Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Aduncity noun [ Latin aduncitas . See Aduncous .] Curvature inwards; hookedness.

The aduncity of the beaks of hawks.
Pope.

Aduncous adjective [ Latin aduncus ; ad + uncus hooked, hook.] Curved inwards; hooked.

Adure transitive verb [ Latin adurere ; ad + urere to burn.] To burn up. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Adurol noun (Photog.) Either of two compounds, a chlorine derivative and bromine derivative, of hydroquinone, used as developers.

Adust adjective [ Latin adustus , past participle of adurere : confer French aduste .]
1. Inflamed or scorched; fiery. "The Libyan air adust ." Milton.

2. Looking as if or scorched; sunburnt.

A tall, thin man, of an adust complexion.
Sir W. Scott.

3. (Medicine) Having much heat in the constitution and little serum in the blood. [ Obsolete] Hence: Atrabilious; sallow; gloomy.

Adusted adjective Burnt; adust. [ Obsolete] Howell.

Adustible adjective That may be burnt. [ Obsolete]

Adustion noun [ Latin adustio , from adurere , adustum : confer French adustion .]
1. The act of burning, or heating to dryness; the state of being thus heated or dried. [ Obsolete] Harvey.

2. (Surg.) Cauterization. Buchanan.

Advance transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Advanced ; present participle & verbal noun Advancing .] [ Middle English avancen , avauncen , French avancer , from a supposed Late Latin abantiare ; ab + ante (F. avant ) before. The spelling with d was a mistake, a- being supposed to be from Latin ad . See Avaunt .]
1. To bring forward; to move towards the van or front; to make to go on.

2. To raise; to elevate. [ Archaic]

They . . . advanced their eyelids.
Shak.

3. To raise to a higher rank; to promote.

Ahasueres . . . advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes.
Esther iii. 1.

4. To accelerate the growth or progress; to further; to forward; to help on; to aid; to heighten; as, to advance the ripening of fruit; to advance one's interests.

5. To bring to view or notice; to offer or propose; to show; as, to advance an argument.

Some ne'er advance a judgment of their own.
Pope.

6. To make earlier, as an event or date; to hasten.

7. To furnish, as money or other value, before it becomes due, or in aid of an enterprise; to supply beforehand; as, a merchant advances money on a contract or on goods consigned to him.

8. To raise to a higher point; to enhance; to raise in rate; as, to advance the price of goods.

9. To extol; to laud. [ Obsolete]

Greatly advancing his gay chivalry.
Spenser.

Syn. -- To raise; elevate; exalt; aggrandize; improve; heighten; accelerate; allege; adduce; assign.

Advance intransitive verb
1. To move or go forward; to proceed; as, he advanced to greet me.

2. To increase or make progress in any respect; as, to advance in knowledge, in stature, in years, in price.

3. To rise in rank, office, or consequence; to be preferred or promoted.

Advanced to a level with ancient peers.
Prescott.

Advance noun [ Confer French avance , from avancer . See Advance , v. ]
1. The act of advancing or moving forward or upward; progress.

2. Improvement or progression, physically, mentally, morally, or socially; as, an advance in health, knowledge, or religion; an advance in rank or office.

3. An addition to the price; rise in price or value; as, an advance on the prime cost of goods.

4. The first step towards the attainment of a result; approach made to gain favor, to form an acquaintance, to adjust a difference, etc.; an overture; a tender; an offer; -- usually in the plural.

[ He] made the like advances to the dissenters.
Swift.

5. A furnishing of something before an equivalent is received (as money or goods), towards a capital or stock, or on loan; payment beforehand; the money or goods thus furnished; money or value supplied beforehand.

I shall, with pleasure, make the necessary advances .
Jay.

The account was made up with intent to show what advances had been made.
Kent.

In advance (a) In front; before. (b) Beforehand; before an equivalent is received. (c) In the state of having advanced money on account; as, A is in advance to B a thousand dollars or pounds.

Advance adjective Before in place, or beforehand in time; -- used for advanced ; as, an advance guard, or that before the main guard or body of an army; advance payment, or that made before it is due; advance proofs, advance sheets, pages of a forthcoming volume, received in advance of the time of publication.

Advanced adjective
1. In the van or front.

2. In the front or before others, as regards progress or ideas; as, advanced opinions, advanced thinkers.

3. Far on in life or time.

A gentleman advanced in years, with a hard experience written in his wrinkles.
Hawthorne.

Advanced guard , a detachment of troops which precedes the march of the main body.

Advancement (ăd*vȧns"m e nt) noun [ Middle English avancement , French avancement . See Advance , transitive verb ]
1. The act of advancing, or the state of being advanced; progression; improvement; furtherance; promotion to a higher place or dignity; as, the advancement of learning.

In heaven . . . every one (so well they love each other) rejoiceth and hath his part in each other's advancement .
Sir T. More.

True religion . . . proposes for its end the joint advancement of the virtue and happiness of the people.
Horsley.

2. An advance of money or value; payment in advance. See Advance , 5.

3. (Law) Property given, usually by a parent to a child, in advance of a future distribution.

4. Settlement on a wife, or jointure. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Advancer noun
1. One who advances; a promoter.

2. A second branch of a buck's antler. Howell.

Advancing edge (Aëronautics) The front edge (in direction of motion) of a supporting surface; -- contr. with following edge , which is the rear edge.

Advancing surface (Aëronautics) The first of two or more surfaces arranged in tandem; -- contr. with following surface , which is the rear surface.

Advancive adjective Tending to advance. [ R.]

Advantage noun [ Middle English avantage , avauntage , French avantage , from avant before. See Advance , and confer Vantage .]
1. Any condition, circumstance, opportunity, or means, particularly favorable to success, or to any desired end; benefit; as, the enemy had the advantage of a more elevated position.

Give me advantage of some brief discourse.
Shak.

The advantages of a close alliance.
Macaulay.

2. Superiority; mastery; -- with of or over .

Lest Satan should get an advantage of us.
2 Cor. ii. 11.

3. Superiority of state, or that which gives it; benefit; gain; profit; as, the advantage of a good constitution.

4. Interest of money; increase; overplus (as the thirteenth in the baker's dozen). [ Obsolete]

And with advantage means to pay thy love.
Shak.

Advantage ground , vantage ground. [ R.] Clarendon. -- To have the advantage of (any one), to have a personal knowledge of one who does not have a reciprocal knowledge. "You have the advantage of me; I don't remember ever to have had the honor." Sheridan. -- To take advantage of , to profit by; (often used in a bad sense) to overreach, to outwit.

Syn. -- Advantage , Advantageous , Benefit , Beneficial . We speak of a thing as a benefit , or as beneficial , when it is simply productive of good; as, the benefits of early discipline; the beneficial effects of adversity. We speak of a thing as an advantage , or as advantageous , when it affords us the means of getting forward, and places us on a "vantage ground" for further effort. Hence, there is a difference between the benefits and the advantages of early education; between a beneficial and an advantageous investment of money.

Advantage transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Advantaged ; present participle & verbal noun Advantaging ] [ French avantager , from avantage . See Advance .] To give an advantage to; to further; to promote; to benefit; to profit.

The truth is, the archbishop's own stiffness and averseness to comply with the court designs, advantaged his adversaries against him.
Fuller.

What is a man advantaged , if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away?
Luke ix. 25.

To advantage one's self of , to avail one's self of. [ Obsolete]

Advantageable adjective Advantageous. [ Obsolete]

Advantageous adjective [ French avantageux , from avantage .] Being of advantage; conferring advantage; gainful; profitable; useful; beneficial; as, an advantageous position; trade is advantageous to a nation.

Advabtageous comparison with any other country.
Prescott.

You see . . . of what use a good reputation is, and how swift and advantageous a harbinger it is, wherever one goes.
Chesterfield.

Advantageously adverb Profitably; with advantage.

Advantageousness noun Profitableness.

Advene intransitive verb [ Latin advenire ; ad + venire to come: confer French avenir , advenir . See Come .] To accede, or come ( to ); to be added to something or become a part of it, though not essential. [ R.]

Where no act of the will advenes as a coefficient.
Coleridge.

Advenient adjective [ Latin adviens , present participle] Coming from outward causes; superadded. [ Obsolete]

Advent noun [ Latin adventus , from advenire , adventum : confer French avent . See Advene .]
1. (Eccl.) The period including the four Sundays before Christmas.

Advent Sunday (Eccl.) , the first Sunday in the season of Advent, being always the nearest Sunday to the feast of St. Andrew (Now. 30). Shipley.

2. The first or the expected second coming of Christ.

3. Coming; any important arrival; approach.

Death's dreadful advent .
Young.

Expecting still his advent home.
Tennyson.

Adventist noun One of a religious body, embracing several branches, who look for the proximate personal coming of Christ; -- called also Second Adventists . Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

Adventitious adjective [ Latin adventitius .]
1. Added extrinsically; not essentially inherent; accidental or causal; additional; supervenient; foreign.

To things of great dimensions, if we annex an adventitious idea of terror, they become without comparison greater.
Burke.

2. (Nat. Hist.) Out of the proper or usual place; as, adventitious buds or roots.

3. (Botany) Accidentally or sparingly spontaneous in a country or district; not fully naturalized; adventive; -- applied to foreign plants.

4. (Medicine) Acquired, as diseases; accidental.

-- Ad`ven*ti"tious*ly , adverb -- Ad`ven*ti"tious*ness , noun

Adventive adjective
1. Accidental.

2. (Botany) Adventitious. Gray.

Adventive noun A thing or person coming from without; an immigrant. [ R.] Bacon.

Adventual adjective Relating to the season of advent. Sanderson.

Adventure noun [ Middle English aventure , aunter , anter , French aventure , from Late Latin adventura , from Latin advenire , adventum , to arrive, which in the Romance languages took the sense of "to happen, befall." See Advene .]


1. That which happens without design; chance; hazard; hap; hence, chance of danger or loss.

Nay, a far less good to man it will be found, if she must, at all adventures , be fastened upon him individually.
Milton.

2. Risk; danger; peril. [ Obsolete]

He was in great adventure of his life.
Berners.

3. The encountering of risks; hazardous and striking enterprise; a bold undertaking, in which hazards are to be encountered, and the issue is staked upon unforeseen events; a daring feat.

He loved excitement and adventure .
Macaulay.

4. A remarkable occurrence; a striking event; a stirring incident; as, the adventures of one's life. Bacon.

5. A mercantile or speculative enterprise of hazard; a venture; a shipment by a merchant on his own account.

A bill of adventure (Com.) , a writing setting forth that the goods shipped are at the owner's risk.

Syn. -- Undertaking; enterprise; venture; event.

Adventure transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Adventured ; present participle & verbal noun Adventuring ] [ Middle English aventuren , auntren , French aventurer , from aventure . See Adventure , noun ]
1. To risk, or hazard; jeopard; to venture.

He would not adventure himself into the theater.
Acts xix. 31.

2. To venture upon; to run the risk of; to dare.

Yet they adventured to go back.
Bunyan.

Discriminations might be adventured .
J. Taylor.

Adventure intransitive verb To try the chance; to take the risk.

I would adventure for such merchandise.
Shak.

Adventureful adjective Given to adventure.

Adventurer noun [ Confer French aventurier .]


1. One who adventures; as, the merchant adventurers ; one who seeks his fortune in new and hazardous or perilous enterprises.

2. A social pretender on the lookout for advancement.

Adventuresome adjective Full of risk; adventurous; venturesome. -- Ad*ven"ture*some*ness , noun

Adventuress noun A female adventurer; a woman who tries to gain position by equivocal means.

Adventurous adjective [ Middle English aventurous , aunterous , Old French aventuros , French aventureux , from aventure . See Adventure , noun ]
1. Inclined to adventure; willing to incur hazard; prone to embark in hazardous enterprise; rashly daring; -- applied to persons.

Bold deed thou hast presumed, adventurous Eve.
Milton.

2. Full of hazard; attended with risk; exposing to danger; requiring courage; rash; -- applied to acts; as, an adventurous undertaking, deed, song.

Syn. -- Rash; foolhardy; presumptuous; enterprising; daring; hazardous; venturesome. See Rash .

Adventurously adverb In an adventurous manner; venturesomely; boldly; daringly.

Adventurousness noun The quality or state of being adventurous; daring; venturesomeness.

Adverb noun [ Latin adverbium ; ad + verbum word, verb: confer French adverbe .] (Gram.) A word used to modify the sense of a verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb, and usually placed near it; as, he writes well ; paper extremely white.

Adverbial adjective [ Latin adverbialis : confer French adverbial .] Of or pertaining to an adverb; of the nature of an adverb; as, an adverbial phrase or form.

Adverbiality noun The quality of being adverbial. Earle.

Adverbialize transitive verb To give the force or form of an adverb to.

Adverbially adverb In the manner of an adverb.

Adversaria noun plural [ Latin adversaria (sc. scripta ), neut. plural of adversarius .] A miscellaneous collection of notes, remarks, or selections; a commonplace book; also, commentaries or notes.

These parchments are supposed to have been St. Paul's adversaria .
Bp. Bull.

Adversarious adjective Hostile. [ R.] Southey.