Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Radical (răd"ĭ*k a l) adjective [ French, from Latin radicalis having roots, from radix , -icis , a root. See Radix .]
1. Of or pertaining to the root; proceeding directly from the root.

2. Hence: Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to the center, to the foundation, to the ultimate sources, to the principles, or the like; original; fundamental; thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, radical evils; radical reform; a radical party.

The most determined exertions of that authority, against them, only showed their radical independence.
Burke.

3. (Botany) (a) Belonging to, or proceeding from, the root of a plant; as, radical tubers or hairs. (b) Proceeding from a rootlike stem, or one which does not rise above the ground; as, the radical leaves of the dandelion and the sidesaddle flower.

4. (Philol.) Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate source of derivation; as, a radical verbal form.

5. (Math.) Of or pertaining to a radix or root; as, a radical quantity; a radical sign. See below.

Radical axis of two circles . (Geom.) See under Axis . -- Radical pitch , the pitch or tone with which the utterance of a syllable begins. Rush. -- Radical quantity (Alg.) , a quantity to which the radical sign is prefixed; specifically, a quantity which is not a perfect power of the degree indicated by the radical sign; a surd. -- Radical sign (Math.) , the sign √ (originally the letter r , the initial of radix , root), placed before any quantity, denoting that its root is to be extracted; thus, √ a , or √( a + b ). To indicate any other than the square root, a corresponding figure is placed over the sign; thus, a , indicates the third or cube root of a . -- Radical stress (Elocution) , force of utterance falling on the initial part of a syllable or sound. -- Radical vessels (Anat.) , minute vessels which originate in the substance of the tissues.

Syn. -- Primitive; original; natural; underived; fundamental; entire. -- Radical , Entire . These words are frequently employed as interchangeable in describing some marked alteration in the condition of things. There is, however, an obvious difference between them. A radical cure, reform, etc., is one which goes to the root of the thing in question; and it is entire , in the sense that, by affecting the root, it affects in an appropriate degree the entire body nourished by the root; but it may not be entire in the sense of making a change complete in its nature, as well as in its extent. Hence, we speak of a radical change; a radical improvement; radical differences of opinion; while an entire change, an entire improvement, an entire difference of opinion, might indicate more than was actually intended. A certain change may be both radical and entire , in every sense.

Radical (răd"ĭ*k a l) noun
1. (Philol.) (a) A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon. (b) A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the radix.

The words we at present make use of, and understand only by common agreement, assume a new air and life in the understanding, when you trace them to their radicals , where you find every word strongly stamped with nature; full of energy, meaning, character, painting, and poetry.
Cleland.

2. (Politics) One who advocates radical changes in government or social institutions, especially such changes as are intended to level class inequalities; -- opposed to conservative .

In politics they [ the Independents] were, to use the phrase of their own time, "Root-and-Branch men," or, to use the kindred phrase of our own, Radicals .
Macaulay.

3. (Chemistry) (a) A characteristic, essential, and fundamental constituent of any compound; hence, sometimes, an atom.

As a general rule, the metallic atoms are basic radicals , while the nonmetallic atoms are acid radicals .
J. P. Cooke.

(b) Specifically, a group of two or more atoms, not completely saturated, which are so linked that their union implies certain properties, and are conveniently regarded as playing the part of a single atom; a residue; -- called also a compound radical . Confer Residue .

4. (Alg.) A radical quantity. See under Radical , adjective

An indicated root of a perfect power of the degree indicated is not a radical but a rational quantity under a radical form.
Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.)

5. (Anat.) A radical vessel. See under Radical , adjective

Radicalism (-ĭz'm) noun [ Confer French radicalisme .] The quality or state of being radical; specifically, the doctrines or principles of radicals in politics or social reform.

Radicalism means root work; the uprooting of all falsehoods and abuses.
F. W. Robertson.

Radicality (-kăl"ĭ*tȳ) noun
1. Germinal principle; source; origination. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.

2. Radicalness; relation to a root in essential nature or principle.

Radically (răd"ĭ*k a l*lȳ) adverb
1. In a radical manner; at, or from, the origin or root; fundamentally; as, a scheme or system radically wrong or defective.

2. Without derivation; primitively; essentially. [ R.]

These great orbs thus radically bright.
Prior.

Radicalness noun Quality or state of being radical.

Radicant (-k a nt) adjective [ Latin radicans , present participle: confer French radicant . See Radicate , adjective ] (Botany) Taking root on, or above, the ground; rooting from the stem, as the trumpet creeper and the ivy.

Radicate (-kat) adjective [ Latin radicatus , past participle of radicari to take root, from radix . See Radix .] Radicated.

Radicate (-kāt) intransitive verb To take root; to become rooted. Evelyn.

Radicate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Radicated (-kā`tĕd); present participle & verbal noun Radicating .] To cause to take root; to plant deeply and firmly; to root.

Time should . . . rather confirm and radicate in us the remembrance of God's goodness.
Barrow.

Radicated (-kā`tĕd) adjective Rooted ; specifically: (a) (Botany) Having roots, or possessing a well-developed root. (b) (Zoology) Having rootlike organs for attachment.

Radication (-kā"shŭn) noun [ Confer French radication .]
1. The process of taking root, or state of being rooted; as, the radication of habits.

2. (Botany) The disposition of the roots of a plant.

Radicel (răd"ĭ*sĕl) noun [ Dim. of radix .] (Botany) A small branch of a root; a rootlet.

Radiciflorous (rȧ*dĭs`ĭ*flō"rŭs) adjective [ Latin radix , -icis , root + flos , floris , a flower.] (Botany) Rhizanthous.

Radiciform (rȧ*dĭs"ĭ*fôm) adjective (Botany) Having the nature or appearance of a radix or root.

Radicle (răd"ĭ*k'l) noun [ Latin radicula , dim. of radix , -icis , root: confer French radicule . See Radix .] (Botany) (a) The rudimentary stem of a plant which supports the cotyledons in the seed, and from which the root is developed downward; the stem of the embryo; the caulicle. (b) A rootlet; a radicel.

Radicular (rȧ*dĭk"u*lẽr) adjective Of or pertaining to roots, or the root of a plant.

Radicule (răd"ĭ*kūl) noun (Botany) A radicle.

Radiculose (rȧ*dĭk"u*lōs`) adjective (Botany) Producing numerous radicles, or rootlets.

Radii (rā"dĭ*ī) noun , plural of Radius .

Radio adjective Of or pertaining to, or employing, or operated by, radiant energy, specifically that of electric waves; hence, pertaining to, or employed in, radiotelegraphy.

Radio- (rā"dĭ*o-). A combining form indicating connection with , or relation to , a radius or ray ; specifically (Anat.) , with the radius of the forearm ; as, radio -ulnar, radio - muscular, radio -carpal.

Radio-active adjective [ Radio- + active .] (Physics) Capable of luminescence under the action of cathode rays, X rays, or any of the allied forms of radiation. -- Ra`di*o-ac*tiv"i*ty , noun

Radio-flagellata (- flăj`ĕl*lā"tȧ) noun plural [ New Latin See Radiate , and Flagellata .] (Zoology) A group of Protozoa having both flagella and pseudopodia.

Radioconductor noun (Electricity) A substance or device that has its conductivity altered in some way by electric waves, as a coherer.

Radiograph (rā"dĭ*o*grăf) noun [ Radio- + -graph .] (Physics ) A picture produced by the Röntgen rays upon a sensitive surface, photographic or fluorescent, especially a picture of opaque objects traversed by the rays.

Radiograph noun [ Radio- + -graph .]
1. An instrument for measuring and recording solar radiation.

2. An image or picture produced upon a sensitive surface, as of a photographic plate, by some form of radiation other than light, as the Röntgen rays, radium rays, etc.; esp., a picture of opaque objects traversed by the rays; a skiagraph.

Radiograph transitive verb To make a radiograph of. -- Ra`di*og"ra*pher noun

Radiography noun Art or process of making radiographs. -- Ra`di*o*graph"ic , *graph"ic*al adjective -- Ra`di*o*graph"ic*al*ly , adverb

Radiolaria (rā`dĭ*o*lā"rĭ*ȧ) noun plural [ New Latin See Radioli .] (Zoology) Order of rhizopods, usually having a siliceous skeleton, or shell, and sometimes radiating spicules. The pseudopodia project from the body like rays. It includes the polycystines. See Polycystina .

Radiolarian (rā`dĭ*o*lā"rĭ* a n) adjective (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Radiolaria. -- noun One of the Radiolaria.

Radioli (rȧ*dī"o*lī) noun plural ; sing. Radiolus (-lŭs). [ New Latin , dim. of Latin radius radius: confer Latin radiolus a feeble sunbeam.] (Zoology) The barbs of the radii of a feather; barbules.

Radiolite (rā"dĭ*o*līt) noun [ Latin radius ray + -lite : confer French radiolithe .] (Paleon.) A hippurite.

Radiometer (-ŏm"e*tẽr) noun [ Latin radius radius + -meter : confer French radiomètre .]
1. (Nautical) A forestaff.

2. (Physics) An instrument designed for measuring the mechanical effect of radiant energy.

» It consists of a number of light disks, blackened on one side, placed at the ends of extended arms, supported on a pivot in an exhausted glass vessel. When exposed to rays of light or heat, the arms rotate.

Radiometry noun (Physics) The use of the radiometer, or the measurement of radiation. -- Ra`di*o*met"ric adjective

Radiomicrometer (- o*mi*krŏm"e*tẽr) noun [ Radio- + micrometer .] (Physics) A very sensitive modification or application of the thermopile, used for indicating minute changes of radiant heat, or temperature.

Radiophare noun [ Radio- + phare .] A radiotelegraphic station serving solely for determining the position of ships. The radius of operation of such stations was restricted by the International Radiotelegraphic Convention (1912) to 30 nautical miles.

Radiophone (rā"dĭ*o*fōn) noun [ Radio- + Greek fwnh` sound.] (Physics) An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of luminous or thermal rays. It is essentially the same as the photophone.

Radiophony (-ŏf"o*nȳ) noun (Physics) The art or practice of using the radiophone.

Radiopticon noun [ Radio- + stere opticon .] See Projector , above.

Radioscopy noun [ Radio- + -scopy .] Direct observation of objects opaque to light by means of some other form of radiant energy, as the Röntgen rays. -- Ra`di*o*scop"ic , *scop"ic*al adjective

Radiotelegram noun A message transmitted by radiotelegraph.

Radiotelegraph noun [ Radio- + telegraph .] A wireless telegraph.

Radiotelegraphic adjective Of or pertaining to radiotelegraphy; employing, or used or employed in, radiotelegraphy.

Radiotelegraphy noun [ Radio- + telegraphy .] Telegraphy using the radiant energy of electrical (Hertzian) waves; wireless telegraphy; -- the term adopted for use by the Radiotelegraphic Convention of 1912.

Radiotelephone noun A wireless telephone. -- Ra`di*o*te*leph"o*ny noun

Radiotherapy noun [ Radio- + therapy .] (Medicine) Treatment of disease by means of Röntgen rays or other forms of radioactivity.

Radiothorium noun (Chemistry) A radioactive substance apparently formed as a product from thorium.

Radious (rā"dĭ*ŭs) adjective [ Latin radiosus .]
1. Consisting of rays, as light. [ R.] Berkeley.

2. Radiating; radiant. [ Obsolete] G. Fletcher.

Radish (răd"ĭsh) noun [ French radis ; confer Italian radice , Pr. raditz ; all from Latin radix , -icis , a root, an edible root, especially a radish, akin to English wort . See Wort , and confer Eradicate , Race a root, Radix .] (Botany) The pungent fleshy root of a well-known cruciferous plant ( Raphanus sativus ); also, the whole plant.

Radish fly (Zoology) , a small two- winged fly ( Anthomyia raphani ) whose larvæ burrow in radishes. It resembles the onion fly. -- Rat-tailed radish (Botany) , an herb ( Raphanus caudatus ) having a long, slender pod, which is sometimes eaten. -- Wild radish (Botany) , the jointed charlock.

Radium noun [ New Latin , from Latin radius ray.] (Chemistry) An intensely radioactive metallic element found (combined) in minute quantities in pitchblende, and various other uranium minerals. Symbol, Ra ; atomic weight, 226.4. Radium was discovered by M. and Mme. Curie, of Paris, who in 1902 separated compounds of it by a tedious process from pitchblende. Its compounds color flames carmine and give a characteristic spectrum. It resembles barium chemically. Radium preparations are remarkable for maintaining themselves at a higher temperature than their surroundings, and for their radiations, which are of three kinds: alpha rays , beta rays , and gamma rays (see these terms). By reason of these rays they ionize gases, affect photographic plates, cause sores on the skin, and produce many other striking effects. Their degree of activity depends on the proportion of radium present, but not on its state of chemical combination or on external conditions.The radioactivity of radium is therefore an atomic property, and is explained as result from a disintegration of the atom. This breaking up occurs in at least seven stages; the successive main products have been studied and are called radium emanation or exradio , radium A , radium B , radium C , etc. (The emanation is a heavy gas, the later products are solids.) These products are regarded as unstable elements, each with an atomic weight a little lower than its predecessor. It is possible that lead is the stable end product. At the same time the light gas helium is formed; it probably consists of the expelled alpha particles. The heat effect mentioned above is ascribed to the impacts of these particles. Radium, in turn, is believed to be formed indirectly by an immeasurably slow disintegration of uranium.