.

Cheap adjective [ Abbrev. from "good cheap ": a good purchase or bargain; confer French bon marché , à bon marché . See Cheap , noun , Cheapen .]
1. Having a low price in market; of small cost or price, as compared with the usual price or the real value.

Where there are a great sellers to a few buyers, there the thing to be sold will be cheap .
Locke.

2. Of comparatively small value; common; mean.

You grow cheap in every subject's eye.
Dryden.

Dog cheap , very cheap, -- a phrase formed probably by the catachrestical transposition of good cheap. [ Colloq.]

Cheap adverb Cheaply. Milton.

Cheap intransitive verb To buy; to bargain. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Cheap-jack, Cheap-john noun A seller of low-priced or second goods; a hawker.

Cheapen transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cheapened ; present participle & verbal noun Cheapening .] [ Middle English cheapien , chepen , to trade, buy, sell, Anglo-Saxon ceápian ; akin to Dutch koopen to buy, German kaufen , Icelandic kaupa , Goth. kaupōn to trade. Confer Chap to bargain.]
1. To ask the price of; to bid, bargain, or chaffer for. [ Obsoles.]

Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy.
Swift.

2. [ Confer Cheap , adjective ] To beat down the price of; to lessen the value of; to depreciate. Pope.

My proffered love has cheapened me.
Dryden.

Cheapener noun One who cheapens.

Cheaply adverb At a small price; at a low value; in a common or inferior manner.

Cheapness noun Lowness in price, considering the usual price, or real value.

Chear noun & v. [ Obsolete] See Cheer .

Cheat noun [ rob. an abbrevation of escheat , lands or tenements that fall to a lord or to the state by forfeiture, or by the death of the tenant without heirs; the meaning being explained by the frauds, real or supposed, that were resorted to in procuring escheats. See Escheat .]
1. An act of deception or fraud; that which is the means of fraud or deception; a fraud; a trick; imposition; imposture.

When I consider life, 'tis all a cheat .
Dryden.

2. One who cheats or deceives; an impostor; a deceiver; a cheater.

Airy wonders, which cheats interpret.
Johnson

3. (Botany) A troublesome grass, growing as a weed in grain fields; -- called also chess . See Chess .

4. (Law) The obtaining of property from another by an intentional active distortion of the truth.

» When cheats are effected by deceitful or illegal symbols or tokens which may affect the public at large and against which common prudence could not have guarded, they are indictable at common law. Wharton.

Syn. -- Deception; imposture; fraud; delusion; artifice; trick; swindle; deceit; guile; finesse; stratagem.

Cheat transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cheated ; present participle & verbal noun Cheating .] [ See Cheat , noun , Escheat .]
1. To deceive and defraud; to impose upon; to trick; to swindle.

I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer, that by his cunning hath cheated me of this island.
Shak.

2. To beguile. Sir W. Scott.

To cheat winter of its dreariness.
W. Irving.

Syn. -- To trick; cozen; gull; chouse; fool; outwit; circumvent; beguile; mislead; dupe; swindle; defraud; overreach; delude; hoodwink; deceive; bamboozle.

Cheat intransitive verb To practice fraud or trickery; as, to cheat at cards.

Cheat noun [ Perh. from Old French cheté goods, chattels.] Wheat, or bread made from wheat. [ Obsolete] Drayton.

Their purest cheat ,
Thrice bolted, kneaded, and subdued in paste.
Chapman.

Cheatable adjective Capable of being cheated.

Cheatableness noun Capability of being cheated.

Cheater noun
1. One who cheats.

2. An escheator. [ R.] Shak.

Chebacco noun [ From Chebacco , the former name of Essex, a town in Massachusetts where such vessels were built.] (Nautical) A narrow-sterned boat formerly much used in the Newfoundland fisheries; -- called also pinkstern and chebec . Bartlett.

Chebec noun (Nautical) See Chebacco .

Chebec noun [ Named from its note.] (Zoology) A small American bird ( Empidonax minimus ); the least flycatcher.

Check noun [ Middle English chek , Old French eschec , French échec , a stop, hindrance, orig. check in the game of chess, plural échecs chess, through AR., from Pers. shāh king. See Shah , and confer Checkmate , Chess , Checker .]
1. (Chess) A word of warning denoting that the king is in danger; such a menace of a player's king by an adversary's move as would, if it were any other piece, expose it to immediate capture. A king so menaced is said to be in check , and must be made safe at the next move.

2. A condition of interrupted or impeded progress; arrest; stop; delay; as, to hold an enemy in check .

Which gave a remarkable check to the first progress of Christianity.
Addison.

No check , no stay, this streamlet fears.
Wordsworth.

3. Whatever arrests progress, or limits action; an obstacle, guard, restraint, or rebuff.

Useful check upon the administration of government.
Washington.

A man whom no check could abash.
Macaulay.

4. A mark, certificate, or token, by which, errors may be prevented, or a thing or person may be identified; as, checks placed against items in an account; a check given for baggage; a return check on a railroad.

5. A written order directing a bank or banker to pay money as therein stated. See Bank check , below.

6. A woven or painted design in squares resembling the patten of a checkerboard; one of the squares of such a design; also, cloth having such a figure.

7. (Falconry) The forsaking by a hawk of its proper game to follow other birds.

8. Small chick or crack.

Bank check , a written order on a banker or broker to pay money in his keeping belonging to the signer. -- Check book , a book containing blank forms for checks upon a bank. -- Check hook , a hook on the saddle of a harness, over which a checkrein is looped. -- Check list , a list or catalogue by which things may be verified, or on which they may be checked. -- Check nut (Mech.) , a secondary nut, screwing down upon the primary nut to secure it. Knight. -- Check valve (Mech.) , a valve in the feed pipe of a boiler to prevent the return of the feed water. -- To take check , to take offense. [ Obsolete] Dryden.

Syn. -- Hindrance; setback; interruption; obstruction; reprimand; censure; rebuke; reproof; repulse; rebuff; tally; counterfoil; counterbalance; ticket; draft.

Check transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Checked ; present participle & verbal noun checking .]
1. (Chess) To make a move which puts an adversary's piece, esp. his king, in check; to put in check.

2. To put a sudden restraint upon; to stop temporarily; to hinder; to repress; to curb.

So many clogs to check and retard the headlong course of violence and oppression.
Burke.

3. To verify, to guard, to make secure, by means of a mark, token, or other check; to distinguish by a check; to put a mark against (an item) after comparing with an original or a counterpart in order to secure accuracy; as, to check an account; to check baggage.

4. To chide, rebuke, or reprove.

The good king, his master, will check him for it.
Shak.

5. (Nautical) To slack or ease off, as a brace which is too stiffly extended.

6. To make checks or chinks in; to cause to crack; as, the sun checks timber.

Syn. -- To restrain; curb; bridle; repress; control; hinder; impede; obstruct; interrupt; tally; rebuke; reprove; rebuff.

Check intransitive verb To make a stop; to pause; -- with at .

The mind, once jaded by an attempt above its power, either is disabled for the future, or else checks at any vigorous undertaking ever after.
Locke.

2. To clash or interfere. [ R.] Bacon.

3. To act as a curb or restraint.

It [ his presence] checks too strong upon me.
Dryden.

4. To crack or gape open, as wood in drying; or to crack in small checks, as varnish, paint, etc.

5. (Falconry) To turn, when in pursuit of proper game, and fly after other birds.

And like the haggard, check at every feather
That comes before his eye.
Shak.

Check adjective Checkered; designed in checks.

Checkage noun
1. The act of checking; as, the checkage of a name or of an item in a list.

2. The items, or the amount, to which attention is called by a check or checks.

Checker noun [ From Check , transitive verb ] One who checks.

Checker (chĕk"ẽr) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Checkered (- ẽrd); present participle & verbal noun Checkering .] [ From Old French eschequier a chessboard, French échiquier . See Check , noun , and confer 3d Checker .]
1. To mark with small squares like a checkerboard, as by crossing stripes of different colors.

2. To variegate or diversify with different qualities, colors, scenes, or events; esp., to subject to frequent alternations of prosperity and adversity.

Our minds are, as it were, checkered with truth and falsehood.
Addison.

Checker noun [ Old French eschequier . See Checker , transitive verb ]


1. A piece in the game of draughts or checkers.

2. A pattern in checks; a single check.

3. Checkerwork.

» This word is also written chequer .

Checkerberry (-bĕr`rȳ) noun ; plural Checkerberries . (Botany) A spicy plant and its bright red berry; the wintergreen ( Gaultheria procumbens ). Also incorrectly applied to the partridge berry ( Mitchella repens ).

Checkerboard (-bōrd`) noun A board with sixty-four squares of alternate color, used for playing checkers or draughts.

Checkered (-ẽrd) adjective
1. Marked with alternate squares or checks of different color or material.

Dancing in the checkered shade.
Milton.

2. Diversified or variegated in a marked manner, as in appearance, character, circumstances, etc.

This checkered narrative.
Macaulay.

Checkers (chĕk"ẽrz) noun plural [ See Checher , v. ] A game, called also daughts , played on a checkerboard by two persons, each having twelve men (counters or checkers) which are moved diagonally. The game is ended when either of the players has lost all his men, or can not move them.

Checkerwork noun
1. Work consisting of or showing checkers varied alternately as to colors or materials.

2. Any aggregate of varied vicissitudes.

How strange a checkerwork of Providence is the life of man.
De Foe.

Checklaton noun
1. Ciclatoun. [ Obsolete]

2. Gilded leather. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Checkless adjective That can not be checked or restrained.

Checkmate noun [ French échec et mat, from Persian shāh māt ceckmate, lit., the king is dead, from Arabic māta he died, is dead. The king, when made prisoner, or checkmated, is assumed to be dead, and the game is finished. See Chess .]
1. The position in the game of chess when a king is in check and cannot be released, -- which ends the game.

2. A complete check; utter defeat or overthrow.

Checkmate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Checkmated ; present participle & verbal noun Checkmating .]
1. (Chess) To check (an adversary's king) in such a manner that escape in impossible; to defeat (an adversary) by putting his king in check from which there is no escape.

2. To defeat completely; to terminate; to thwart.

To checkmate and control my just demands.
Ford.

Checkrein noun
1. A short rein looped over the check hook to prevent a horse from lowering his head; -- called also a bearing rein .

2. A branch rein connecting the driving rein of one horse of a span or pair with the bit of the other horse.

Checkroll noun A list of servants in a household; -- called also chequer roll .

Checkstring noun A cord by which a person in a carriage or horse car may signal to the driver.

Checkwork noun Anything made so as to form alternate squares like those of a checkerboard.

Checky (chĕk"ȳ) adjective (Her.) Divided into small alternating squares of two tinctures; -- said of the field or of an armorial bearing. [ Written also checquy , chequy .]

Cheddar adjective Of or pertaining to, or made at, Cheddar , in England; as, Cheddar cheese.

Cheek (chēk) noun [ Middle English cheke , cheoke , Anglo-Saxon ceàce , ceòce ; confer Goth. kukjan to kiss, Dutch kaak cheek; perhaps akin to English chew , jaw .]
1. The side of the face below the eye.

2. The cheek bone. [ Obsolete] Caucer.

3. plural (Mech.) Those pieces of a machine, or of any timber, or stone work, which form corresponding sides, or which are similar and in pair; as, the cheeks (jaws) of a vise; the cheeks of a gun carriage, etc.

4. plural The branches of a bridle bit. Knight.

5. (Founding) A section of a flask, so made that it can be moved laterally, to permit the removal of the pattern from the mold; the middle part of a flask.

6. Cool confidence; assurance; impudence. [ Slang]

Cheek of beef . See Illust. of Beef . -- Cheek bone (Anat.) the bone of the side of the face; esp., the malar bone. -- Cheek by jowl , side by side; very intimate. -- Cheek pouch (Zoology) , a sacklike dilation of the cheeks of certain monkeys and rodents, used for holding food. -- Cheeks of a block , the two sides of the shell of a tackle block. -- Cheeks of a mast , the projection on each side of a mast, upon which the trestletrees rest. -- Cheek tooth (Anat.) , a hinder or molar tooth. -- Butment cheek . See under Butment .

Cheek (chēk) transitive verb To be impudent or saucy to. [ Slang.]

Cheeked (chēkt) adjective Having a cheek; -- used in composition. "Rose- cheeked Adonis." Shak.

Cheeky a Brazen-faced; impudent; bold. [ Slang.]

Cheep (chēp) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cheeped (chēpt).] [ Confer Chirp ]. To chirp, as a young bird.

Cheep transitive verb To give expression to in a chirping tone.

Cheep and twitter twenty million loves.
Tennyson.

Cheep noun A chirp, peep, or squeak, as of a young bird or mouse.

Cheer (chēr) noun [ Middle English chere face, welcome, cheer, Old French chiere , French chère , from Late Latin cara face, Greek ka`ra head; akin to Sanskrit çiras , Latin cerebrum brain, German hirn , and English cranium .]
1. The face; the countenance or its expression. [ Obsolete] "Sweat of thy cheer ." Wyclif.

2. Feeling; spirit; state of mind or heart.

Be of good cheer .
Matt. ix. 2.

The parents . . . fled away with heavy cheer .
Holland.

3. Gayety; mirth; cheerfulness; animation.

I have not that alacrity of spirit,
Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have.
Shak.


1. That which promotes good spirits or cheerfulness; provisions prepared for a feast; entertainment; as, a table loaded with good cheer .

5. A shout, hurrah, or acclamation, expressing joy enthusiasm, applause, favor, etc.

Welcome her, thundering cheer of the street.
Tennyson.

Whzt cheer ? Now do you fare? What is there that is cheering?

Cheer transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cheered ; present participle & verbal noun cheering .]
1. To cause to rejoice; to gladden; to make cheerful; -- often with up . Cowpe.

2. To infuse life, courage, animation, or hope, into; to inspirit; to solace or comfort.

The proud he tamed, the penitent he cheered .
Dryden.

3. To salute or applaud with cheers; to urge on by cheers; as, to cheer hounds in a chase.

To cheer ship , to salute a passing ship by cheers of sailors stationed in the rigging.

Syn. -- To gladden; encourage; inspirit; comfort; console; enliven; refresh; exhilarate; animate; applaud.

Cheer intransitive verb
1. To grow cheerful; to become gladsome or joyous; -- usually with up .

At sight of thee my gloomy soul cheers up.
A. Philips.

2. To be in any state or temper of mind. [ Obsolete]

How cheer'st thou, Jessica?
Shak.

3. To utter a shout or shouts of applause, triumph, etc.

And even the ranks of Tusculum
Could scare forbear to cheer .
Macaulay.