Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Bourdon noun [ French, from Latin burdo mule, esp. one used for carrying litters. Confer Spanish muleta a young she mule; also, crutch, prop.] A pilgrim's staff.

Bourdon noun [ French See Burden a refrain.] (Mus.) (a) A drone bass, as in a bagpipe, or a hurdy-gurdy. See Burden (of a song.) (b) A kind of organ stop.

Bourgeois noun [ From a French type founder named Bourgeois , or from French bourgeois of the middle class; hence applied to an intermediate size of type between brevier and long primer: confer German bourgeois , borgis . Confer Burgess .] (Print.) A size of type between long primer and brevier. See Type .

» This line is printed in bourgeois type.

Bourgeois noun [ French, from bourg town; of German origin. See Burgess .] A man of middle rank in society; one of the shopkeeping class. [ France.]

adjective Characteristic of the middle class, as in France.

Bourgeoisie noun [ French] The French middle class, particularly such as are concerned in, or dependent on, trade.

Bourgeon intransitive verb [ Middle English burjoun a bud, burjounen to bud, French bourgeon a bud, bourgeonner to bud; confer Old High German burjan to raise.] To sprout; to put forth buds; to shoot forth, as a branch.

Gayly to bourgeon and broadly to grow.
Sir W. Scott.

Bouri noun [ Native name.] (Zoology) A mullet ( Mugil capito ) found in the rivers of Southern Europe and in Africa.

Bourn, Bourne noun [ Middle English burne , borne , Anglo-Saxon burna ; akin to Old Saxon brunno spring, German born , brunnen , Old High German prunno , Goth. brunna , Icelandic brunnr , and perhaps to Greek .... The root is probably that of burn , v., because the source of a stream seems to issue forth bubbling and boiling from the earth. Confer Torrent , and see Burn , v. ] A stream or rivulet; a burn.

My little boat can safely pass this perilous bourn .
Spenser.

Bourn, Bourne noun [ French borne . See Bound a limit.] A bound; a boundary; a limit. Hence: Point aimed at; goal.

Where the land slopes to its watery bourn .
Cowper.

The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveler returns.
Shak.

Sole bourn , sole wish, sole object of my song.
Wordsworth.

To make the doctrine . . . their intellectual bourne .
Tyndall.

Bournless adjective Without a bourn or limit.

Bournonite noun [ Named after Count Bournon , a mineralogist.] (Min.) A mineral of a steel- gray to black color and metallic luster, occurring crystallized, often in twin crystals shaped like cogwheels (wheel ore), also massive. It is a sulphide of antimony, lead, and copper.

Bournous noun See Burnoose .

Bourrée noun [ French] (Mus.) An old French dance tune in common time.

Bourse noun [ French bourse purse, exchange, Late Latin bursa , from Greek ... skin, hide, of which a purse was usually made. Confer Purse , Burse .] An exchange, or place where merchants, bankers, etc., meet for business at certain hours; esp., the Stock Exchange of Paris.

Bouse intransitive verb To drink immoderately; to carouse; to booze. See Booze .

Bouse noun Drink, esp. alcoholic drink; also, a carouse; a booze. "A good bouse of liquor." Carlyle.

Bouser noun A toper; a boozer.

Boustrophedon noun [ Greek ... turning like oxen in plowing; ... to turn.] An ancient mode of writing, in alternate directions, one line from left to right, and the next from right to left (as fields are plowed), as in early Greek and Hittite.

Boustrophedonic adjective Relating to the boustrophedon made of writing.

Boustrophic adjective [ Greek boystro`fos ox-guiding.] Boustrophedonic.

Bousy (bō"zȳ) adjective Drunken; sotted; boozy.

In his cups the bousy poet songs.
Dryden.

Bout (bout) noun [ A different spelling and application of bought bend.]
1. As much of an action as is performed at one time; a going and returning, as of workmen in reaping, mowing, etc.; a turn; a round.

In notes with many a winding bout
Of linked sweetness long drawn out.
Milton.

The prince . . . has taken me in his train, so that I am in no danger of starving for this bout .
Goldsmith.

2. A conflict; contest; attempt; trial; a set-to at anything; as, a fencing bout ; a drinking bout .

The gentleman will, for his honor's sake, have one bout with you; he can not by the duello avoid it.
Shak.

Boutade noun [ French, from bouter to thrust. See Butt .] An outbreak; a caprice; a whim. [ Obsolete]

Boutefeu noun [ F.; bouter to thrust, put + feu fire.] An incendiary; an inciter of quarrels. [ Obsolete]

Animated by . . . John à Chamber, a very boutefeu , . . . they entered into open rebellion.
Bacon.

Boutonnière noun [ French, buttonhole.] A bouquet worn in a buttonhole.

Bouts-rimés noun plural [ French bout end + rimé rhymed.] Words that rhyme, proposed as the ends of verses, to be filled out by the ingenuity of the person to whom they are offered.

Bovate noun [ Late Latin bovata , from bos , bovis , ox.] (O.Eng.Law.) An oxgang, or as much land as an ox can plow in a year; an ancient measure of land, of indefinite quantity, but usually estimated at fifteen acres.

Bovey coal (Min.) A kind of mineral coal, or brown lignite, burning with a weak flame, and generally a disagreeable odor; -- found at Bovey Tracey, Devonshire, England. It is of geological age of the oölite, and not of the true coal era.

Bovid adjective [ Latin bos , bovis , ox, cow.] (Zoology) Relating to that tribe of ruminant mammals of which the genus Bos is the type.

Boviform adjective [ Latin bos , bovis , ox + -form .] Resembling an ox in form; ox- shaped. [ R.]

Bovine adjective [ Late Latin bovinus , from Latin bos , bovis , ox, cow: confer French bovine . See Cow .]


1. (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the genus Bos ; relating to, or resembling, the ox or cow; oxlike; as, the bovine genus; a bovine antelope.

2. Having qualities characteristic of oxen or cows; sluggish and patient; dull; as, a bovine temperament.

The bovine gaze of gaping rustics.
W. Black.

Bow (bou) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bowed ; present participle & verbal noun Bowing .] [ Middle English bowen , bogen , bugen , Anglo-Saxon būgan (generally intransitive verb ); akin to Dutch buigen , Old High German biogan , German biegen , beugen , Icelandic boginn bent, beygja to bend, Swedish böja , Danish böie , bugne , Coth. biugan ; also to Latin fugere to flee, Greek ..., and Sanskrit bhuj to bend. √88. Confer Fugitive .]


1. To cause to deviate from straightness; to bend; to inflect; to make crooked or curved.

We bow things the contrary way, to make them come to their natural straightness.
Milton.

The whole nation bowed their necks to the worst kind of tyranny.
Prescott.

2. To exercise powerful or controlling influence over; to bend, figuratively; to turn; to incline.

Adversities do more bow men's minds to religion.
Bacon.

Not to bow and bias their opinions.
Fuller.

3. To bend or incline, as the head or body, in token of respect, gratitude, assent, homage, or condescension.

They came to meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before him.
2 Kings ii. 15.

4. To cause to bend down; to prostrate; to depress,;... to crush; to subdue.

Whose heavy hand hath bowed you to the grave.
Shak.

5. To express by bowing; as, to bow one's thanks.

Bow (bou) intransitive verb
1. To bend; to curve. [ Obsolete]

2. To stop. [ Archaic]

They stoop, they bow down together.
Is. xlvi. 2...

3. To bend the head, knee, or body, in token of reverence or submission; -- often with down .

O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the Lord our maker.
Ps. xcv. 6.

4. To incline the head in token of salutation, civility, or assent; to make bow.

Admired, adored by all circling crowd,
For wheresoe'er she turned her face, they bowed .
Dryden.

Bow (bou) noun An inclination of the head, or a bending of the body, in token of reverence, respect, civility, or submission; an obeisance; as, a bow of deep humility.

Bow (bō) noun [ Middle English bowe , boge , Anglo-Saxon boga , from Anglo-Saxon būgan to bend; akin to Dutch boog , German bogen , Icelandic bogi . See Bow , transitive verb ]


1. Anything bent, or in the form of a curve, as the rainbow.

I do set my bow in the cloud.
Gen. ix. 13.

2. A weapon made of a strip of wood, or other elastic material, with a cord connecting the two ends, by means of which an arrow is propelled.

3. An ornamental knot, with projecting loops, formed by doubling a ribbon or string.

4. The U-shaped piece which embraces the neck of an ox and fastens it to the yoke.

5. (Mus.) An appliance consisting of an elastic rod, with a number of horse hairs stretched from end to end of it, used in playing on a stringed instrument.

6. An arcograph.

7. (Mech. & Manuf.) Any instrument consisting of an elastic rod, with ends connected by a string, employed for giving reciprocating motion to a drill, or for preparing and arranging the hair, fur, etc., used by hatters.

8. (Nautical) A rude sort of quadrant formerly used for taking the sun's altitude at sea.

9. (Saddlery) sing. or plural Two pieces of wood which form the arched forward part of a saddletree.

Bow bearer (O. Eng. Law) , an under officer of the forest who looked after trespassers. -- Bow drill , a drill worked by a bow and string. -- Bow instrument (Mus.) , any stringed instrument from which the tones are produced by the bow. -- Bow window (Architecture) See Bay window . -- To draw a long bow , to lie; to exaggerate. [ Colloq.]

Bow (bō) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bowed ; present participle & verbal noun Bowing .] To play (music) with a bow. -- intransitive verb To manage the bow.

Bow (bō) noun [ Icelandic bōgr shoulder, bow of a ship. See Bough .]


1. (Nautical) The bending or rounded part of a ship forward; the stream or prow.

2. (Nautical) One who rows in the forward part of a boat; the bow oar.

Bow chaser (Nautical) , a gun in the bow for firing while chasing another vessel. Totten.

- Bow piece , a piece of ordnance carried at the bow of a ship. -- On the bow (Nautical) , on that part of the horizon within 45° on either side of the line ahead. Totten.
Bow hand
1. (Archery) The hand that holds the bow, i. e. , the left hand.

Surely he shoots wide on the bow hand .
Spenser.

2. (Mus.) The hand that draws the bow, i. e. , the right hand.

Bow net
1. A trap for lobsters, being a wickerwork cylinder with a funnel-shaped entrance at one end.

2. A net for catching birds. J. H. Walsh.

Bow oar
1. The oar used by the bowman.

2. One who rows at the bow of a boat.

Bow-bells noun plural The bells of Bow Church in London; cockneydom.

People born within the sound of Bow-bells are usually called cockneys.
Murray's Handbook of London.

Bow-compass noun ; plural Bow-compasses


1. An arcograph.

2. A small pair of compasses, one leg of which carries a pencil, or a pen, for drawing circles. Its legs are often connected by a bow-shaped spring, instead of by a joint.

3. A pair of compasses, with a bow or arched plate riveted to one of the legs, and passing through the other.

Bowable adjective Capable of being bowed or bent; flexible; easily influenced; yielding. [ Obsolete]

Bowbell noun One born within hearing distance of Bow-bells; a cockney. Halliwell.

Bowbent adjective Bent, like a bow. Milton.

Bowdlerize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bowdlerized ; present participle & verbal noun Bowdlerizing .] [ After Dr. Thomas Bowdler , an English physician, who published an expurgated edition of Shakespeare in 1818.] To expurgate, as a book, by omitting or modifying the parts considered offensive.

It is a grave defect in the splendid tale of Tom Jones . . . that a Bowlderized version of it would be hardly intelligible as a tale.
F. Harrison.

-- Bowd`ler*i*za"tion noun -- Bowd"ler*ism noun

Bowel noun [ Middle English bouel , bouele , Old French boel , boele , French boyau , from Latin botellus a small sausage, in Late Latin also intestine, dim. of Latin botulus sausage.]


1. One of the intestines of an animal; an entrail, especially of man; a gut; -- generally used in the plural.

He burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out.
Acts i. 18.

2. plural Hence, figuratively: The interior part of anything; as, the bowels of the earth.

His soldiers . . . cried out amain,
And rushed into the bowels of the battle.
Shak.

3. plural The seat of pity or kindness. Hence: Tenderness; compassion. "Thou thing of no bowels ." Shak.

Bloody Bonner, that corpulent tyrant, full (as one said) of guts, and empty of bowels .
Fuller.

4. plural Offspring. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Bowel transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Boweled or Bowelled ; present participle & verbal noun Boweling or Bowelling .] To take out the bowels of; to eviscerate; to disembowel.

Boweled adjective [ Written also bowelled .] Having bowels; hollow. "The boweled cavern." Thomson.

Bowelless adjective Without pity. Sir T. Browne.

Bowenite noun [ From G.T. Bowen , who analyzed it in 1822.] (Min.) A hard, compact variety of serpentine found in Rhode Island. It is of a light green color and resembles jade.