Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Brainless adjective Without understanding; silly; thoughtless; witless. -- Brain"less*ness , noun

Brainpan noun [ Brain + pan .] The bones which inclose the brain; the skull; the cranium.

Brainsick adjective Disordered in the understanding; giddy; thoughtless. -- Brain"sick*ness , noun

Brainsickly adverb In a brainsick manner.

Brainy adjective Having an active or vigorous mind. [ Colloq.]

Braise transitive verb [ French braiser , from braise coals.] (Cookery) To stew or broil in a covered kettle or pan.

A braising kettle has a deep cover which holds coals; consequently the cooking is done from above, as well as below.
Mrs. Henderson.

Braise, Braize noun [ So called from its iridescent colors.] (Zoology) A European marine fish ( Pagrus vulgaris ) allied to the American scup; the becker. The name is sometimes applied to the related species. [ Also written brazier .]

Braise, Braize noun [ French]
1. Charcoal powder; breeze.

2. (Cookery) Braised meat.

Braiser noun A kettle or pan for braising.

Brait noun [ Confer W. braith variegated, Ir. breath , breagh , fine, comely.] A rough diamond.

Braize (brāz) noun See Braise .

Brake (brāk), imperfect of Break . [ Arhaic] Tennyson.

Brake noun [ Middle English brake fern; confer Anglo-Saxon bracce fern, LG. brake willow bush, Da. bregne fern, German brach fallow; probably orig. the growth on rough, broken ground, from the root of English break . See Break , transitive verb , confer Bracken , and 2d Brake , noun ]


1. (Botany) A fern of the genus Pteris , esp. the P. aquilina , common in almost all countries. It has solitary stems dividing into three principal branches. Less properly: Any fern.

2. A thicket; a place overgrown with shrubs and brambles, with undergrowth and ferns, or with canes.

Rounds rising hillocks, brakes obscure and rough,
To shelter thee from tempest and from rain.
Shak.

He stayed not for brake , and he stopped not for stone .
Sir W. Scott.

Cane brake , a thicket of canes. See Canebrake .

Brake (brāk) noun [ Middle English brake ; confer LG. brake an instrument for breaking flax, German breche , from the root of English break . See Break , transitive verb , and confer Breach .]
1. An instrument or machine to break or bruise the woody part of flax or hemp so that it may be separated from the fiber.

2. An extended handle by means of which a number of men can unite in working a pump, as in a fire engine.

3. A baker's kneading though. Johnson.

4. A sharp bit or snaffle.

Pampered jades . . . which need nor break nor bit.
Gascoigne.

5. A frame for confining a refractory horse while the smith is shoeing him; also, an inclosure to restrain cattle, horses, etc.

A horse . . . which Philip had bought . . . and because of his fierceness kept him within a brake of iron bars.
J. Brende.

6. That part of a carriage, as of a movable battery, or engine, which enables it to turn.

7. (Mil.) An ancient engine of war analogous to the crossbow and ballista.

8. (Agriculture) A large, heavy harrow for breaking clods after plowing; a drag.

9. A piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by friction, as of a carriage or railway car, by the pressure of rubbers against the wheels, or of clogs or ratchets against the track or roadway, or of a pivoted lever against a wheel or drum in a machine.

10. (Engineering) An apparatus for testing the power of a steam engine, or other motor, by weighing the amount of friction that the motor will overcome; a friction brake.

11. A cart or carriage without a body, used in breaking in horses.

12. An ancient instrument of torture. Holinshed.

Air brake . See Air brake , in the Vocabulary. -- Brake beam or Brake bar , the beam that connects the brake blocks of opposite wheels. -- Brake block . (a) The part of a brake holding the brake shoe. (b) A brake shoe. -- Brake shoe or Brake rubber , the part of a brake against which the wheel rubs. -- Brake wheel , a wheel on the platform or top of a car by which brakes are operated. -- Continuous brake . See under Continuous .

Brakeman (brāk"m a n) noun ; plural Brakemen (-m e n).


1. (Railroads) A man in charge of a brake or brakes.

2. (Mining) The man in charge of the winding (or hoisting) engine for a mine.

Braky (brāk"ȳ) adjective Full of brakes; abounding with brambles, shrubs, or ferns; rough; thorny.

In the woods and braky glens.
W. Browne.

Brama noun See Brahma .

Bramah press A hydrostatic press of immense power, invented by Joseph Bramah of London. See under Hydrostatic .

Bramble (brăm"b'l) noun [ Middle English brembil , Anglo-Saxon brēmel , brēmbel , brǣmbel (akin to Old High German brāmal ), from the same root as English broom , As. brōm . See Broom .]
1. (Botany) Any plant of the genus Rubus , including the raspberry and blackberry. Hence: Any rough, prickly shrub.

The thorny brambles , and embracing bushes.
Shak.

2. (Zoology) The brambling or bramble finch.

Bramble bush (bush`). (Botany) The bramble, or a collection of brambles growing together.

He jumped into a bramble bush
And scratched out both his eyes.
Mother Goose.

Bramble net A net to catch birds.

Brambled adjective Overgrown with brambles.

Forlorn she sits upon the brambled floor.
T. Warton.

Brambling noun [ Middle English bramline . See Bramble , noun ] (Zoology) The European mountain finch ( Fringilla montifringilla ); -- called also bramble finch and bramble .

Brambly adjective Pertaining to, resembling, or full of, brambles. "In brambly wildernesses." Tennyson.

Brame noun [ Confer Breme .] Sharp passion; vexation. [ Obsolete]

Heart-burning brame .
Spenser.

Bramin, Braminic etc. See Brahman , Brachmanic , etc.

Bran noun [ Middle English bren , bran , Old French bren , French bran , from Celtic; confer Armor. brenn , Ir. bran , bran, chaff.]
1. The broken coat of the seed of wheat, rye, or other cereal grain, separated from the flour or meal by sifting or bolting; the coarse, chaffy part of ground grain.

2. (Zoology) The European carrion crow.

Brancard noun [ French] A litter on which a person may be carried. [ Obsolete] Coigrave.

Branch noun ; plural Branches [ Middle English braunche , French branche , from Late Latin branca claw of a bird or beast of prey; confer Armor. brank branch, bough.]
1. (Botany) A shoot or secondary stem growing from the main stem, or from a principal limb or bough of a tree or other plant.

2. Any division extending like a branch; any arm or part connected with the main body of thing; ramification; as, the branch of an antler; the branch of a chandelier; a branch of a river; a branch of a railway.

Most of the branches , or streams, were dried up.
W. Irving.

3. Any member or part of a body or system; a distinct article; a section or subdivision; a department. " Branches of knowledge." Prescott.

It is a branch and parcel of mine oath.
Shak.

4. (Geom.) One of the portions of a curve that extends outwards to an indefinitely great distance; as, the branches of an hyperbola.

5. A line of family descent, in distinction from some other line or lines from the same stock; any descendant in such a line; as, the English branch of a family.

His father, a younger branch of the ancient stock.
Carew.

6. (Nautical) A warrant or commission given to a pilot, authorizing him to pilot vessels in certain waters.

Branches of a bridle , two pieces of bent iron, which bear the bit, the cross chains, and the curb. -- Branch herring . See Alewife . -- Root and branch , totally, wholly.

Syn. -- Bough; limb; shoot; offshoot; twig; sprig.

Branch adjective Diverging from, or tributary to, a main stock, line, way, theme, etc.; as, a branch vein; a branch road or line; a branch topic; a branch store.

Branch intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Branched ; present participle & verbal noun Branching .]
1. To shoot or spread in branches; to separate into branches; to ramify.

2. To divide into separate parts or subdivision.

To branch off , to form a branch or a separate part; to diverge. -- To branch out , to speak diffusively; to extend one's discourse to other topics than the main one; also, to enlarge the scope of one's business, etc.

To branch out into a long disputation.
Spectator.

Branch transitive verb
1. To divide as into branches; to make subordinate division in.

2. To adorn with needlework representing branches, flowers, or twigs.

The train whereof loose far behind her strayed,
Branched with gold and pearl, most richly wrought.
Spenser.

Branch pilot A pilot who has a branch or commission, as from Trinity House, England, for special navigation.

Brancher noun
1. That which shoots forth branches; one who shows growth in various directions.

2. (Falconry) A young hawk when it begins to leave the nest and take to the branches.

Branchery noun A system of branches.

Branchia noun ; plural Branchiæ [ Latin , from Greek ..., plural of ....] (Anat.) A gill; a respiratory organ for breathing the air contained in water, such as many aquatic and semiaquatic animals have.

Branchial adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to branchiæ or gills.

Branchial arches , the bony or cartilaginous arches which support the gills on each side of the throat of fishes and amphibians. See Illustration in Appendix. -- Branchial clefts , the openings between the branchial arches through which water passes.

Branchiate adjective (Anat.) Furnished with branchiæ; as, branchiate segments.

Branchiferous adjective (Anat.) Having gills; branchiate; as, branchiferous gastropods.

Branchiness noun Fullness of branches.

Branching adjective Furnished with branches; shooting our branches; extending in a branch or branches.

Shaded with branching palm.
Milton.

Branching noun The act or state of separation into branches; division into branches; a division or branch.

The sciences, with their numerous branchings .
Latin Watts.

Branchiogastropoda noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek ... gill + English gastropoda .] (Zoology) Those Gastropoda that breathe by branchiæ, including the Prosobranchiata and Opisthobranchiata.

Branchiomerism noun [ Greek ... gill + -mere .] (Anat.) The state of being made up of branchiate segments. R. Wiedersheim.

Branchiopod noun One of the Branchiopoda.

Branchiopoda noun plural [ Greek ... gill + -poda : confer French branchiopode .] (Zoology) An order of Entomostraca; -- so named from the feet of branchiopods having been supposed to perform the function of gills. It includes the fresh-water genera Branchipus , Apus , and Limnadia , and the genus Artemia found in salt lakes. It is also called Phyllopoda . See Phyllopoda , Cladocera . It is sometimes used in a broader sense.

Branchiostegal adjective [ Greek ... gill + ... to cover: confer French branchiostège .] (Anat.) Pertaining to the membrane covering the gills of fishes. -- noun (Anat.) A branchiostegal ray. See Illustration of Branchial arches in Appendix.

» This term was formerly applied to a group of fishes having boneless branchiæ. But the arrangement was artificial, and has been rejected.

Branchiostege (Anat.) The branchiostegal membrane. See Illustration in Appendix.

Branchiostegous adjective (Anat.) Branchiostegal.

Branchiostoma noun [ New Latin , from , Greek ... gill + ... mouth.] (Zoology) The lancelet. See Amphioxus .