Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Latin prudens
, contr. from providens
: confer French prudent
. See Provident
.] 1. Sagacious in adapting means to ends; circumspect in action, or in determining any line of conduct; practically wise; judicious; careful; discreet; sensible; -- opposed to rash ; as, a prudent man; dictated or directed by prudence or wise forethought; evincing prudence; as, prudent behavior.
Moses established a grave and prudent law. Milton. 2. Frugal; economical; not extravagant; as, a prudent woman; prudent expenditure of money. Syn.
-- Cautious; wary; circumspect; considerate; discreet; judicious; provident; economical; frugal.
1. Proceeding from, or dictated or characterized by, prudence; prudent; discreet; sometimes, selfish or pecuniary as distinguished from higher motives or influences; as, prudential motives. " A prudential line of conduct." Sir W. Scott. 2. Exercising prudence; discretionary; advisory; superintending or executive; as, a prudential committee.
Prudential noun That which relates to or demands the exercise of, discretion or prudence; -- usually in the plural
Many stanzas, in poetic measures, contain rules relating to common prudentials as well as to religion. I. Watts.
Prudentialist noun One who is governed by, or acts from, prudential motives. [ R.] Coleridge.
Prudentiality noun The quality or state of being prudential. Sir T. Browne.
Prudentially adverb In a prudential manner; prudently. South.
Prudently adverb In a prudent manner.
; plural Pruderies
. [ French pruderie
. See Prude
.] The quality or state of being prudish; excessive or affected scrupulousness in speech or conduct; stiffness; coyness. Cowper.
[ French prud'homme
. confer Prude
.] A trustworthy citizen; a skilled workman. See Citation under 3d Commune , 1.
Prudish adjective Like a prude; very formal, precise, or reserved; affectedly severe in virtue; as, a prudish woman; prudish manners.
A formal lecture, spoke with prudish face. Garrick.
Prudishly adverb In a prudish manner.
Pruinose adjective [ Latin pruinosus , from pruina hoarfrost.] Frosty; covered with fine scales, hairs, dust, bloom, or the like, so as to give the appearance of frost.
Pruinous adjective Frosty; pruinose.
Prune transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Pruned
; present participle & verbal noun Pruning
.] [ Middle English proine
, probably from French provigner
to lay down vine stocks for propagation; hence, probably, the meaning, to cut away superfluous shoots. See Provine
.] 1. To lop or cut off the superfluous parts, branches, or shoots of; to clear of useless material; to shape or smooth by trimming; to trim: as, to prune trees; to prune an essay. Thackeray.
Taking into consideration how they [ laws] are to be pruned and reformed. Bacon.
Our delightful task Milton. 2. To cut off or cut out, as useless parts.
To prune these growing plants, and tend these flowers.
Horace will our superfluous branches prune . Waller. 3. To preen; to prepare; to dress. Spenser.
His royal bird Shak.
Prunes the immortal wing and cloys his beak.
Prune intransitive verb To dress; to prink; - used humorously or in contempt. Dryden.
[ French prune
, from Latin prunum
a plum. See Plum
.] A plum; esp., a dried plum, used in cookery; as, French or Turkish prunes ; California prunes . German prune (Botany)
, a large dark purple plum, of oval shape, often one-sided. It is much used for preserving, either dried or in sirup.
-- Prune tree
. (Botany) (a) A tree of the genus Prunus ( P. domestica ), which produces prunes. (b) The West Indian tree, Prunus occidentalis .
-- South African prune (Botany)
, the edible fruit of a sapindaceous tree ( Pappea Capensis ).
Prunella noun [ New Latin , perhaps from German bræune quinsy, croup.] (Medicine) (a) Angina, or angina pectoris. (b) Thrush. Prunella salt (Old Chem.) , niter fused and cast into little balls.
Prunella, Prunello noun
[ French prunelle
, probably so called from its color resembling that of prunes. See Prune
] A smooth woolen stuff, generally black, used for making shoes; a kind of lasting; -- formerly used also for clergymen's gowns.
[ French, dim. of prune
. See Prune
] A kind of small and very acid French plum; -- applied especially to the stoned and dried fruit.
[ French prunelle
, dim. of prune
. See Prune
a plum.] A species of dried plum; prunelle.
1. One who prunes, or removes, what is superfluous. 2. (Zoology) Any one of several species of beetles whose larvæ gnaw the branches of trees so as to cause them to fall, especially the American oak pruner ( Asemum mœstum ), whose larva eats the pith of oak branches, and when mature gnaws a circular furrow on the inside nearly to the bark. When the branches fall each contains a pupa.
Pruniferous adjective [ Latin prunum a plum + -ferous .] Bearing plums.
Pruning noun Pruning hook , or Pruning knife , cutting instrument used in pruning trees, etc. -- Pruning shears , shears for pruning trees, vines, etc.
1. The act of trimming, or removing what is superfluous. 2. (Falconry) That which is cast off by bird in pruning her feathers; leavings. Beau. & Fl.
Prunus noun [ Latin , a plum tree.] (Botany) A genus of trees with perigynous rosaceous flowers, and a single two-ovuled carpel which usually becomes a drupe in ripening. » Originally, this genus was limited to the plums, then, by Linnæus, was made to include the cherries and the apricot. Later botanists separated these into several genera, as Prunus , Cerasus , and Armeniaca , but now, by Bentham and Hooker, the plums, cherries, cherry laurels, peach, almond, and nectarine are all placed in Prunus .
Prurience, Pruriency noun The quality or state of being prurient.
The pruriency of curious ears. Burke.
There is a prurience in the speech of some. Cowper.
[ Latin pruries
, - entis
, present participle of prurire
to itch. Confer Freeze
.] Uneasy with desire; itching; especially, having a lascivious curiosity or propensity; lustful.
The eye of the vain and prurient is darting from object to object of illicit attraction. I. Taylor.
Pruriginous adjective [ Latin pruriginosus : confer French prurigineux .] (Medicine) Tending to, or caused by, prurigo; affected by, or of the nature of, prurigo.
Prurigo noun [ Latin , an itching, the itch, from prurire to itch.] (Medicine) A papular disease of the skin, of which intense itching is the chief symptom, the eruption scarcely differing from the healthy cuticle in color.
Pruritus noun [ Latin ] (Medicine) Itching.
[ From Prussia
, the country: confer French prussien
.] Of or pertaining to Prussia.
-- noun A native or inhabitant of Prussia. Prussian blue (Chemistry)
, any one of several complex double cyanides of ferrous and ferric iron; specifically, a dark blue amorphous substance having a coppery luster, obtained by adding a solution of potassium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of potash) to a ferric salt. It is used in dyeing, in ink, etc. Called also Williamson's blue , insoluble Prussian blue , Berlin blue , etc.
-- Prussian carp (Zoology) See Gibel .
-- Prussian green
. (Chemistry) Same as Berlin green , under Berlin .
[ Confer French prussiate
.] (Chemistry) A salt of prussic acid; a cyanide. Red prussiate of potash
. See Potassium ferricyanide , under Ferricyanide .
-- Yellow prussiate of potash
. See Potassium ferrocyanide , under Ferrocyanide .
[ Confer French prussique
.] (Old Chem.) designating the acid now called hydrocyanic acid, but formerly called prussic acid , because Prussian blue is derived from it or its compounds. See Hydrocyanic .
Prutenic adjective (Astron.) Prussian; -- applied to certain astronomical tables published in the sixteenth century, founded on the principles of Copernicus, a Prussian.
[ Corrupted from prize
a lever. See Prize
] A lever; also, leverage.
[ Local, U. S. & Eng.] Pry pole
, the pole which forms the prop of a hoisting gin, and stands facing the windlass.
Pry transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Pried
; present participle & verbal noun Prying
.] To raise or move, or attempt to raise or move, with a pry or lever; to prize.
[ Local, U. S. & Eng.]
Pry intransitive verb
[ Middle English prien
. Confer Peer
to peep.] To peep narrowly; to gaze; to inspect closely; to attempt to discover something by a scrutinizing curiosity; -- often implying reproach.
" To pry
upon the stars." Chaucer.
Watch thou and wake when others be asleep, Shak.
To pry into the secrets of the state.
Pry noun Curious inspection; impertinent peeping.
Pryan noun (Mining) See Prian .
Prying adjective Inspecting closely or impertinently. Syn.
-- Inquisitive; curious. See Inquisitive
Pryingly adverb In a prying manner.
Prytaneum noun [ Latin , from Greek ..., from ... prytanis.] (Gr. Antiq.) A public building in certain Greek cities; especially, a public hall in Athens regarded as the home of the community, in which official hospitality was extended to distinguished citizens and strangers.
; plural Prytanes
. [ Latin , from Greek ....] (Gr. Antiq.) A member of one of the ten sections into which the Athenian senate of five hundred was divided, and to each of which belonged the presidency of the senate for about one tenth of the year.
Prytany noun [ Greek ....] (Gr. Antiq.) The period during which the presidency of the senate belonged to the prytanes of the section.
[ Middle English psalm
, Anglo-Saxon sealm
, Latin psalmus
, from Greek ..., ..., from ... to pull, twitch, to play upon a stringed instrument, to sing to the harp: confer Old French psalme
, French psaume
.] 1. A sacred song; a poetical composition for use in the praise or worship of God.
Humus devout and holy psalms Milton. 2. Especially, one of the hymns by David and others, collected into one book of the Old Testament, or a modern metrical version of such a hymn for public worship.
Psalm transitive verb To extol in psalms; to sing; as, psalming his praises. Sylvester.
[ Latin psalmista
, Greek ...: confer French psalmiste
. See Psalm
.] 1. A writer or composer of sacred songs; -- a title particularly applied to David and the other authors of the Scriptural psalms. 2. (R. C. Ch.) A clerk, precentor, singer, or leader of music, in the church.
Psalmistry noun The use of psalms in devotion; psalmody.
Psalmodic, Psalmodical adjective [ Confer French psalmodique .] Relating to psalmody.