Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ From Buoy
, transitive verb & i.
] 1. Having the quality of rising or floating in a fluid; tending to rise or float; as, iron is buoyant in mercury.
on the flood." Pope. 2. Bearing up, as a fluid; sustaining another body by being specifically heavier.
The water under me was buoyant . 3. Light-hearted; vivacious; cheerful; as, a buoyant disposition; buoyant spirits.
Buprestidan noun [ Latin buprestis , Greek ..., a poisonous beetle, which, being eaten by cattle in the grass, caused them to swell up and and die; ... ox, cow + ... to blow up, swell out.] (Zoology) One of a tribe of beetles, of the genus Buprestis and allied genera, usually with brilliant metallic colors. The larvæ are usually borers in timber, or beneath bark, and are often very destructive to trees.
Bur fish (Zoology) A spinose, plectognath fish of the Allantic coast of the United States (esp. Chilo mycterus geometricus ) having the power of distending its body with water or air, so as to resemble a chestnut bur; -- called also ball fish , balloon fish , and swellfish .
Bur, Burr noun
[ Middle English burre
burdock; confer Danish borre
, OSw. borra
, burdock, thistle; perhaps akin to English bristle
), or perhaps to French bourre
hair, wool, stuff; also, according to Cotgrave, "the downe, or hairie coat, wherewith divers herbes, fruits, and flowers, are covered," from Latin burrae
trifles, Late Latin reburrus
rough.] 1. (Botany) Any rough or prickly envelope of the seeds of plants, whether a pericarp, a persistent calyx, or an involucre, as of the chestnut and burdock. Also, any weed which bears burs.
Amongst rude burs and thistles.
Bur and brake and brier. 2. The thin ridge left by a tool in cutting or shaping metal. See Burr , noun , 2. 3. A ring of iron on a lance or spear. See Burr , noun , 4. 4. The lobe of the ear. See Burr , noun , 5. 5. The sweetbread. 6. A clinker; a partially vitrified brick. 7. (Mech.) (a) A small circular saw. (b) A triangular chisel. (c) A drill with a serrated head larger than the shank; -- used by dentists. 8.
[ Confer Gael. borr
, a knob, bunch.] (Zoology) The round knob of an antler next to a deer's head.
[ Commonly written burr
.] Bur oak (Botany)
, a useful and ornamental species of oak ( Quercus macrocarpa ) with ovoid acorns inclosed in deep cups imbricated with pointed scales. It grows in the Middle and Western United States, and its wood is tough, close-grained, and durable.
-- Bur reed (Botany)
, a plant of the genus Sparganium , having long ribbonlike leaves.
Burbolt noun A birdbolt. [ Obsolete] Ford.
[ French barbote
, from barbe
beard. See 1st Barb
.] (Zoology) A fresh- water fish of the genus Lota , having on the nose two very small barbels, and a larger one on the chin.
[ Written also burbolt
.] » The fish is also called an eelpout
, and is allied to the codfish. The Lota vulgaris
is a common European species. An American species ( Latin maculosa
) is found in New England, the Great Lakes, and farther north.
[ French bourdelais
, probably from bordelais
. See Bordelais
.] A sort of grape. Jonson.
[ Written also burthen
.] [ Middle English burden
, Anglo-Saxon byrðen
; akin to Icelandic byrði
, Danish byrde
, Swedish börda
, German bürde
, Old High German burdi
, Goth. baúrþei
, from the root of English bear
, Anglo-Saxon beran
, Goth. bairan
. √92. See 1st Bear
.] 1. That which is borne or carried; a load.
Plants with goodly burden bowing. 2. That which is borne with labor or difficulty; that which is grievous, wearisome, or oppressive.
Deaf, giddy, helpless, left alone, 3. The capacity of a vessel, or the weight of cargo that she will carry; as, a ship of a hundred tons burden . 4. (Mining) The tops or heads of stream-work which lie over the stream of tin. 5. (Metal.) The proportion of ore and flux to fuel, in the charge of a blast furnace. Raymond. 6. A fixed quantity of certain commodities; as, a burden of gad steel, 120 pounds. 7. A birth.
To all my friends a burden grown.
[ Obsolete & R.] Shak. Beast of burden
, an animal employed in carrying burdens.
-- Burden of proof
[ Latin onus probandi
, the duty of proving a particular position in a court of law, a failure in the performance of which duty calls for judgment against the party on whom the duty is imposed. Syn.
. A burden
is, in the literal sense, a weight to be borne; a load
is something laid
upon us to be carried. Hence, when used figuratively, there is usually a difference between the two words. Our burdens
may be of such a nature that we feel bound to bear them cheerfully or without complaint. They may arise from the nature of our situation; they may be allotments of Providence; they may be the consequences of our errors. What is upon us, as a load
, we commonly carry with greater reluctance or sense of oppression. Men often find the charge of their own families to be a burden
; but if to this be added a load
of care for others, the pressure is usually serve and irksome.
Burden transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Burdened
; present participle & verbal noun Burdening
] 1. To encumber with weight (literal or figurative); to lay a heavy load upon; to load.
I mean not that other men be eased, and ye burdened . 2. To oppress with anything grievous or trying; to overload; as, to burden a nation with taxes.
2 Cor. viii. 13.
My burdened heart would break. 3. To impose, as a load or burden; to lay or place as a burden (something heavy or objectionable).
It is absurd to burden this act on Cromwell. Syn.
-- To load; encumber; overload; oppress.
[ Middle English burdoun
the bass in music, French bourdon
; confer Late Latin burdo
drone, a long organ pipe, a staff, a mule. Prob. of imitative origin. Confer Bourdon
.] 1. The verse repeated in a song, or the return of the theme at the end of each stanza; the chorus; refrain. Hence: That which is often repeated or which is dwelt upon; the main topic; as, the burden of a prayer.
I would sing my song without a burden . 2. The drone of a bagpipe. Ruddiman.
[ See Burdon
.] A club.
[ Obsolete] Spenser.
Burdener noun One who loads; an oppressor.
Burdenous adjective Burdensome. [ Obsolete] " Burdenous taxations." Shak.
Burdensome adjective Grievous to be borne; causing uneasiness or fatigue; oppressive.
The debt immense of endless gratitude Syn.
So burdensome .
-- Heavy; weighty; cumbersome; onerous; grievous; oppressive; troublesome. -- Bur"den*some*ly
Burdock noun [ Bur + dock the plant.] (Botany) A genus of coarse biennial herbs ( Lappa ), bearing small burs which adhere tenaciously to clothes, or to the fur or wool of animals. » The common burdock is the Lappa officinalis .
[ See Bourdon
.] A pilgrim's staff.
[ Written also burden
.] Rom. of R.
[ French bureau
a writing table, desk, office, Old French , drugget, with which a writing table was often covered, equiv. to French bure
, and from Old French buire
dark brown, the stuff being named from its color, from Latin burrus
red, from Greek ... flame-colored, probably from ... fire. See Fire
, and confer Borel
] 1. Originally, a desk or writing table with drawers for papers. Swift. 2. The place where such a bureau is used; an office where business requiring writing is transacted. 3. Hence: A department of public business requiring a force of clerks; the body of officials in a department who labor under the direction of a chief.
» On the continent of Europe, the highest departments, in most countries, have the name of bureaux
; as, the Bureau
of the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In England and America, the term is confined to inferior and subordinate departments; as, the "Pension Bureau
," a subdepartment of the Department of the Interior. [ Obsolete] In Spanish, bureo
denotes a court of justice for the trial of persons belonging to the king's household. 4. A chest of drawers for clothes, especially when made as an ornamental piece of furniture.
[ U.S.] Bureau system
. See Bureaucracy .
-- Bureau Veritas
, an institution, in the interest of maritime underwriters, for the survey and rating of vessels all over the world. It was founded in Belgium in 1828, removed to Paris in 1830, and reëstablished in Brussels in 1870.
Bureaucracy noun [ Bureau + Greek ... to be strong, to govern, ... strength: confer French bureaucratie .]
1. A system of carrying on the business of government by means of departments or bureaus, each under the control of a chief, in contradiction to a system in which the officers of government have an associated authority and responsibility; also, government conducted on this system. 2. Government officials, collectively.
Bureaucrat noun An official of a bureau; esp. an official confirmed in a narrow and arbitrary routine. C. Kingsley.
Bureaucratic, Bureaucratical adjective [ Confer French bureaucratique .] Of, relating to, or resembling, a bureaucracy.
Bureaucratist noun An advocate for , or supporter of, bureaucracy.
Burel noun & adjective Same as Borrel .
Burette noun [ French, can, cruet, dim. of buire flagon.] (Chemistry) An apparatus for delivering measured quantities of liquid or for measuring the quantity of liquid or gas received or discharged. It consists essentially of a graduated glass tube, usually furnished with a small aperture and stopcock.
[ Anglo-Saxon burh
, confer Late Latin burgus
. See 1st Borough
.] 1. A fortified town.
[ Obsolete] 2. A borough.
[ Eng.] See 1st Borough
[ From Burg
: confer French bourgage
, Late Latin burgagium
.] (Eng. Law) A tenure by which houses or lands are held of the king or other lord of a borough or city; at a certain yearly rent, or by services relating to trade or handicraft. Burrill.
Burgall noun (Zoology) A small marine fish; -- also called cunner .
1. A kind of small coat. 2. (Nautical) A swallow-tailed flag; a distinguishing pennant, used by cutters, yachts, and merchant vessels.
(bûr*jois") noun (Print.) See 1st Bourgeois .
(bor*zhwä") noun A burgess; a citizen. See 2d Bourgeois .
[ R.] Addison.
Burgeon intransitive verb To bud. See Bourgeon .
[ Middle English burgeis
, Old French burgeis
, from burc
fortified town, town, French bourg
village, from Late Latin burgus
fort, city; from the German; confer Middle High German burc
, German burg
. See 1st Borough
, and confer 2d Bourgeois
.] 1. An inhabitant of a borough or walled town, or one who possesses a tenement therein; a citizen or freeman of a borough. Blackstone.
» "A burgess
of a borough corresponds with a citizen of a city." Burrill. 2. One who represents a borough in Parliament. 3. A magistrate of a borough. 4. An inhabitant of a Scotch burgh qualified to vote for municipal officers.
» Before the Revolution, the representatives in the popular branch of the legislature of Virginia were called burgesses
; they are now called delegates
. Burgess oath
. See Burgher , 2.
Burgess-ship noun The state of privilege of a burgess. South.
[ German burggraf
fortress + graf
count: confer Dutch burggraaf
, French burgrave
. See Margrave
.] (Germany) Originally, one appointed to the command of a burg (fortress or castle); but the title afterward became hereditary, with a domain attached.
[ Middle English See Burg
.] A borough or incorporated town, especially, one in Scotland. See Borough .
Burghal adjective Belonging to a burgh.
Burghbote noun [ Burgh + bote .] (Old Law) A contribution toward the building or repairing of castles or walls for the defense of a city or town.
Burghbrech noun [ Burgh + French brèche , equiv. to English breach .] (AS. Law) The offense of violating the pledge given by every inhabitant of a tithing to keep the peace; breach of the peace. Burrill.
[ From burgh
; akin to Dutch burger
, German bürger
, Danish borger
, Swedish borgare
. See Burgh
.] 1. A freeman of a burgh or borough, entitled to enjoy the privileges of the place; any inhabitant of a borough. 2. (Eccl. Hist.) A member of that party, among the Scotch seceders, which asserted the lawfulness of the burgess oath (in which burgesses profess "the true religion professed within the realm"), the opposite party being called antiburghers .
» These parties arose among the Presbyterians of Scotland, in 1747, and in 1820 reunited under the name of the "United Associate Synod of the Secession Church."
Burghership noun The state or privileges of a burgher.
1. A burgomaster. 2. (Mining) An officer who directs and lays out the meres or boundaries for the workmen; -- called also bailiff , and barmaster . [ Eng.]
Burghmote noun (AS. Law) [ Burgh + mote meeting.] A court or meeting of a burgh or borough; a borough court held three times yearly.
[ Middle English burg
town, French bourg
, from Late Latin burgus
(of German origin) + Old French lere
thief, from Latin latro
. See Borough
, and Larceny
.] (Law) One guilty of the crime of burglary. Burglar alarm
, a device for giving alarm if a door or window is opened from without.
Burglarer noun A burglar. [ Obsolete]
Burglarious adjective Pertaining to burglary; constituting the crime of burglary.
To come down a chimney is held a burglarious entry.
Burglariously adverb With an intent to commit burglary; in the manner of a burglar. Blackstone.
; plural Burglaries
[ Fr. Burglar
; confer Late Latin burglaria
.] (Law) Breaking and entering the dwelling house of another, in the nighttime, with intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felonious purpose be accomplished or not. Wharton. Burrill.
» By statute law in some of the United States, burglary
includes the breaking with felonious intent into a house by day as well as by night, and into other buildings than dwelling houses. Various degrees of the crime are established.