Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Boron (bō"rŏn) noun [ See Borax .] (Chemistry) A nonmetallic element occurring abundantly in borax. It is reduced with difficulty to the free state, when it can be obtained in several different forms; viz., as a substance of a deep olive color, in a semimetallic form, and in colorless quadratic crystals similar to the diamond in hardness and other properties. It occurs in nature also in boracite, datolite, tourmaline, and some other minerals. Atomic weight 10.9. Symbol B.

Borosilicate noun [ Boron + silicate .] (Chemistry) A double salt of boric and silicic acids, as in the natural minerals tourmaline, datolite, etc.

Borough noun [ Middle English burgh , burw , boru , port, town, burrow, Anglo-Saxon burh , burg ; akin to Icelandic , Swedish , & Danish borg , Old Saxon & Dutch burg , Old High German puruc, purc, Middle High German burc , German burg , Goth. baúrgs ; and from the root of Anglo-Saxon beorgan to hide, save, defend, German bergen ; or perhaps from that of Anglo-Saxon beorg hill, mountain. √95. See Bury , transitive verb , and confer Burrow , Burg , Bury , noun , Burgess , Iceberg , Borrow , Harbor , Hauberk .]
1. In England, an incorporated town that is not a city; also, a town that sends members to parliament; in Scotland, a body corporate, consisting of the inhabitants of a certain district, erected by the sovereign, with a certain jurisdiction; in America, an incorporated town or village, as in Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Burrill. Erskine.

2. The collective body of citizens or inhabitants of a borough; as, the borough voted to lay a tax.

Close borough , or Pocket borough , a borough having the right of sending a member to Parliament, whose nomination is in the hands of a single person. -- Rotten borough , a name given to any borough which, at the time of the passage of the Reform Bill of 1832, contained but few voters, yet retained the privilege of sending a member to Parliament.

Borough noun [ See Borrow .] (O. Eng. Law) (a) An association of men who gave pledges or sureties to the king for the good behavior of each other. (b) The pledge or surety thus given. Blackstone. Tomlins.

Borough-English noun (Eng. Law) A custom, as in some ancient boroughs, by which lands and tenements descend to the youngest son, instead of the eldest; or, if the owner have no issue, to the youngest brother. Blackstone.

Boroughhead noun See Headborough . [ Obsolete]

Boroughholder noun A headborough; a borsholder.

Boroughmaster noun [ Confer Burgomaster .] The mayor, governor, or bailiff of a borough.

Boroughmonger noun One who buys or sells the parliamentary seats of boroughs.

Boroughmongering, Boroughmongery noun The practices of a boroughmonger.

Borracho noun See Borachio . [ Obsolete]

Borrage noun , Bor*rag`i*na"ceous adjective , etc. See Borage , noun , etc.

Borrel noun [ Old French burel a kind of coarse woolen cloth, from French bure drugget. See Bureau . Rustic and common people dressed in this cloth, which was probably so called from its color.]
1. Coarse woolen cloth; hence, coarse clothing; a garment. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. A kind of light stuff, of silk and wool.

Borrel adjective [ Prob. from Borrel , noun ] Ignorant, unlearned; belonging to the laity. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Borrow transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Borrowed ; present participle & verbal noun Borrowing .] [ Middle English borwen , Anglo-Saxon borgian , from borg , borh , pledge; akin to Dutch borg , German borg ; probably from root of Anglo-Saxon beorgan to protect. ...95. See 1st Borough .]
1. To receive from another as a loan, with the implied or expressed intention of returning the identical article or its equivalent in kind; -- the opposite of lend .

2. (Arith.) To take (one or more) from the next higher denomination in order to add it to the next lower; -- a term of subtraction when the figure of the subtrahend is larger than the corresponding one of the minuend.

3. To copy or imitate; to adopt; as, to borrow the style, manner, or opinions of another.

Rites borrowed from the ancients.
Macaulay.

It is not hard for any man, who hath a Bible in his hands, to borrow good words and holy sayings in abundance; but to make them his own is a work of grace only from above.
Milton.

4. To feign or counterfeit. " Borrowed hair." Spenser.

The borrowed majesty of England.
Shak.

5. To receive; to take; to derive.

Any drop thou borrowedst from thy mother.
Shak.

To borrow trouble , to be needlessly troubled; to be overapprehensive.

Borrow noun
1. Something deposited as security; a pledge; a surety; a hostage. [ Obsolete]

Ye may retain as borrows my two priests.
Sir W. Scott.

2. The act of borrowing. [ Obsolete]

Of your royal presence I'll adventure
The borrow of a week.
Shak.

Borrower noun One who borrows.

Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
Shak.

Borsholder noun [ Middle English borsolder ; probably from Anglo-Saxon borg , gen. borges , pledge + ealdor elder. See Borrow , and Elder , adjective ] (Eng. Law) The head or chief of a tithing, or borough (see 2d Borough ); the headborough; a parish constable. Spelman.

Bort noun Imperfectly crystallized or coarse diamonds, or fragments made in cutting good diamonds which are reduced to powder and used in lapidary work.

Boruret noun (Chemistry) A boride. [ Obsolete]

Borwe noun Pledge; borrow. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Bos noun [ Latin , ox, cow.] (Zoology) A genus of ruminant quadrupeds, including the wild and domestic cattle, distinguished by a stout body, hollow horns, and a large fold of skin hanging from the neck.

Bosa noun [ Arabic b...za , Pers. b...zah : confer French bosan .] A drink, used in the East. See Boza .

Boscage noun [ Old French boscage grove, French bocage , from Late Latin boscus , buscus , thicket, wood. See 1st Bush .]
1. A growth of trees or shrubs; underwood; a thicket; thick foliage; a wooded landscape.

2. (O. Eng. Law) Food or sustenance for cattle, obtained from bushes and trees; also, a tax on wood.

Bosh noun [ Confer German posse joke, trifle; Italian bozzo a rough stone, bozzetto a rough sketch, s-bozzo a rough draught, sketch.] Figure; outline; show. [ Obsolete]

Bosh noun [ Turk.] Empty talk; contemptible nonsense; trash; humbug. [ Colloq.]

Bosh noun ; plural Boshes [ Confer German böschung a slope.]


1. One of the sloping sides of the lower part of a blast furnace; also, one of the hollow iron or brick sides of the bed of a puddling or boiling furnace.

2. plural The lower part of a blast furnace, which slopes inward, or the widest space at the top of this part.

3. In forging and smelting, a trough in which tools and ingots are cooled.

Boshbok noun [ Dutch bosch wood + bok buck.] (Zoology) A kind of antelope. See Bush buck .

Boshvark noun [ Dutch bosch wood + varken pig.] (Zoology) The bush hog. See under Bush , a thicket.

Bosjesman noun ; plural Bosjesmans . [ Dutch boschjesman .] See Bushman .

Bosk noun [ See Bosket .] A thicket; a small wood. "Through bosk and dell." Sir W. Scott.

Boskage noun Same as Boscage .

Thridding the somber boskage of the wood.
Tennyson.

Bosket, Bosquet noun [ French bosquet a little wood, dim. from Late Latin boscus . See Boscage , and confer Bouquet .] (Gardening) A grove; a thicket; shrubbery; an inclosure formed by branches of trees, regularly or irregularly disposed.

Boskiness noun Boscage; also, the state or quality of being bosky.

Bosky adjective [ Confer Bushy .]
1. Woody or bushy; covered with boscage or thickets. Milton.

2. Caused by boscage.

Darkened over by long bosky shadows.
H. James.

Bosom (boz"ŭm) noun [ Anglo-Saxon b...sm ; akin to Dutch bozem , Fries. b...sm , Old High German puosum , German busen , and probably English bough .]
1. The breast of a human being; the part, between the arms, to which anything is pressed when embraced by them.

You must prepare your bosom for his knife.
Shak.

2. The breast, considered as the seat of the passions, affections, and operations of the mind; consciousness; secret thoughts.

Tut, I am in their bosoms , and I know
Wherefore they do it.
Shak.

If I covered my transgressions as Adam, by hiding my iniquity in my bosom .
Job xxxi. 33.

3. Embrace; loving or affectionate inclosure; fold.

Within the bosom of that church.
Hooker.

4. Any thing or place resembling the breast; a supporting surface; an inner recess; the interior; as, the bosom of the earth. "The bosom of the ocean." Addison.

5. The part of the dress worn upon the breast; an article, or a portion of an article, of dress to be worn upon the breast; as, the bosom of a shirt; a linen bosom .

He put his hand into his bosom : and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.
Ex. iv. 6.

6. Inclination; desire. [ Obsolete] Shak.

7. A depression round the eye of a millstone. Knight.

Bosom adjective
1. Of or pertaining to the bosom.

2. Intimate; confidential; familiar; trusted; cherished; beloved; as, a bosom friend.

Bosom transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bosomed (-ŭmd); present participle & verbal noun Bosoming .]
1. To inclose or carry in the bosom; to keep with care; to take to heart; to cherish.

Bosom up my counsel,
You'll find it wholesome.
Shak.

2. To conceal; to hide from view; to embosom.

To happy convents bosomed deep in vines.
Pope.

Bosomed (boz"ŭmd) adjective Having, or resembling, bosom; kept in the bosom; hidden.

Bosomy (-ȳ) adjective Characterized by recesses or sheltered hollows.

Boson (bō"s'n) noun See Boatswain . [ Obsolete] Dryden.

Bosporian adjective [ Latin Bosporus , German Bo`sporos , lit., ox-ford , the ox's or heifer's ford, on account of Io's passage here as a heifer; from boy^s ox, heifer + po`ros ford.] Of or pertaining to the Thracian or the Cimmerian Bosporus.

The Alans forced the Bosporian kings to pay them tribute and exterminated the Taurians.
Tooke.

Bosporus (bŏs"po*rŭs) noun [ Latin ] A strait or narrow sea between two seas, or a lake and a seas; as, the Bosporus (formerly the Thracian Bosporus) or Strait of Constantinople, between the Black Sea and Sea of Marmora; the Cimmerian Bosporus , between the Black Sea and Sea of Azof. [ Written also Bosphorus .]

Bosquet noun See Bosket .

Boss (bŏs; 115) noun ; plural Bosses (-ĕz). [ Middle English boce , bose , boche , Old French boce , boche , bosse , French bosse , of G. origin; confer Old High German bōzo tuft, bunch, Old High German bōzan , Middle High German bôzen , to beat. See Beat , and confer Botch a swelling.]
1. Any protuberant part; a round, swelling part or body; a knoblike process; as, a boss of wood.

2. A protuberant ornament on any work, either of different material from that of the work or of the same, as upon a buckler or bridle; a stud; a knob; the central projection of a shield. See Umbilicus .

3. (Architecture) A projecting ornament placed at the intersection of the ribs of ceilings, whether vaulted or flat, and in other situations.

4. [ Confer Dutch bus box, Danish bösse .] A wooden vessel for the mortar used in tiling or masonry, hung by a hook from the laths, or from the rounds of a ladder. Gwilt.

5. (Mech.) (a) The enlarged part of a shaft, on which a wheel is keyed, or at the end, where it is coupled to another. (b) A swage or die used for shaping metals.

6. A head or reservoir of water. [ Obsolete]

Boss (bŏs) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bossed (bŏst); present participle & verbal noun Bossing .] [ Middle English bocen , from Old French bocier . See the preceding word.] To ornament with bosses; to stud.

Boss noun [ Dutch baas master.] A master workman or superintendent; a director or manager; a political dictator. [ Slang, U. S.]

Bossage noun [ French bossage , from bosse . See Boss a stud.]
1. (Architecture) A stone in a building, left rough and projecting, to be afterward carved into shape. Gwilt.

2. (Architecture) Rustic work, consisting of stones which seem to advance beyond the level of the building, by reason of indentures or channels left in the joinings. Gwilt.

Bossed adjective Embossed; also, bossy.

Bosset noun [ Confer Boss a stud.] (Zoology) A rudimental antler of a young male of the red deer.