Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Radius (rā"dĭ*ŭs) noun ; plural Latin Radii (- ī); English Radiuses (-ŭs*ĕz). [ Latin , a staff, rod, spoke of a wheel, radius, ray. See Ray a divergent line.]
1. (Geom.) A right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery; the semidiameter of a circle or sphere.

2. (Anat.) The preaxial bone of the forearm, or brachium, corresponding to the tibia of the hind limb. See Illust. of Artiodactyla .

» The radius is on the same side of the limb as the thumb, or pollex, and in man it is so articulated that its lower end is capable of partial rotation about the ulna.

3. (Botany) A ray, or outer floret, of the capitulum of such plants as the sunflower and the daisy. See Ray , 2.

4. plural (Zoology) (a) The barbs of a perfect feather. (b) Radiating organs, or color-markings, of the radiates.

5. The movable limb of a sextant or other angular instrument. Knight.

Radius bar (Machinery) , a bar pivoted at one end, about which it swings, and having its other end attached to a piece which it causes to move in a circular arc. -- Radius of curvature . See under Curvature .

Radius vector (vĕk"tŏr).
1. (Math.) A straight line (or the length of such line) connecting any point, as of a curve, with a fixed point, or pole, round which the straight line turns, and to which it serves to refer the successive points of a curve, in a system of polar coördinates. See Coördinate , noun

2. (Astron.) An ideal straight line joining the center of an attracting body with that of a body describing an orbit around it, as a line joining the sun and a planet or comet, or a planet and its satellite.

Radix (rā"dĭks) noun ; plural Latin Radices (răd"ĭ*sēz), English Radixes (rā"dĭks*ĕz). [ Latin radix , -icis , root. See Radish .]
1. (Philol.) A primitive word, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.

2. (Math.) (a) A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. Thus, 10 is the radix , or base, of the common system of logarithms, and also of the decimal system of numeration. (b) (Alg.) A finite expression, from which a series is derived. [ R.] Hutton.

3. (Botany) The root of a plant.

Radula (răd"u*lȧ) noun ; plural Radulæ (- lē). [ Latin , a scraper, from radere to scrape.] (Zoology) The chitinous ribbon bearing the teeth of mollusks; -- called also lingual ribbon , and tongue . See Odontophore .

Raduliform (rȧ*dū"lĭ*fôrm) adjective [ Latin radula a scraper + -form .] Rasplike; as, raduliform teeth.

Raff (rȧf) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Raffed (rȧft); present participle & verbal noun Raffing .] [ Old French raffer , of German origin; confer German raffen ; akin to English rap to snatch. See Rap , and confer Riffraff , Rip to tear.] To sweep, snatch, draw, or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep. [ Obsolete]

Causes and effects which I thus raff up together.
Carew.

Raff noun
1. A promiscuous heap; a jumble; a large quantity; lumber; refuse. "A raff of errors." Barrow.

2. The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob; -- chiefly used in the compound or duplicate, riffraff .

3. A low fellow; a churl.

Raff merchant , a dealer in lumber and odd refuse. [ Prov. Eng.]

Raffaelesque (răf`fȧ*ĕl*ĕsk") adjective Raphaelesque.

Raffia (răf"fĭ*ȧ) noun (Botany) A fibrous material used for tying plants, said to come from the leaves of a palm tree of the genus Raphia . J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).

Raffia palm (a) A pinnate- leaved palm ( Raphia ruffia ) native of Madagascar, and of considerable economic importance on account of the strong fiber (raffia) obtained from its leafstalks. (b) The jupati palm.

Raffinose (răf"fĭ*nōs`) noun [ French raffiner to refine.] (Chemistry) A colorless crystalline slightly sweet substance obtained from the molasses of the sugar beet.

Raffish (rȧf"ĭsh) adjective Resembling, or having the character of, raff, or a raff; worthless; low.

A sad, raffish , disreputable character.
Thackeray.

Raffle (răf"f'l) noun [ French rafle ; faire rafle to sweep stakes, from rafler to carry or sweep away, rafler tout to sweep stakes; of German origin; confer German raffeln to snatch up, to rake. See Raff , v. ]
1. A kind of lottery, in which several persons pay, in shares, the value of something put up as a stake, and then determine by chance (as by casting dice) which one of them shall become the sole possessor.

2. A game of dice in which he who threw three alike won all the stakes. [ Obsolete] Cotgrave.

Raffle intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Raffled (-f'ld); present participle & verbal noun Raffling (-flĭng).] To engage in a raffle; as, to raffle for a watch.

Raffle transitive verb To dispose of by means of a raffle; -- often followed by off ; as, to raffle off a horse.

Raffle noun [ See Raff , noun & v. , and Raffle .] Refuse; rubbish; raff.

Raffler (răf"flẽr) noun One who raffles.

Rafflesia (răf*flē"zhĭ*ȧ) noun [ New Latin Named from its discoverer, Sir S. Raffles .] (Botany) A genus of stemless, leafless plants, living parasitically upon the roots and stems of grapevines in Malaysia. The flowers have a carrionlike odor, and are very large, in one species ( Rafflesia Arnoldi ) having a diameter of two or three feet.

Raft (rȧft), obsolete imperfect & past participle of Reave . Spenser.

Raft noun [ Originally, a rafter, spar, and from Icelandic raptr a rafter; akin to Danish raft , Prov. German raff a rafter, spar; confer Old High German rāfo , rāvo , a beam, rafter, Icelandic rāf roof. Confer Rafter , noun ]
1. A collection of logs, boards, pieces of timber, or the like, fastened together, either for their own collective conveyance on the water, or to serve as a support in conveying other things; a float.

2. A collection of logs, fallen trees, etc. (such as is formed in some Western rivers of the United States), which obstructs navigation. [ U.S.]

3. [ Perhaps akin to raff a heap.] A large collection of people or things taken indiscriminately. [ Slang, U. S.] "A whole raft of folks." W. D. Howells.

Raft bridge . (a) A bridge whose points of support are rafts . (b) A bridge that consists of floating timbers fastened together. -- Raft duck . [ The name alludes to its swimming in dense flocks.] (Zoology) (a) The bluebill, or greater scaup duck; -- called also flock duck . See Scaup . (b) The redhead. -- Raft port (Nautical) , a large, square port in a vessel's side for loading or unloading timber or other bulky articles; a timber or lumber port.

Raft transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rafted ; present participle & verbal noun Rafting .] To transport on a raft, or in the form of a raft; to make into a raft; as, to raft timber.

Rafte (rȧf"t e ), obsolete imperfect of Reave . Chaucer.

Rafter (rȧft"ẽr) noun A raftsman.

Rafter noun [ Anglo-Saxon ræfter ; akin to English raft , noun See Raft .] (Architecture) Originally, any rough and somewhat heavy piece of timber. Now, commonly, one of the timbers of a roof which are put on sloping, according to the inclination of the roof. See Illust. of Queen-post .

[ Courtesy] oft is sooner found in lowly sheds,
With smoky rafters , than in tapestry halls.
Milton.

Rafter transitive verb
1. To make into rafters, as timber.

2. To furnish with rafters, as a house.

3. (Agriculture) To plow so as to turn the grass side of each furrow upon an unplowed ridge; to ridge. [ Eng.]

Rafting noun The business of making or managing rafts.

Raftsman (rȧfts"m a n) noun ; plural Raftsmen (-m e n). A man engaged in rafting.

Rafty (rȧf"tȳ) adjective [ Perhaps akin to German reif hoarfrost.] Damp; musty. [ Prov. Eng.]

Rag (răg) transitive verb [ Confer Icelandic rægja to calumniate, Old High German ruogen to accuse, German rügen to censure, Anglo-Saxon wrēgan , Goth. wrōhjan to accuse.] To scold or rail at; to rate; to tease; to torment; to banter. [ Prov. Eng.] Pegge.

Rag noun [ Middle English ragge , probably of Scand. origin; confer Icelandic rögg a tuft, shagginess, Swedish ragg rough hair. Confer Rug , noun ]
1. A piece of cloth torn off; a tattered piece of cloth; a shred; a tatter; a fragment.

Cowls, hoods, and habits, with their wearers, tossed.
And fluttered into rags .
Milton.

Not having otherwise any rag of legality to cover the shame of their cruelty.
Fuller.

2. plural Hence, mean or tattered attire; worn-out dress.

And virtue, though in rags , will keep me warm.
Dryden.

3. A shabby, beggarly fellow; a ragamuffin.

The other zealous rag is the compositor.
B. Jonson.

Upon the proclamation, they all came in, both tag and rag .
Spenser.

4. (Geol.) A coarse kind of rock, somewhat cellular in texture.

5. (Metal Working) A ragged edge.

6. A sail, or any piece of canvas. [ Nautical Slang]

Our ship was a clipper with every rag set.
Lowell.

Rag bolt , an iron pin with barbs on its shank to retain it in place. -- Rag carpet , a carpet of which the weft consists of narrow strips of cloth sewed together, end to end. -- Rag dust , fine particles of ground-up rags, used in making papier-maché and wall papers. -- Rag wheel . (a) A chain wheel; a sprocket wheel . (b) A polishing wheel made of disks of cloth clamped together on a mandrel. -- Rag wool , wool obtained by tearing woolen rags into fine bits; shoddy.

Rag (răg) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Ragged (răgd); present participle & verbal noun Ragging (-gĭng).] To become tattered. [ Obsolete]

Rag transitive verb
1. To break (ore) into lumps for sorting.

2. To cut or dress roughly, as a grindstone.

Ragabash (-ȧ*băsh`), Rag"a*brash` (-brăsh`) noun An idle, ragged person. Nares. Grose.

Ragamuffin (-mŭf"fĭn) noun [ Confer Ragamofin , the name of a demon in some of the old mysteries.]
1. A paltry or disreputable fellow; a mean wretch. Dryden.

2. A person who wears ragged clothing. [ Colloq.]

3. (Zoology) The long-tailed titmouse. [ Prov. Eng.]

Rage (rāj) noun [ French, from Latin rabies , from rabere to rave; confer Sanskrit rabh to seize, rabhas violence. Confer Rabid , Rabies , Rave .]
1. Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will. "In great rage of pain." Bacon.

He appeased the rage of hunger with some scraps of broken meat.
Macaulay.

Convulsed with a rage of grief.
Hawthorne.

2. Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury.

Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage .
Milton.

3. A violent or raging wind. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

4. The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the rage .

Syn. -- Anger; vehemence; excitement; passion; fury. See Anger .

Rage intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Raged (rājd); present participle & verbal noun Raging (rā"jĭng).] [ Old French ragier . See Rage , noun ]


1. To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion. "Whereat he inly raged ." Milton.

When one so great begins to rage , he is hunted
Even to falling.
Shak.

2. To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the raging sea or winds.

Why do the heathen rage ?
Ps. ii. 1.

The madding wheels
Of brazen chariots raged ; dire was the noise.
Milton.

3. To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with destruction or fatal effect; as, the plague raged in Cairo.

4. To toy or act wantonly; to sport. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Syn. -- To storm; fret; chafe; fume.

Rage transitive verb To enrage. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Rageful (-ful) adjective Full of rage; expressing rage. [ Obsolete] " Rageful eyes." Sir P. Sidney.

Ragery (rā"jẽr*ȳ) noun Wantonness. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Ragged (răg"gĕd) adjective [ From Rag , noun ]
1. Rent or worn into tatters, or till the texture is broken; as, a ragged coat; a ragged sail.

2. Broken with rough edges; having jags; uneven; rough; jagged; as, ragged rocks.

3. Hence, harsh and disagreeable to the ear; dissonant. [ R.] "A ragged noise of mirth." Herbert.

4. Wearing tattered clothes; as, a ragged fellow.

5. Rough; shaggy; rugged.

What shepherd owns those ragged sheep?
Dryden.

Ragged lady (Botany) , the fennel flower ( Nigella Damascena ). -- Ragged robin (Botany) , a plant of the genus Lychnis ( Latin Flos- cuculi ), cultivated for its handsome flowers, which have the petals cut into narrow lobes. -- Ragged sailor (Botany) , prince's feather ( Polygonum orientale ). -- Ragged school , a free school for poor children, where they are taught and in part fed; -- a name given at first because they came in their common clothing. [ Eng.]

-- Rag"ged*ly , adverb -- Rag"ged*ness , noun

Raggie (răg"gĭ), or Rag"gy adjective Ragged; rough. [ Obsolete] "A stony and raggie hill." Holland.

Raghuvansa (rŭg`u*vŭn"sȧ) noun [ Sanskrit Raguvamça .] A celebrated Sanskrit poem having for its subject the Raghu dynasty.

Raging (rā"jĭng), adjective & noun from Rage , intransitive verb -- Ra"ging*ly , adverb

Ragious (rā"jŭs) adjective Raging; furious; rageful. [ Obsolete] -- Ra"gious*ness , noun [ Obsolete]

Raglan (răg"l a n) noun A loose overcoat with large sleeves; -- named from Lord Raglan , an English general.

Ragman (-m a n) noun ; plural Ragmen (-m e n). A man who collects, or deals in, rags.

Ragman noun [ See Ragman's roll .] A document having many names or numerous seals, as a papal bull. [ Obsolete] Piers Plowman.

Ragman's roll (-m a nz rōl`). [ For ragman roll a long list of names, the devil's roll or list; where ragman is of Scand. origin; confer Icelandic ragmenni a craven person, Swedish raggen the devil. Icelandic ragmenni is from ragr cowardly (another form of argr , akin to Anglo-Saxon earg cowardly, vile, German arg bad) + menni (in comp.) man, akin to English man . See Roll , and confer Rigmarole .] The rolls of deeds on parchment in which the Scottish nobility and gentry subscribed allegiance to Edward I. of England, A. D. 1296. [ Also written ragman- roll .]

Ragnarok Rag"na*rök" noun [ Icelandic , from regin , rögn , gods + rök reason, origin, history; confused with ragna- rökr the twilight of the gods.] (Norse Myth.) The so-called "Twilight of the Gods" (called in German Götterdämmerung ), the final destruction of the world in the great conflict between the Æsir (gods) on the one hand, and on the other, the gaints and the powers of Hel under the leadership of Loki (who is escaped from bondage).