Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Ragout (rȧ*gō") noun [ French ragoût , from ragoûter to restore one's appetite, from Latin prefix re- re- + ad to + gustare to taste, gustus taste. See Gust relish.] A dish made of pieces of meat, stewed, and highly seasoned; as, a ragout of mutton.

Ragpicker (răg"pĭk`ẽr) noun One who gets a living by picking up rags and refuse things in the streets.

Ragtime noun (Mus.) Time characterized by syncopation, as in many negro melodies. [ Colloq.]

Raguled (rȧ*gūld"), Rag*guled" (răg-) adjective [ Confer French raguer to chafe, fret, rub, or English rag .] (Her.) Notched in regular diagonal breaks; -- said of a line, or a bearing having such an edge.

Ragweed (răg"wēd`) noun (Botany) A common American composite weed ( Ambrosia artemisiæfolia ) with finely divided leaves; hogweed.

Great ragweed , a coarse American herb ( Ambrosia trifida ), with rough three-lobed opposite leaves.

Ragwork (-wûrk`) noun (Masonry) A kind of rubblework. In the United States, any rubblework of thin and small stones.

Ragwort (-wûrt`) noun (Botany) A name given to several species of the composite genus Senecio .

» Senecio aureus is the golden ragwort of the United States; S. elegans is the purple ragwort of South Africa.

Raia (rā"yȧ) noun [ Latin , a ray. Confer Ray the fish.] (Zoology) A genus of rays which includes the skates. See Skate .

Raid (rād) noun [ Icelandic reið a riding, raid; akin to English road . See Road a way.]
1. A hostile or predatory incursion; an inroad or incursion of mounted men; a sudden and rapid invasion by a cavalry force; a foray.

Marauding chief! his sole delight
The moonlight raid , the morning fight.
Sir W. Scott.

There are permanent conquests, temporary occupations, and occasional raids .
H. Spenser.

» A Scottish word which came into common use in the United States during the Civil War, and was soon extended in its application.

2. An attack or invasion for the purpose of making arrests, seizing property, or plundering; as, a raid of the police upon a gambling house; a raid of contractors on the public treasury. [ Colloq. U. S.]

Raid transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Raided ; present participle & verbal noun Raiding .] To make a raid upon or into; as, two regiments raided the border counties.

Raider (-ẽr) noun One who engages in a raid. [ U.S.]

Raiffeisen adjective (Economics) Designating, or pertaining to, a form of coöperative bank founded among the German agrarian population by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (1818-88); as, Raiffeisen banks, the Raiffeisen system, etc. The banks are unlimited-liability institutions making small loans at a low rate of interest, for a designated purpose, to worthy members only.

Rail (rāl) noun [ Middle English reil , reʒel , Anglo-Saxon hrægel , hrægl , a garment; akin to Old High German hregil , OFries. hreil .] An outer cloak or covering; a neckerchief for women. Fairholt.

Rail intransitive verb [ Etymol. uncertain.] To flow forth; to roll out; to course. [ Obsolete]

Streams of tears from her fair eyes forth railing .
Spenser.

Rail noun [ Akin to LG. & Swedish regel bar, bolt, German riegel a rail, bar, or bolt, Old High German rigil , rigel , bar, bolt, and possibly to English row a line.]
1. A bar of timber or metal, usually horizontal or nearly so, extending from one post or support to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc.

2. (Architecture) A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling. See Illust. of Style .

3. (Railroad) A bar of steel or iron, forming part of the track on which the wheels roll. It is usually shaped with reference to vertical strength, and is held in place by chairs, splices, etc.

4. (Nautical) (a) The stout, narrow plank that forms the top of the bulwarks. (b) The light, fencelike structures of wood or metal at the break of the deck, and elsewhere where such protection is needed.

Rail fence . See under Fence . -- Rail guard . (a) A device attached to the front of a locomotive on each side for clearing the rail of obstructions . (b) A guard rail. See under Guard . -- Rail joint (Railroad) , a splice connecting the adjacent ends of rails, in distinction from a chair , which is merely a seat. The two devices are sometimes united. Among several hundred varieties, the fish joint is standard. See Fish joint , under Fish . -- Rail train (Iron & Steel Manuf.) , a train of rolls in a rolling mill, for making rails for railroads from blooms or billets.

Rail transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Railed (rāld); present participle & verbal noun Railing .]
1. To inclose with rails or a railing.

It ought to be fenced in and railed .
Ayliffe.

2. To range in a line. [ Obsolete]

They were brought to London all railed in ropes, like a team of horses in a cart.
Bacon.

Rail noun [ French râle , from râler to have a rattling in the throat; of German origin, and akin to English rattle . See Rattle , v. ] (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds of the family Rallidæ , especially those of the genus Rallus , and of closely allied genera. They are prized as game birds.

» The common European water rail ( Rallus aquaticus ) is called also bilcock , skitty coot , and brook runner . The best known American species are the clapper rail, or salt-marsh hen ( Rallus longirostris , var. crepitans ); the king, or red-breasted, rail ( R. elegans ) (called also fresh-water marsh-hen ); the lesser clapper, or Virginia, rail ( R. Virginianus ); and the Carolina, or sora, rail ( Porzana Carolina ). See Sora .

Land rail (Zoology) , the corncrake.

Rail intransitive verb [ French railler ; confer Spanish rallar to grate, scrape, molest; perhaps from (assumed) Late Latin radiculare , from Latin radere to scrape, grate. Confer Rally to banter, Rase .] To use insolent and reproachful language; to utter reproaches; to scoff; -- followed by at or against , formerly by on . Shak.

And rail at arts he did not understand.
Dryden.

Lesbia forever on me rails .
Swift.

Rail (rāl) transitive verb
1. To rail at. [ Obsolete] Feltham.

2. To move or influence by railing. [ R.]

Rail the seal from off my bond.
Shak.

Rail noun A railroad as a means of transportation; as, to go by rail ; a place not accesible by rail .

Railer (-ẽr) noun One who rails; one who scoffs, insults, censures, or reproaches with opprobrious language.

Railing adjective Expressing reproach; insulting.

Angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them.
2 Pet. ii. 11.

Railing noun
1. A barrier made of a rail or of rails.

2. Rails in general; also, material for making rails.

Railingly adverb With scoffing or insulting language.

Raillery (răl"lẽr*ȳ or rāl"-; 277) noun [ French raillerie , from railler . See Rail to scoff.] Pleasantry or slight satire; banter; jesting language; satirical merriment.

Let raillery be without malice or heat.
B. Jonson.

Studies employed on low objects; the very naming of them is sufficient to turn them into raillery .
Addison.

Railleur (rȧ`lyẽr" or rȧ`yẽr") noun [ French] A banterer; a jester; a mocker. [ R.] Wycherley.

Railroad (rāl"rōd`), Rail"way` (- wā`) noun
1. A road or way consisting of one or more parallel series of iron or steel rails, patterned and adjusted to be tracks for the wheels of vehicles, and suitably supported on a bed or substructure.

» The modern railroad is a development and adaptation of the older tramway.

2. The road, track, etc., with all the lands, buildings, rolling stock, franchises, etc., pertaining to them and constituting one property; as, a certain railroad has been put into the hands of a receiver.

» Railway is the commoner word in England; railroad the commoner word in the United States.

» In the following and similar phrases railroad and railway are used interchangeably: --

Atmospheric railway , Elevated railway , etc. See under Atmospheric , Elevated , etc. -- Cable railway . See Cable road , under Cable . -- Ferry railway , a submerged track on which an elevated platform runs, for carrying a train of cars across a water course. -- Gravity railway , a railway, in a hilly country, on which the cars run by gravity down gentle slopes for long distances after having been hauled up steep inclines to an elevated point by stationary engines. -- Railway brake , a brake used in stopping railway cars or locomotives. -- Railway car , a large, heavy vehicle with flanged wheels fitted for running on a railway. [ U.S.] -- Railway carriage , a railway passenger car. [ Eng.] -- Railway scale , a platform scale bearing a track which forms part of the line of a railway, for weighing loaded cars. -- Railway slide . See Transfer table , under Transfer . -- Railway spine (Medicine) , an abnormal condition due to severe concussion of the spinal cord, such as occurs in railroad accidents. It is characterized by ataxia and other disturbances of muscular function, sensory disorders, pain in the back, impairment of general health, and cerebral disturbance, -- the symptoms often not developing till some months after the injury. -- Underground railroad or railway . (a) A railroad or railway running through a tunnel, as beneath the streets of a city . (b) Formerly, a system of coöperation among certain active antislavery people in the United States, by which fugitive slaves were secretly helped to reach Canada . [ In the latter sense railroad , and not railway , was used.] "Their house was a principal entrepôt of the underground railroad ." W. D. Howells.

Railroad transitive verb To carry or send by railroad; usually fig., to send or put through at high speed or in great haste; to hurry or rush unduly; as, to railroad a bill through Condress. [ Colloq., U. S.]

Railroading noun The construction of a railroad; the business of managing or operating a railroad. [ Colloq. U. S.]

Raiment (rā"m e nt) noun [ Abbrev. from arraiment . See Array .]
1. Clothing in general; vesture; garments; -- usually singular in form, with a collective sense.

Living, both food and raiment she supplies.
Dryden.

2. An article of dress. [ R. or Obsolete] Sir P. Sidney.

Rain (rān) noun & v. Reign. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Rain (rān) noun [ Middle English rein , Anglo-Saxon regen ; akin to OFries. rein , D. & German regen , Old Saxon & Old High German regan , Icelandic , Dan., & Swedish regn , Goth. rign , and probably to Latin rigare to water, to wet; confer Greek bre`chein to wet, to rain.] Water falling in drops from the clouds; the descent of water from the clouds in drops.

Rain is water by the heat of the sun divided into very small parts ascending in the air, till, encountering the cold, it be condensed into clouds, and descends in drops.
Ray.

Fair days have oft contracted wind and rain .
Milton.

» Rain is distinguished from mist by the size of the drops, which are distinctly visible. When water falls in very small drops or particles, it is called mist ; and fog is composed of particles so fine as to be not only individually indistinguishable, but to float or be suspended in the air. See Fog , and Mist .

Rain band (Meteorol.) , a dark band in the yellow portion of the solar spectrum near the sodium line, caused by the presence of watery vapor in the atmosphere, and hence sometimes used in weather predictions. -- Rain bird (Zoology) , the yaffle, or green woodpecker. [ Prov. Eng.] The name is also applied to various other birds, as to Saurothera vetula of the West Indies. -- Rain fowl (Zoology) , the channel-bill cuckoo ( Scythrops Novæ-Hollandiæ ) of Australia. -- Rain gauge , an instrument of various forms for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at any given place in a given time; a pluviometer; an ombrometer. -- Rain goose (Zoology) , the red-throated diver, or loon. [ Prov. Eng.] -- Rain prints (Geol.) , markings on the surfaces of stratified rocks, presenting an appearance similar to those made by rain on mud and sand, and believed to have been so produced. -- Rain quail . (Zoology) See Quail , noun , 1. -- Rain water , water that has fallen from the clouds in rain.

Rain intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rained (rānd); present participle & verbal noun Raining .] [ Anglo-Saxon regnian , akin to German regnen , Goth. rignjan . See Rain , noun ]
1. To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; -- used mostly with it for a nominative; as, it rains .

The rain it raineth every day.
Shak.

2. To fall or drop like water from the clouds; as, tears rained from their eyes.

Rain (rān) transitive verb
1. To pour or shower down from above, like rain from the clouds.

Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you.
Ex. xvi. 4.

2. To bestow in a profuse or abundant manner; as, to rain favors upon a person.

Rain-tight (-tīt`) adjective So tight as to exclude rain; as, a rain-tight roof.

Rainbow (-bō`) noun [ Anglo-Saxon regenboga , akin to German regenbogen . See Rain , and Bow anything bent.] A bow or arch exhibiting, in concentric bands, the several colors of the spectrum, and formed in the part of the hemisphere opposite to the sun by the refraction and reflection of the sun's rays in drops of falling rain.

» Besides the ordinary bow, called also primary rainbow , which is formed by two refractions and one reflection, there is also another often seen exterior to it, called the secondary rainbow , concentric with the first, and separated from it by a small interval. It is formed by two refractions and two reflections, is much fainter than the primary bow, and has its colors arranged in the reverse order from those of the latter.

Lunar rainbow , a fainter arch or rainbow, formed by the moon. -- Marine rainbow , or Sea bow , a similar bow seen in the spray of waves at sea. -- Rainbow trout (Zoology) , a bright-colored trout ( Salmo irideus ), native of the mountains of California, but now extensively introduced into the Eastern States, Japan, and other countries; -- called also brook trout , mountain trout , and golden trout . -- Rainbow wrasse . (Zoology) See under Wrasse . -- Supernumerary rainbow , a smaller bow, usually of red and green colors only, sometimes seen within the primary or without the secondary rainbow, and in contact with them.

Rainbowed (-bōd`) adjective Formed with or like a rainbow.

Raindeer (-dēr`) noun (Zoology) See Reindeer . [ Obsolete]

Raindrop (-drŏp`) noun A drop of rain.

Rainfall (rān"fal`) noun A fall or descent of rain; the water, or amount of water, that falls in rain; as, the average annual rainfall of a region.

Supplied by the rainfall of the outer ranges of Sinchul and Singaleleh.
Hooker.

Raininess (-ĭ*nĕs) noun The state of being rainy.

Rainless adjective Destitute of rain; as, a rainless region.

Rainy (-ȳ) adjective [ Anglo-Saxon regenig .] Abounding with rain; wet; showery; as, rainy weather; a rainy day or season.

Raip (rāp) noun [ Confer Icelandic reip rope. Confer Rope .] A rope; also, a measure equal to a rod. [ Scot.]

Rais (rīs) noun Same as 2d Reis .

Raisable (rāz"ȧ*b'l) adjective Capable of being raised.

Raise (rāz) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Raised (rāzd); present participle & verbal noun Raising .] [ Middle English reisen , Icelandic reisa , causative of rīsa to rise. See Rise , and confer Rear to raise.]


1. To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place; to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to raise a stone or weight. Hence, figuratively: --

(a) To bring to a higher condition or situation; to elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to advance; to enhance; as, to raise from a low estate; to raise to office; to raise the price, and the like.

This gentleman came to be raised to great titles.
Clarendon.

The plate pieces of eight were raised three pence in the piece.
Sir W. Temple.

(b) To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as, to raise the pulse; to raise the voice; to raise the spirits or the courage; to raise the heat of a furnace.

(c) To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to raise the pitch of the voice; to raise the temperature of a room.

2. To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to raise a mast or flagstaff. Hence: --

(a) To cause to spring up from a recumbent position, from a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse.

They shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.
Job xiv. 12.

(b) To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult, struggle, or war; to excite.

He commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind.
Ps. cvii. 25.

Æneas . . . employs his pains,
In parts remote, to raise the Tuscan swains.
Dryden.

(c) To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from death; to give life to.

Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ?
Acts xxvi. 8.

3. To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to appear; to give rise to; to originate, produce, cause, effect, or the like. Hence, specifically: --

(a) To form by the accumulation of materials or constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to raise a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones.

I will raise forts against thee.
Isa. xxix. 3.

(b) To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise money, troops, and the like. "To raise up a rent." Chaucer.

(c) To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or propagated; to grow; as, to raise corn, barley, hops, etc.; to raise cattle. "He raised sheep." "He raised wheat where none grew before." Johnson's Dict.

» In some parts of the United States, notably in the Southern States, raise is also commonly applied to the rearing or bringing up of children.

I was raised , as they say in Virginia, among the mountains of the North.
Paulding.

(d) To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise, come forth, or appear; -- often with up .

I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee.
Deut. xviii. 18.

God vouchsafes to raise another world
From him [ Noah], and all his anger to forget.
Milton.

(e) To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start; to originate; as, to raise a smile or a blush.

Thou shalt not raise a false report.
Ex. xxiii. 1.

(f) To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up.

Soon as the prince appears, they raise a cry.
Dryden.

(g) To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as, to raise a point of order; to raise an objection.

4. To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread.

Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and raise paste.
Spectator.

5. (Nautical) (a) To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher by drawing nearer to it; as, to raise Sandy Hook light. (b) To let go; as in the command, Raise tacks and sheets, i. e. , Let go tacks and sheets.

6. (Law) To create or constitute; as, to raise a use, that is, to create it. Burrill.

To raise a blockade (Mil.) , to remove or break up a blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or forces employed in enforcing it, or by driving them away or dispersing them. -- To raise a check , note , bill of exchange , etc., to increase fraudulently its nominal value by changing the writing, figures, or printing in which the sum payable is specified. -- To raise a siege , to relinquish an attempt to take a place by besieging it, or to cause the attempt to be relinquished. -- To raise steam , to produce steam of a required pressure. -- To raise the wind , to procure ready money by some temporary expedient. [ Colloq.] -- To raise Cain , or To raise the devil , to cause a great disturbance; to make great trouble. [ Slang]

Syn. -- To lift; exalt; elevate; erect; originate; cause; produce; grow; heighten; aggravate; excite.

Raised (rāzd) adjective
1. Lifted up; showing above the surroundings; as, raised or embossed metal work.

2. Leavened; made with leaven, or yeast; -- used of bread, cake, etc., as distinguished from that made with cream of tartar, soda, etc. See Raise , transitive verb , 4.

Raised beach . See under Beach , noun

Raiser (rāz"ẽr) noun One who, or that which, raises (in various senses of the verb).

Raiæ (rā"yē) noun plural [ New Latin See Raia .] (Zoology) The order of elasmobranch fishes which includes the sawfishes, skates, and rays; -- called also Rajæ , and Rajii .