Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Adversary noun ; plural Adversaries [ Middle English adversarie , direct from the Latin, and adversaire , from Old French adversier , aversier , from Latin adversarius (a.) turned toward, (n.) an adversary. See Adverse .] One who is turned against another or others with a design to oppose or resist them; a member of an opposing or hostile party; an opponent; an antagonist; an enemy; a foe.

His ancient knot of dangerous adversaries .
Shak.

Agree with thine adversary quickly.
Matt. v. 25.

It may be thought that to vindicate the permanency of truth is to dispute without an adversary .
Beattie.

The Adversary , The Satan, or the Devil.

Syn. -- Adversary , Enemy , Opponent , Antagonist . Enemy is the only one of these words which necessarily implies a state of personal hostility. Men may be adversaries , antagonists , or opponents to each other in certain respects, and yet have no feelings of general animosity. An adversary may be simply one who is placed for a time in a hostile position, as in a lawsuit, an argument, in chess playing, or at fence. An opponent is one who is ranged against another (perhaps passively) on the opposing side; as a political opponent , an opponent in debate. An antagonist is one who struggles against another with active effort, either in a literal fight or in verbal debate.

Adversary adjective
1. Opposed; opposite; adverse; antagonistic. [ Archaic] Bp. King.

2. (Law) Having an opposing party; not unopposed; as, an adversary suit.

Adversative adjective [ Latin adversativus , from adversari .] Expressing contrariety, opposition, or antithesis; as, an adversative conjunction ( but , however , yet , etc. ); an adversative force. -- Ad*ver"sa*tive*ly , adverb

Adversative noun An adversative word. Harris.

Adverse adjective [ Middle English advers , Old French avers , advers , from Latin adversus , past participle advertere to turn to. See Advert .]


1. Acting against, or in a contrary direction; opposed; contrary; opposite; conflicting; as, adverse winds; an adverse party; a spirit adverse to distinctions of caste.

2. Opposite. "Calpe's adverse height." Byron.

3. In hostile opposition to; unfavorable; unpropitious; contrary to one's wishes; unfortunate; calamitous; afflictive; hurtful; as, adverse fates, adverse circumstances, things adverse .

Happy were it for us all if we bore prosperity as well and wisely as we endure an adverse fortune.
Southey.

Adverse possession (Law) , a possession of real property avowedly contrary to some claim of title in another person. Abbott.

Syn. -- Averse; reluctant; unwilling. See Averse .

Adverse transitive verb [ Latin adversari : confer Old French averser .] To oppose; to resist. [ Obsolete] Gower.

Adversely -277 adverb In an adverse manner; inimically; unfortunately; contrariwise.

Adverseness noun The quality or state of being adverse; opposition.

Adversifoliate, Adversifolious adjective [ Latin adversus opposite + folium leaf.] (Botany) Having opposite leaves, as plants which have the leaves so arranged on the stem.

Adversion noun [ Latin adversio ] A turning towards; attention. [ Obsolete] Dr. H. More.

Adversity noun ; plural Adversities [ Middle English adversite , French adversité , from Latin adversitas .]
1. Opposition; contrariety. [ Obsolete] Wyclif.

Adversity is not without comforts and hopes.
Bacon.

Syn. -- Affliction; distress; misery; disaster; trouble; suffering; trial.

Advert intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Adverted ; present participle & verbal noun Adverting .] [ Latin advertere , transitive verb , to turn to; ad + vertere to turn: confer French avertir . See Advertise .] To turn the mind or attention; to refer; to take heed or notice; -- with to ; as, he adverted to what was said.

I may again advert to the distinction.
Owen.

Syn. - To refer; allude; regard. See Refer .

Advertence, Advertency [ Old French advertence , avertence , Late Latin advertentia , from Latin advertens . See Advertent .] The act of adverting, of the quality of being advertent; attention; notice; regard; heedfulness.

To this difference it is right that advertence should be had in regulating taxation.
J. S. Mill.

Advertent adjective [ Latin advertens , -entis , present participle of advertere . See Advert .] Attentive; heedful; regardful. Sir M. Hale. -- Ad*vert"ent*ly , adverb

Advertise transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Advertised ; present participle & verbal noun Advertising ] [ French avertir , formerly also spelt advertir , to warn, give notice to, Latin advertere to turn to. The ending was probably influenced by the noun advertisement . See Advert .] To give notice to; to inform or apprise; to notify; to make known; hence, to warn; -- often followed by of before the subject of information; as, to advertise a man of his loss. [ Archaic]

I will advertise thee what this people shall do.
Num. xxiv. 14.

4. To give public notice of; to announce publicly, esp. by a printed notice; as, to advertise goods for sale, a lost article, the sailing day of a vessel, a political meeting.

Syn. -- To apprise; inform; make known; notify; announce; proclaim; promulgate; publish.

Advertisement (ăd*vẽr"tĭz*m e nt or ăd`vẽr*tīz"m e nt; 277) noun [ French avertisement , formerly also spelled advertissement , a warning, giving notice, from avertir .]
1. The act of informing or notifying; notification. [ Archaic]

An advertisement of danger.
Bp. Burnet.

2. Admonition; advice; warning. [ Obsolete]

Therefore give me no counsel:
My griefs cry louder than advertisement .
Shak.

3. A public notice, especially a paid notice in some public print; anything that advertises; as, a newspaper containing many advertisements .

Advertiser noun One who, or that which, advertises.

Advice noun [ Middle English avis , French avis ; ... + Old French vis , from Latin visum seemed, seen; really past participle of videre to see, so that vis meant that which has seemed best. See Vision , and confer Avise , Advise .]
1. An opinion recommended or offered, as worthy to be followed; counsel.

We may give advice , but we can not give conduct.
Franklin.

2. Deliberate consideration; knowledge. [ Obsolete]

How shall I dote on her with more advice ,
That thus without advice begin to love her?
Shak.

3. Information or notice given; intelligence; as, late advices from France; -- commonly in the plural.

» In commercial language, advice usually means information communicated by letter; -- used chiefly in reference to drafts or bills of exchange; as, a letter of advice . McElrath.

4. (Crim. Law) Counseling to perform a specific illegal act. Wharton.

Advice boat , a vessel employed to carry dispatches or to reconnoiter; a dispatch boat. -- To take advice . (a) To accept advice. (b) To consult with another or others.

Syn. -- Counsel; suggestion; recommendation; admonition; exhortation; information; notice.

Advisability noun The quality of being advisable; advisableness.

Advisable adjective
1. Proper to be advised or to be done; expedient; prudent.

Some judge it advisable for a man to account with his heart every day.
South.

2. Ready to receive advice. [ R.] South.

Syn. -- Expedient; proper; desirable; befitting.

Advisable-ness noun The quality of being advisable or expedient; expediency; advisability.

Advisably adverb With advice; wisely.

Advise transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Advised ; present participle & verbal noun Advising ] [ Middle English avisen to perceive, consider, inform, French aviser , from Late Latin advisare . advisare ; ad + visare , from Latin videre , visum , to see. See Advice , and confer Avise .]
1. To give advice to; to offer an opinion, as worthy or expedient to be followed; to counsel; to warn. "I shall no more advise thee." Milton.

2. To give information or notice to; to inform; -- with of before the thing communicated; as, we were advised of the risk.

To advise one's self , to bethink one's self; to take counsel with one's self; to reflect; to consider. [ Obsolete]

Bid thy master well advise himself.
Shak.

Syn. -- To counsel; admonish; apprise; acquaint.

Advise transitive verb
1. To consider; to deliberate. [ Obsolete]

Advise if this be worth attempting.
Milton.

2. To take counsel; to consult; -- followed by with ; as, to advise with friends.

Advisedly adverb
1. Circumspectly; deliberately; leisurely. [ Obsolete] Shak.

2. With deliberate purpose; purposely; by design. " Advisedly undertaken." Suckling.

Advisedness noun Deliberate consideration; prudent procedure; caution.

Advisement (ăd*vīz"m e nt) noun [ Middle English avisement , French avisement , from aviser . See Advise , and confer Avisement .]
1. Counsel; advice; information. [ Archaic]

And mused awhile, waking advisement takes of what had passed in sleep.
Daniel.

2. Consideration; deliberation; consultation.

Tempering the passion with advisement slow.
Spenser.

Adviser noun One who advises.

Advisership noun The office of an adviser. [ R.]

Adviso noun [ Confer Spanish aviso . See Advice .] Advice; counsel; suggestion; also, a dispatch or advice boat. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.

Advisory adjective Having power to advise; containing advice; as, an advisory council; their opinion is merely advisory .

The General Association has a general advisory superintendence over all the ministers and churches.
Trumbull.

Advocacy noun [ Old French advocatie , Late Latin advocatia . See Advocate .] The act of pleading for or supporting; work of advocating; intercession.

Advocate noun [ Middle English avocat , avocet , Old French avocat , from Latin advocatus , one summoned or called to another; properly the past participle of advocare to call to, call to one's aid; ad + vocare to call. See Advowee , Avowee , Vocal .]
1. One who pleads the cause of another. Specifically: One who pleads the cause of another before a tribunal or judicial court; a counselor.

» In the English and American Law, advocate is the same as "counsel," "counselor," or "barrister." In the civil and ecclesiastical courts, the term signifies the same as "counsel" at the common law.

2. One who defends, vindicates, or espouses any cause by argument; a pleader; as, an advocate of free trade, an advocate of truth.

3. Christ, considered as an intercessor.

We have an Advocate with the Father.
1 John ii. 1.

Faculty of advocates (Scot.) , the Scottish bar in Edinburgh. -- Lord advocate (Scot.) , the public prosecutor of crimes, and principal crown lawyer. -- Judge advocate . See under Judge .

Advocate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Advocated ; present participle & verbal noun Advocating ] [ See Advocate , noun , Advoke , Avow .] To plead in favor of; to defend by argument, before a tribunal or the public; to support, vindicate, or recommend publicly.

To advocate the cause of thy client.
Bp. Sanderson (1624).

This is the only thing distinct and sensible, that has been advocated .
Burke.

Eminent orators were engaged to advocate his cause.
Mitford.

Advocate intransitive verb To act as advocate. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Advocateship noun Office or duty of an advocate.

Advocation noun [ Latin advocatio : confer Old French avocation . See Advowson .]
1. The act of advocating or pleading; plea; advocacy. [ Archaic]

The holy Jesus . . . sits in heaven in a perpetual advocation for us.
Jer. Taylor.

2. Advowson. [ Obsolete]

The donations or advocations of church livings.
Sanderson.

3. (Scots Law) The process of removing a cause from an inferior court to the supreme court. Bell.

Advocatory adjective Of or pertaining to an advocate. [ R.]

Advoke transitive verb [ Latin advocare . See Advocate .] To summon; to call. [ Obsolete]

Queen Katharine had privately prevailed with the pope to advoke the cause to Rome.
Fuller.

Advolution noun [ Latin advolvere , advolutum , to roll to.] A rolling toward something. [ R.]

Advoutrer noun [ Old French avoutre , avoltre , from Latin adulter . Confer Adulterer .] An adulterer. [ Obsolete]

Advoutress noun An adulteress. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Advoutry, Advowtry noun [ Middle English avoutrie , avouterie , advoutrie , Old French avoutrie , avulterie , from Latin adulterium . Confer Adultery .] Adultery. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Advowee noun [ Middle English avowe , French avoué , from Latin advocatus . See Advocate , Avowee , Avoyer .] One who has an advowson. Cowell.

Advowson noun [ Middle English avoweisoun , Old French avoëson , from Latin advocatio . Confer Advocation .] (Eng. Law) The right of presenting to a vacant benefice or living in the church. [ Originally, the relation of a patron ( advocatus ) or protector of a benefice, and thus privileged to nominate or present to it.]

» The benefices of the Church of England are in every case subjects of presentation. They are nearly 12,000 in number; the advowson of more than half of them belongs to private persons, and of the remainder to the crown, bishops, deans and chapters, universities, and colleges. Amer. Cyc.

Advoyer noun See Avoyer . [ Obsolete]

Adward noun Award. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Adynamia noun [ New Latin adynamia , from Greek ... want of strength; ... priv + ... power, strength.] (Medicine) Considerable debility of the vital powers, as in typhoid fever. Dunglison.

Adynamic adjective [ Confer French adynamique . See Adynamy .]
1. (Medicine) Pertaining to, or characterized by, debility of the vital powers; weak.

2. (Physics) Characterized by the absence of power or force.

Adynamic fevers , malignant or putrid fevers attended with great muscular debility.

Adynamy noun Adynamia. [ R.] Morin.

Adytum noun Adyta . [ Latin , from Greek ..., noun , from ..., adjective , not to be entered; 'a priv. + ... to enter.] The innermost sanctuary or shrine in ancient temples, whence oracles were given. Hence: A private chamber; a sanctum.