Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Old French soffime
I trow ye study aboute some sophime . Chaucer.
[ French sophisme
, Latin sophisma
, from Greek ..., from ... to make wise, ... to be become wise, to play the sophist, from ... wise.] The doctrine or mode of reasoning practiced by a sophist; hence, any fallacy designed to deceive.
When a false argument puts on the appearance of a true one, then it is properly called a sophism , or "fallacy". I. Watts.
Let us first rid ourselves of sophisms , those of depraved men, and those of heartless philosophers. I. Taylor.
[ French sophiste
, Latin sophistes
, from Greek .... See Sophism
.] 1. One of a class of men who taught eloquence, philosophy, and politics in ancient Greece; especially, one of those who, by their fallacious but plausible reasoning, puzzled inquirers after truth, weakened the faith of the people, and drew upon themselves general hatred and contempt.
Many of the Sophists doubdtless card not for truth or morality, and merely professed to teach how to make the worse appear the better reason; but there scems no reason to hold that they were a special class, teaching special opinions; even Socrates and Plato were sometimes styled Sophists . Liddell & Scott. 2. Hence, an impostor in argument; a captious or fallacious reasoner.
Sophister noun 1. A sophist. See Sophist .
[ Obsolete] Hooker. 2. (Eng. Univ.) A student who is advanced beyond the first year of his residence.
» The entire course at the university consists of three years and one term, during which the students have the titles of first- year men
, or freshmen
; second-year men
or junior sophs
; third-year men
, or senior sophs
; and, in the last term, questionists
, with reference to the approaching examination. In the older American colleges, the junior and senior classes were originally called, and in some of them are still called, junior sophisters
and senior sophisters
Sophister transitive verb To maintain by sophistry, or by a fallacious argument. [ Obsolete] obham.
Sophistic, Sophistical adjective
[ Latin sophisticus
, Greek ...: confer French sophistique
.] Of or pertaining to a sophist; embodying sophistry; fallaciously subtile; not sound.
His argument . . . is altogether sophistical . Macaulay.
Sophisticate transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Sophisticated
; present participle & verbal noun Sophisticating
.] [ Late Latin sophisticatus
, past participle of sophisticare
to sophisticate.] To render worthless by admixture; to adulterate; to damage; to pervert; as, to sophisticate wine. Howell.
To sophisticate the understanding. Southey.
Yet Butler professes to stick to plain facts, not to sophisticate , not to refine. M. Arnold.
They purchase but sophisticated ware. Dryden. Syn.
-- To adulterate; debase; corrupt; vitiate.
Sophisticate, Sophisticated adjective Adulterated; not pure; not genuine.
So truth, while only one supplied the state, Dryden.
Grew scare and dear, and yet sophisticate .
Sophistication noun [ Confer Late Latin sophisticatio , French sophistication .] The act of sophisticating; adulteration; as, the sophistication of drugs. Boyle.
Sophisticator noun One who sophisticates.
[ Middle English sophistrie
, Old French sophisterie
.] 1. The art or process of reasoning; logic.
[ Obsolete] 2. The practice of a sophist; fallacious reasoning; reasoning sound in appearance only.
The juggle of sophistry consists, for the most part, in usig a word in one sense in the premise, and in another sense in the conclusion. Coleridge. Syn.
-- See Fallacy
Sophomore noun [ Probably from soph or sophister + Greek ... foolish. The word was probably introduced into the United States at an early date, from the University of Cambridge, England. Among the cant terms at that university, as given in the Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, we find Soph- Mor as "the next distinctive appellation to Freshman," but the term has now almost ceased to be known at the English university from whence it came.] One belonging to the second of the four classes in an American college, or one next above a freshman. [ Formerly written also sophimore .]
Sophomoric, Sophomorical adjective Of or pertaining to a sophomore; resembling a sophomore; hence, pretentious; inflated in style or manner; as, sophomoric affectation. [ U. S.]
Sophora noun [ Arabic ...ufair .] (Botany) (a) A genus of leguminous plants. (b) A tree ( Sophora Japonica ) of Eastern Asia, resembling the common locust; occasionally planted in the United States.
Sopite transitive verb
[ Latin sopitus
, past participle of sopire
to put to sleep; akin to sopor
a sleeping draught, a heavy sleep.] To lay asleep; to put to sleep; to quiet.
The king's declaration for the sopiting of all Arminian heresies. Fuller.
Sopition noun The act of putting to sleep, or the state of being put to sleep; sleep.
Dementation and sopition of reason. Sir T. Browne.
Sopor noun [ Latin ] (Medicine) Profound sleep from which a person can be roused only with difficulty.
Soporate transitive verb [ Latin soporatus , past participle or soporare to put to sleep, from sopor a heavy sleep.] To lay or put to sleep; to stupefy. [ Obsolete] Cudworth.
Soporiferous adjective [ Latin soparifer ; sopor a heavy sleep + ferere to bring.] Causing sleep; somniferous; soporific. " Soporiferous medicine." Swift. --- Sop`o*rif"er*ous*ly , adverb -- Sop`o*rif"er*ous*ness , noun
[ Latin sopor
a heavy sleep (akin to somnus
sleep) + facere
to make. See Somnolent
.] Causing sleep; tending to cause sleep; soporiferous; as, the soporific virtues of opium. Syn.
-- Somniferous; narcotic; opiate; anodyne.
Soporific noun A medicine, drug, plant, or other agent that has the quality of inducing sleep; a narcotic.
Soporose, Soporous adjective
[ From Sopor
; confer Latin soporus
, from sopor
a heavy sleep; French soporeux
.] Causing sleep; sleepy.
Sopper noun One who sops. Johnson.
Soppy adjective Soaked or saturated with liquid or moisture; very wet or sloppy.
It [ Yarmouth] looked rather spongy and soppy . Dickens.
Sopra adverb [ Italian , from Latin supra above.] (Mus.) Above; before; over; upon.
Sopranist noun (Mus.) A treble singer.
, Italian Soprani
. [ Italian , from soprano
superior, highest, from sopra
above, Latin supra
. See Sovereign
.] (Mus.) (a) The treble; the highest vocal register; the highest kind of female or boy's voice; the upper part in harmony for mixed voices. (b) A singer, commonly a woman, with a treble voice.
Sopsavine noun See Sops of wine , under Sop .
Sora noun (Zoology) A North American rail ( Porzana Carolina ) common in the Eastern United States. Its back is golden brown, varied with black and white, the front of the head and throat black, the breast and sides of the head and neck slate-colored. Called also American rail , Carolina rail , Carolina crake , common rail , sora rail , soree , meadow chicken , and orto . King sora , the Florida gallinule.
Sorance noun Soreness. [ Obsolete]
[ Latin sorbus the tree
the fruit; confer French sorbe
. See Service tree
.] (Botany) (a) The wild service tree ( Pyrus torminalis ) of Europe; also, the rowan tree. (b) The fruit of these trees. Sorb apple
, the fruit of the sorb, or wild service tree.
-- Sorb tree
, the wild service tree.
[ Confer French sorbate
. See Sorbic
.] (Chemistry) A salt of sorbic acid.
Sorbefacient adjective [ Latin sorbere to suck in, absorb + faciens , present participle of facere to make.] (Medicine) Producing absorption. -- noun A medicine or substance which produces absorption.
Sorbent noun [ Latin sorbens , present participle of sorbere to suck in, to absorb.] An absorbent. [ R.]
[ French sorbet
or Italian sorbetto
or Spanish sorbete
, from the same source as English sherbet
. See Sherbet
.] A kind of beverage; sherbet. Smolett.
[ Confer French sorbique
. See Sorb
.] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or obtained from, the rowan tree, or sorb; specifically, designating an acid, C...H...CO...H, of the acetylene series, found in the unripe berries of this tree, and extracted as a white crystalline substance.
Sorbile adjective [ Latin sorbilis , from sorbere to suck in, to drink down.] Fit to be drunk or sipped. [ Obsolete]
Sorbin noun (Chemistry) An unfermentable sugar, isomeric with glucose, found in the ripe berries of the rowan tree, or sorb, and extracted as a sweet white crystalline substance; -- called also mountain-ash sugar .
Sorbite noun [ Latin sorbus service tree.] (Chemistry) A sugarlike substance, isomeric with mannite and dulcite, found with sorbin in the ripe berries of the sorb, and extracted as a sirup or a white crystalline substance. -- Sor*bit"ic adjective
Sorbition noun [ Latin sorbitio .] The act of drinking or sipping. [ Obsolete]
Sorbonical adjective Belonging to the Sorbonne or to a Sorbonist. Bale.
[ French sorboniste
.] A doctor of the Sorbonne , or theological college, in the University of Paris, founded by Robert de Sorbon , a.d. 1252. It was suppressed in the Revolution of 1789.
[ Confer French sorcier
. See Sorcery
.] A conjurer; an enchanter; a magician. Bacon.
Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers . Ex. vii. 11.
Sorceress noun A female sorcerer.
Sorcering noun Act or practice of using sorcery.
Sorcerous adjective Of or pertaining to sorcery.
; plural Sorceries
. [ Middle English sorcerie
, Old French sorcerie
, from Old French & French sorcier
a sorcerer, Late Latin sortiarius
, from Latin sors
, a lot, decision by lot, fate, destiny. See Sort
] Divination by the assistance, or supposed assistance, of evil spirits, or the power of commanding evil spirits; magic; necromancy; witchcraft; enchantment.
Adder's wisdom I have learned, Milton.
To fence my ear against thy sorceries .
Sord noun See Sward .
[ R.] Milton.
Sordes noun [ Latin , from sordere to be dirty or foul.] Foul matter; excretion; dregs; filthy, useless, or rejected matter of any kind; specifically (Medicine) , the foul matter that collects on the teeth and tongue in low fevers and other conditions attended with great vital depression.