Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Foiler noun One who foils or frustrates. Johnson.

Foiling noun (Architecture) A foil. Simmonds.

Foiling noun [ Confer French foulées . See 1st Foil .] (Hunting) The track of game (as deer) in the grass.

Foin (foin) noun [ French fouine a marten.]
1. (Zoology) The beech marten ( Mustela foina ). See Marten .

2. A kind of fur, black at the top on a whitish ground, taken from the ferret or weasel of the same name. [ Obsolete]

He came to the stake in a fair black gown furred and faced with foins .
Fuller.

Foin intransitive verb [ Middle English foinen , foignen ; of uncertain origin; confer dial. French fouiner to push for eels with a spear, from French fouine an eelspear, perhaps from Latin fodere to dig, thrust.] To thrust with a sword or spear; to lunge. [ Obsolete]

He stroke, he soused, he foynd , he hewed, he lashed.
Spenser.

They lash, they foin , they pass, they strive to bore
Their corselets, and the thinnest parts explore.
Dryden.

Foin transitive verb To prick; to st?ng. [ Obsolete] Huloet.

Foin noun A pass in fencing; a lunge. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Foinery noun Thrusting with the foil; fencing with the point, as distinguished from broadsword play. [ Obsolete] Marston.

Foiningly adverb With a push or thrust. [ Obsolete]

Foison noun [ French foison , from Latin fusio a pouring, effusion. See Fusion .] Rich harvest; plenty; abundance. [ Archaic] Lowell.

That from the seedness the bare fallow brings
To teeming foison .
Shak.

Foist (foist) noun [ Old French fuste stick, boat, from Latin fustis cudgel. Confer 1st Fust .] A light and fast-sailing ship. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.

Foist transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Foisted ; present participle & verbal noun Foisting .] [ Confer OD. vysten to fizzle, Dutch veesten , English fizz , fitchet , bull fist .] To insert surreptitiously, wrongfully, or without warrant; to interpolate; to pass off (something spurious or counterfeit) as genuine, true, or worthy; -- usually followed by in .

Lest negligence or partiality might admit or foist in abuses and corruption.
R. Carew.

When a scripture has been corrupted . . . by a supposititious foisting of some words in.
South.

Foist noun
1. A foister; a sharper. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

2. A trick or fraud; a swindle. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

Foister noun One who foists something surreptitiously; a falsifier. Mir. for Mag.

Foistied adjective [ See 2d Fust .] Fusty. [ Obsolete]

Foistiness noun Fustiness; mustiness. [ Obsolete]

Foisty adjective Fusty; musty. [ Obsolete] Johnson.

Fold (fōld) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Folded ; present participle & verbal noun Folding .] [ Middle English folden , falden , Anglo-Saxon fealdan ; akin to Old High German faltan , faldan , German falten , Icelandic falda , Danish folde , Swedish fålla , Goth. falþan , confer Greek di- pla`sios twofold, Sanskrit puta a fold. Confer Fauteuil .]
1. To lap or lay in plaits or folds; to lay one part over another part of; to double; as, to fold cloth; to fold a letter.
[ 1913 Webster]

As a vesture shalt thou fold them up.
Hebrew i. 12.

2. To double or lay together, as the arms or the hands; as, he folds his arms in despair.

3. To inclose within folds or plaitings; to envelop; to infold; to clasp; to embrace.

A face folded in sorrow .
J. Webster.

We will descend and fold him in our arms.
Shak.

4. To cover or wrap up; to conceal.

Nor fold my fault in cleanly coined excuses.
Shak.

Fold intransitive verb To become folded, plaited, or doubled; to close over another of the same kind; to double together; as, the leaves of the door fold . 1 Kings vi. 34.

Fold noun [ From Fold , v. In sense 2 Anglo-Saxon -feald , akin to fealdan to fold.]
1. A doubling,esp. of any flexible substance; a part laid over on another part; a plait; a plication.

Mummies . . . shrouded in a number of folds of linen.
Bacon.

Folds are most common in the rocks of mountainous regions.
J. D. Dana.

2. Times or repetitions; -- used with numerals, chiefly in composition, to denote multiplication or increase in a geometrical ratio, the doubling, tripling, etc., of anything; as, four fold , four times, increased in a quadruple ratio, multiplied by four.

3. That which is folded together, or which infolds or envelops; embrace.

Shall from your neck unloose his amorous fold .
Shak.

Fold net , a kind of net used in catching birds.

Fold noun [ Middle English fald , fold , Anglo-Saxon fald , falod .]
1. An inclosure for sheep; a sheep pen.

Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold .
Milton.

2. A flock of sheep; figuratively, the Church or a church; as, Christ's fold .

There shall be one fold and one shepherd.
John x. 16.

The very whitest lamb in all my fold .
Tennyson.

3. A boundary; a limit. [ Obsolete] Creech.

Fold yard , an inclosure for sheep or cattle.

Fold transitive verb To confine in a fold, as sheep.

Fold intransitive verb To confine sheep in a fold. [ R.]

The star that bids the shepherd fold .
Milton.

Foldage noun [ See Fold inclosure, Faldage .] (O.Eng.Law.) See Faldage .

Folder noun One who, or that which, folds; esp., a flat, knifelike instrument used for folding paper.

Folderol noun Nonsense. [ Colloq.]

Folding noun
1. The act of making a fold or folds; also, a fold; a doubling; a plication.

The lower foldings of the vest.
Addison.

2. (Agriculture) The keepig of sheep in inclosures on arable land, etc.

Folding boat , a portable boat made by stretching canvas, etc., over jointed framework, used in campaigning, and by tourists, etc. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Folding chair , a chair which may be shut up compactly for carriage or stowage; a camp chair. -- Folding door , one of two or more doors filling a single and hung upon hinges.

Foldless adjective Having no fold. Milman.

Foliaceous adjective [ Latin foliaceus , from folium leaf.]
1. (Botany) Belonging to, or having the texture or nature of, a leaf; having leaves intermixed with flowers; as, a foliaceous spike.

2. (Min.) Consisting of leaves or thin laminæ; having the form of a leaf or plate; as, foliaceous spar.

3. (Zoology) Leaflike in form or mode of growth; as, a foliaceous coral.

Foliage noun [ Old French foillage , fueillage , French feuillage , from Old French foille , fueille , fueil , French feulle , leaf, Latin folium . See 3d Foil , and confer Foliation , Filemot .]


1. Leaves, collectively, as produced or arranged by nature; leafage; as, a tree or forest of beautiful foliage .

2. A cluster of leaves, flowers, and branches; especially, the representation of leaves, flowers, and branches, in architecture, intended to ornament and enrich capitals, friezes, pediments, etc.

Foliage plant (Botany) , any plant cultivated for the beauty of its leaves, as many kinds of Begonia and Coleus .

Foliage transitive verb To adorn with foliage or the imitation of foliage; to form into the representation of leaves. [ R.] Drummond.

Foliaged adjective Furnished with foliage; leaved; as, the variously foliaged mulberry.

Foliar adjective (Botany) Consisting of, or pertaining to, leaves; as, foliar appendages.

Foliar gap (Botany) , an opening in the fibrovascular system of a stem at the point of origin of a leaf. -- Foliar trace (Botany) , a particular fibrovascular bundle passing down into the stem from a leaf.

Foliate adjective [ Latin foliatus leaved, leafy, from folium leaf. See Foliage .] (Botany) Furnished with leaves; leafy; as, a foliate stalk.

Foliate curve . (Geom.) Same as Folium .

Foliate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Foliated ; present participle & verbal noun Foliating .]
1. To beat into a leaf, or thin plate. Bacon.

2. To spread over with a thin coat of tin and quicksilver; as, to foliate a looking-glass.

Foliated adjective
1. Having leaves, or leaflike projections; as, a foliated shell.

2. (Architecture) Containing, or consisting of, foils; as, a foliated arch.

3. (Min.) Characterized by being separable into thin plates or folia; as, graphite has a foliated structure.

4. (Geol.) Laminated, but restricted to the variety of laminated structure found in crystalline schist, as mica schist, etc.; schistose.

5. Spread over with an amalgam of tin and quicksilver.

Foliated telluium . (Min.) See Nagyagite .

Foliation noun [ Confer French foliation .]
1. The process of forming into a leaf or leaves.

2. The manner in which the young leaves are dispo...ed within the bud.

The . . . foliation must be in relation to the stem.
De Quincey.

3. The act of beating a metal into a thin plate, leaf, foil, or lamina.

4. The act of coating with an amalgam of tin foil and quicksilver, as in making looking-glasses.

5. (Architecture) The enrichment of an opening by means of foils, arranged in trefoils, quatrefoils, etc.; also, one of the ornaments. See Tracery .

6. (Geol.) The property, possessed by some crystalline rocks, of dividing into plates or slabs, which is due to the cleavage structure of one of the constituents, as mica or hornblende. It may sometimes include slaty structure or cleavage, though the latter is usually independent of any mineral constituent, and transverse to the bedding, it having been produced by pressure.

Foliature noun [ Latin foliatura foliage.]
1. Foliage; leafage. [ Obsolete] Shuckford.

2. The state of being beaten into foil. Johnson.

Folier noun Goldsmith's foil. [ R.] Sprat.

Foliferous adjective [ Latin folium leaf+ -ferous : confer French foliifère .] Producing leaves. [ Written also foliiferous .]

Folily adjective Foolishly. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Folio noun ; plural Folios . [ Ablative of Latin folium leaf. See 4th Foil .]
1. A leaf of a book or manuscript.

2. A sheet of paper once folded.

3. A book made of sheets of paper each folded once (four pages to the sheet); hence, a book of the largest kind. See Note under Paper .

4. (Print.) The page number. The even folios are on the left-hand pages and the odd folios on the right- hand.

5. A page of a book; (Bookkeeping) a page in an account book; sometimes, two opposite pages bearing the same serial number.

6. (Law) A leaf containing a certain number of words, hence, a certain number of words in a writing, as in England, in law proceedings 72, and in chancery, 90; in New York, 100 words.

Folio post , a flat writing paper, usually 17 by 24 inches.

Folio transitive verb To put a serial number on each folio or page of (a book); to page.

Folio adjective Formed of sheets each folded once, making two leaves, or four pages; as, a folio volume. See Folio , noun , 3.

Foliolate adjective Of or pertaining to leaflets; -- used in composition; as, bi- foliolate . Gray.

Foliole noun [ Dim. of Latin folium leaf: confer French foliole .] (Botany) One of the distinct parts of a compound leaf; a leaflet.

Foliomort adjective See Feuillemort .

Foliose adjective [ Latin foliosus , from folium leaf.] (Botany) Having many leaves; leafy.

Foliosity noun The ponderousness or bulk of a folio; voluminousness. [ R.] De Quincey.

Folious adjective [ See Foliose .]
1. Like a leaf; thin; unsubstantial. [ R.] Sir T. Browne.

2. (Botany) Foliose. [ R.]