Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Fo'gey noun See Fogy .

Focalization noun The act of focalizing or bringing to a focus, or the state of being focalized.

Focalize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Focalized ; present participle & verbal noun Focalizing .] To bring to a focus; to focus; to concentrate.

Light is focalized in the eye, sound in the ear.
De Quincey.

Focillate transitive verb [ Latin focilatus , past participle of focillare.] To nourish. [ Obsolete] Blount.

Focillation noun Comfort; support. [ Obsolete]

Focimeter noun [ Focus + -meter .] (Photog.) An assisting instrument for focusing an object in or before a camera. Knight.

Focus noun ; plural English Focuses , Latin Foci . [ Latin focus hearth, fireplace; perhaps akin to English bake . Confer Curfew , Fuel , Fusil the firearm.]
1. (Opt.) A point in which the rays of light meet, after being reflected or refracted, and at which the image is formed; as, the focus of a lens or mirror.

2. (Geom.) A point so related to a conic section and certain straight line called the directrix that the ratio of the distance between any point of the curve and the focus to the distance of the same point from the directrix is constant.

» Thus, in the ellipse FGHKLM, A is the focus and CD the directrix, when the ratios FA:FE, GA:GD, MA:MC, etc., are all equal. So in the hyperbola, A is the focus and CD the directrix when the ratio HA:HK is constant for all points of the curve; and in the parabola, A is the focus and CD the directrix when the ratio BA:BC is constant. In the ellipse this ratio is less than unity, in the parabola equal to unity, and in the hyperbola greater than unity. The ellipse and hyperbola have each two foci, and two corresponding directrixes, and the parabola has one focus and one directrix. In the ellipse the sum of the two lines from any point of the curve to the two foci is constant; that is: AG+GB=AH+HB; and in the hyperbola the difference of the corresponding lines is constant. The diameter which passes through the foci of the ellipse is the major axis . The diameter which being produced passes through the foci of the hyperbola is the transverse axis . The middle point of the major or the transverse axis is the center of the curve. Certain other curves, as the lemniscate and the Cartesian ovals, have points called foci , possessing properties similar to those of the foci of conic sections. In an ellipse, rays of light coming from one focus, and reflected from the curve, proceed in lines directed toward the other; in an hyperbola, in lines directed from the other; in a parabola, rays from the focus, after reflection at the curve, proceed in lines parallel to the axis. Thus rays from A in the ellipse are reflected to B; rays from A in the hyperbola are reflected toward L and M away from B.

3. A central point; a point of concentration.

Aplanatic focus . (Opt.) See under Aplanatic . -- Conjugate focus (Opt.) , the focus for rays which have a sensible divergence, as from a near object; -- so called because the positions of the object and its image are interchangeable. -- Focus tube (Physics ) , a vacuum tube for Rœntgen rays in which the cathode rays are focused upon the anticathode, for intensifying the effect. -- Principal, or Solar , focus (Opt.) , the focus for parallel rays.

Focus transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Focused ; present participle & verbal noun Focusing .] To bring to a focus; to focalize; as, to focus a camera. R. Hunt.

Fodder (fŏd"dẽr) noun [ See 1st Fother .] A weight by which lead and some other metals were formerly sold, in England, varying from 19½ to 24 cwt.; a fother. [ Obsolete]

Fodder noun [ Anglo-Saxon fōdder , fōddor, fodder (also sheath case), from fōda food; akin to Dutch voeder , Old High German fuotar , German futter , Icelandic fōðr , Swedish & Danish foder . √75. See Food and confer Forage , Fur .] That which is fed out to cattle horses, and sheep, as hay, cornstalks, vegetables, etc.

Fodder transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Foddered (-dẽrd); present participle & verbal noun Foddering .] To feed, as cattle, with dry food or cut grass, etc.; to furnish with hay, straw, oats, etc.

Fodderer noun One who fodders cattle.

Fodient adjective [ Latin fodiens , present participle of fodere to dig.] Fitted for, or pertaining to, digging.

Fodient noun (Zoology) One of the Fodientia.

Fodientia noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin fodiens present participle, digging.] (Zoology) A group of African edentates including the aard-vark.

Foe (fō) noun [ Middle English fo , fa , Anglo-Saxon fāh hostile; probably akin to English fiend . √81. See Fiend , and confer Feud a quarrel.]


1. One who entertains personal enmity, hatred, grudge, or malice, against another; an enemy.

A man's foes shall be they of his own household.
Matt. x. 36

2. An enemy in war; a hostile army.

3. One who opposes on principle; an opponent; an adversary; an ill-wisher; as, a foe to religion.

A foe to received doctrines.
I. Watts

Foe transitive verb To treat as an enemy. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Foehn noun [ G. dial. (Swiss), from Latin Favonius west wind. Confer Favonian .] (Meteor.) (a) A warm dry wind that often blows in the northern valleys of the Alps, due to the indraught of a storm center passing over Central Europe. The wind, heated by compression in its descent from the mountains, reaches the base, particularly in winter, dry and warm. (b) Any similar wind, as the chinook, in other parts of the world.

Foehood noun Enmity. Bp. Bedell.

Foeman (fō"m a n) noun ; plural Foemen (-m e n). [ Anglo-Saxon fāhman .] An enemy in war.

And the stern joy which warriors feel
In foemen worthy of their steel.
Sir W. Scott

Fog (fŏg) noun [ Confer Scot. fog , fouge , moss, foggage rank grass, Late Latin fogagium , W. ffwg dry grass.] (Agriculture) (a) A second growth of grass; aftergrass. (b) Dead or decaying grass remaining on land through the winter; -- called also foggage . [ Prov.Eng.] Halliwell. Sometimes called, in New England, old tore . In Scotland, fog is a general name for moss.

Fog transitive verb (Agriculture) To pasture cattle on the fog, or aftergrass, of; to eat off the fog from.

Fog intransitive verb [ Etymol. uncertain.] To practice in a small or mean way; to pettifog. [ Obsolete]

Where wouldst thou fog to get a fee?
Dryden.

Fog noun [ Dan. snee fog snow falling thick, drift of snow, driving snow, confer Icelandic fok spray, snowdrift, fjūk snowstorm, fjūka to drift.]
1. Watery vapor condensed in the lower part of the atmosphere and disturbing its transparency. It differs from cloud only in being near the ground, and from mist in not approaching so nearly to fine rain. See Cloud .

2. A state of mental confusion.

Fog alarm , Fog bell , Fog horn , etc., a bell, horn, whistle or other contrivance that sounds an alarm, often automatically, near places of danger where visible signals would be hidden in thick weather. - - Fog bank , a mass of fog resting upon the sea, and resembling distant land. -- Fog ring , a bank of fog arranged in a circular form, -- often seen on the coast of Newfoundland.

Fog transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Fogged ; present participle & verbal noun Fogging .] To envelop, as with fog; to befog; to overcast; to darken; to obscure.

Fog intransitive verb (Photog.) To show indistinctly or become indistinct, as the picture on a negative sometimes does in the process of development.

Fog noun (Photog.) Cloudiness or partial opacity of those parts of a developed film or a photograph which should be clear.

Fog transitive verb (Photog.) To render semiopaque or cloudy, as a negative film, by exposure to stray light, too long an exposure to the developer, etc.

Fog belt A region of the ocean where fogs are of marked frequency, as near the coast of Newfoundland.

Fog'gage noun (Agriculture) See 1st Fog .

Fog'ger noun One who fogs; a pettifogger. [ Obsolete]

A beggarly fogger .
Terence in English(1614)

Fogbow noun A nebulous arch, or bow, of white or yellowish light sometimes seen in fog, etc.

Foge noun The Cornish name for a forge used for smelting tin. Raymond

Foggily adverb In a foggy manner; obscurely. Johnson.

Fogginess noun The state of being foggy. Johnson.

Foggy adjective [ Compar. Foggier ; superl. Foggiest .] [ From 4th Fog .]
1. Filled or abounding with fog, or watery exhalations; misty; as, a foggy atmosphere; a foggy morning. Shak.

2. Beclouded; dull; obscure; as, foggy ideas.

Your coarse, foggy , drowsy conceit.
Hayward.

Fogie noun See Fogy .

Fogless adjective Without fog; clear. Kane.

Fogy noun ; plural Fogies A dull old fellow; a person behind the times, over-conservative, or slow; -- usually preceded by old . [ Written also fogie and fogey .] [ Colloq.]

Notorious old bore; regular old fogy .
Thackeray.

» The word is said to be connected with the German vogt , a guard or protector. By others it is regarded as a diminutive of folk (cf. Dutch volkje ). It is defined by Jamieson, in his Scottish Dictionary, as "an invalid or garrison soldier," and is applied to the old soldiers of the Royal Hospital at Dublin, which is called the Fogies' Hospital. In the fixed habits of such persons we see the origin of the present use of the term. Sir F. Head.

Fogy noun (Mil.) In the United States service, extra pay granted to officers for length of service. [ Colloq.]

Fogyism noun The principles and conduct of a fogy. [ Colloq.]

Foh interj. [ Confer Faugh .] An exclamation of abhorrence or contempt; poh; fie. Shak.

Fohist noun A Buddhist priest. See Fo .

Foible adjective [ Old French foible . See Feeble .] Weak; feeble. [ Obsolete] Lord Herbert.

Foible noun
1. A moral weakness; a failing; a weak point; a frailty.

A disposition radically noble and generous, clouded and overshadowed by superficial foibles .
De Quincey.

2. The half of a sword blade or foil blade nearest the point; -- opposed to forte . [ Written also faible .]

Syn. -- Fault; imperfection; failing; weakness; infirmity; frailty; defect. See Fault .

Foil (foil) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Foiled (foild); present participle & verbal noun Foiling .] [ French fouler to tread or trample under one's feet, to press, oppress. See Full , transitive verb ]
1. To tread under foot; to trample.

King Richard . . . caused the ensigns of Leopold to be pulled down and foiled under foot.
Knoless.

Whom he did all to pieces breake and foyle ,
In filthy durt, and left so in the loathely soyle.
Spenser.

2. To render (an effort or attempt) vain or nugatory; to baffle; to outwit; to balk; to frustrate; to defeat.

And by ... mortal man at length am foiled .
Dryden.

Her long locks that foil the painter's power.
Byron.

3. To blunt; to dull; to spoil; as, to foil the scent in chase. Addison.

Foil transitive verb [ See 6th File .] To defile; to soil. [ Obsolete]

Foil noun
1. Failure of success when on the point of attainment; defeat; frustration; miscarriage. Milton.

Nor e'er was fate so near a foil .
Dryden.

2. A blunt weapon used in fencing, resembling a smallsword in the main, but usually lighter and having a button at the point.

Blunt as the fencer's foils , which hit, but hurt not.
Shak.

Isocrates contended with a foil against Demosthenes with a word.
Mitford.

3. The track or trail of an animal.

To run a foil , to lead astray; to puzzle; -- alluding to the habits of some animals of running back over the same track to mislead their pursuers. Brewer.

Foil noun [ Middle English foil leaf, Old French foil , fuil , fueil , foille , fueille , French feuille , from Latin folium , plural folia ; akin to Greek ... , and perhaps to English blade . Confer Foliage , Folio .]
1. A leaf or very thin sheet of metal; as, brass foil ; tin foil ; gold foil .

2. (Jewelry) A thin leaf of sheet copper silvered and burnished, and afterwards coated with transparent colors mixed with isinglass; -- employed by jewelers to give color or brilliancy to pastes and inferior stones. Ure.

3. Anything that serves by contrast of color or quality to adorn or set off another thing to advantage.

As she a black silk cap on him began
To set, for foil of his milk-white to serve.
Sir P. Sidney.

Hector has a foil to set him off.
Broome.

4. A thin coat of tin, with quicksilver, laid on the back of a looking-glass, to cause reflection.

5. (Architecture) The space between the cusps in Gothic architecture; a rounded or leaflike ornament, in windows, niches, etc. A group of foils is called trefoil, quatrefoil, quinquefoil, etc., according to the number of arcs of which it is composed.

Foil stone , an imitation of a jewel or precious stone.

Foilable adjective Capable of being foiled.