Webster's Dictionary, 1913
Drug intransitive verb
[ See 1st Drudge
.] To drudge; to toil laboriously.
[ Obsolete] "To drugge
and draw." Chaucer.
Drug noun A drudge. Shak. (Timon iv. 3, 253).
[ French drogue
, probably from Dutch droog
; akin to English dry
; thus orig., dry substance, hers, plants, or wares. See Dry
.] 1. Any animal, vegetable, or mineral substance used in the composition of medicines; any stuff used in dyeing or in chemical operations.
Whence merchants bring
Their spicy drugs . Milton. 2. Any commodity that lies on hand, or is not salable; an article of slow sale, or in no demand.
"But sermons are mere drugs
And virtue shall a drug become. Dryden.
Drug intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Drugged
; present participle & verbal noun Drugging
.] [ Confer French droguer
.] To prescribe or administer drugs or medicines. B. Jonson.
Drug transitive verb 1. To affect or season with drugs or ingredients; esp., to stupefy by a narcotic drug. Also Fig.
The laboring masses . . . [ were] drugged into brutish good humor by a vast system of public spectacles. C. Kingsley.
Drug thy memories, lest thou learn it. Tennyson. 2. To tincture with something offensive or injurious.
Drugged as oft, Milton. 3. To dose to excess with, or as with, drugs.
With hatefullest disrelish writhed their jaws.
With pleasure drugged , he almost longed for woe. Byron.
Drugger noun A druggist. [ Obsolete] Burton.
[ French droguet
, prop. dim. of drogue
trash, stuff, perh, the same word as drogue
drug, but confer also W. drwg
evil, bad, Ir. & Gael. droch
, Arm. droug
. See 3d Drug
.] (a) A coarse woolen cloth dyed of one color or printed on one side; generally used as a covering for carpets. (b) By extension, any material used for the same purpose.
[ French droguiste
, from drogue
. See 3d Drug
.] One who deals in drugs; especially, one who buys and sells drugs without compounding them; also, a pharmaceutist or apothecary.
» The same person often carries on the business of the druggist and the apothecary. See the Note under Apothecary
Drugster noun A druggist. [ Obsolete] Boule.
Druid noun [ Latin Druides ; of Celtic origin; confer Ir. & Gael. draoi , druidh , magician, Druid, W. derwydd Druid.] Druid stones , a name given, in the south of England, to weatherworn, rough pillars of gray sandstone scattered over the chalk downs, but in other countries generally in the form of circles, or in detached pillars.
1. One of an order of priests which in ancient times existed among certain branches of the Celtic race, especially among the Gauls and Britons. » The Druids superintended the affairs of religion and morality, and exercised judicial functions. They practiced divination and magic, and sacrificed human victims as a part of their worship. They consisted of three classes; the bards, the vates or prophets, and the Druids proper, or priests. Their most sacred rites were performed in the depths of oak forests or of caves. 2. A member of a social and benevolent order, founded in London in 1781, and professedly based on the traditions of the ancient Druids. Lodges or groves of the society are established in other countries.
Druidess noun A female Druid; a prophetess.
Druidic, Druidical adjective Pertaining to, or resembling, the Druids. Druidical circles
. See under Circle .
Druidish adjective Druidic.
Druidism noun The system of religion, philosophy, and instruction, received and taught by the Druids; the rites and ceremonies of the Druids.
[ Confer Dutch trom
, LG. trumme
, German trommel
, Danish tromme
, Swedish trumma
, Old High German trumba
a trumpet, Icelandic pruma
a clap of thunder, and as a verb, to thunder, Danish drum
a booming sound, drumme
to boom; probably partly at least of imitative origin; perhaps akin to English trum
, or trumpet
.] 1. (Mus.) An instrument of percussion, consisting either of a hollow cylinder, over each end of which is stretched a piece of skin or vellum, to be beaten with a stick; or of a metallic hemisphere (kettledrum) with a single piece of skin to be so beaten; the common instrument for marking time in martial music; one of the pair of tympani in an orchestra, or cavalry band.
The drums cry bud-a-dub. Gascoigne. 2. Anything resembling a drum in form
; as: (a) A sheet iron radiator, often in the shape of a drum, for warming an apartment by means of heat received from a stovepipe, or a cylindrical receiver for steam, etc. (b) A small cylindrical box in which figs, etc., are packed. (c) (Anat.) The tympanum of the ear; -- often, but incorrectly, applied to the tympanic membrane. (d) (Architecture) One of the cylindrical, or nearly cylindrical, blocks, of which the shaft of a column is composed; also, a vertical wall, whether circular or polygonal in plan, carrying a cupola or dome. (e) (Machinery) A cylinder on a revolving shaft, generally for the purpose of driving several pulleys, by means of belts or straps passing around its periphery; also, the barrel of a hoisting machine, on which the rope or chain is wound. 3. (Zoology) See Drumfish . 4. A noisy, tumultuous assembly of fashionable people at a private house; a rout.
Not unaptly styled a drum , from the noise and emptiness of the entertainment. Smollett.
» There were also drum major
, and hurricane
, differing only in degrees of multitude and uproar, as the significant name of each declares. 5. A tea party; a kettledrum. G. Eliot. Bass drum
. See in the Vocabulary.
-- Double drum
. See under Double .
Drum intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Drummed
; present participle & verbal noun Drumming
.] 1. To beat a drum with sticks; to beat or play a tune on a drum. 2. To beat with the fingers, as with drumsticks; to beat with a rapid succession of strokes; to make a noise like that of a beaten drum; as, the ruffed grouse drums with his wings.
Drumming with his fingers on the arm of his chair. W. Irving. 3. To throb, as the heart.
[ R.] Dryden. 4. To go about, as a drummer does, to gather recruits, to draw or secure partisans, customers, etc,; -- with for .
Drum transitive verb
1. To execute on a drum, as a tune. 2. (With out ) To expel ignominiously, with beat of drum; as, to drum out a deserter or rogue from a camp, etc. 3. (With up ) To assemble by, or as by, beat of drum; to collect; to gather or draw by solicitation; as, to drum up recruits; to drum up customers.
Drum major . 1. The chief or first drummer of a regiment; an instructor of drummers. 2. The marching leader of a military band.
[ U.S.] 3. A noisy gathering. [ R.] See under Drum , noun , 4.
Drum winding (Electricity) A method of armature winding in which the wire is wound upon the outer surface of a cylinder or drum from end to end of the cylinder; -- distinguished from ring winding , etc.
Drumbeat noun The sound of a beaten drum; drum music.
Whose morning drumbeat , following the sun, and keeping company with the hours, circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England. D. Webster.
Drumble intransitive verb
[ See Drumly
.] 1. To be sluggish or lazy; to be confused.
[ Obsolete] Shak. 2. To mumble in speaking.
Drumfish noun (Zoology) Any fish of the family Sciænidæ , which makes a loud noise by means of its air bladder; -- called also drum . » The common drumfish ( Pogonias chromis ) is a large species, common south of New Jersey. The southern red drum or red horse ( Sciæna ocellata ), and the fresh-water drum or croaker ( Aplodionotus grunniens ), are related species.
Drumhead noun 1. The parchment or skin stretched over one end of a drum. 2. The top of a capstan which is pierced with sockets for levers used in turning it. See Illust. of Capstan . Drumhead court-martial (Mil.)
, a summary court-martial called to try offenses on the battlefield or the line of march, when, sometimes, a drumhead has to do service as a writing table.
Drumlin noun [ Gael. druim the ridge of a hill.] (Geol.) A hill of compact, unstratified, glacial drift or till, usually elongate or oval, with the larger axis parallel to the former local glacial motion.
[ Confer Droumy
.] Turbid; muddy.
[ Scot. & Obsolete or Prov. Eng.] Wodroephe (1623). Burns.
1. One whose office is to best the drum, as in military exercises and marching. 2. One who solicits custom; a commercial traveler. [ Colloq. U.S.] Bartlett. 3. (Zoology) A fish that makes a sound when caught ; as: (a) The squeteague. (b) A California sculpin. 4. (Zoology) A large West Indian cockroach ( Blatta gigantea ) which drums on woodwork, as a sexual call.
Drumming noun The act of beating upon, or as if upon, a drum; also, the noise which the male of the ruffed grouse makes in spring, by beating his wings upon his sides.
Drummond light [ From Thomas Drummond , a British naval officer.] A very intense light, produced by turning two streams of gas, one oxygen and the other hydrogen, or coal gas, in a state of ignition, upon a ball of lime; or a stream of oxygen gas through a flame of alcohol upon a ball or disk of lime; -- called also oxycalcium light , or lime light . » The name is also applied sometimes to a heliostat, invented by Drummond, for rendering visible a distant point, as in geodetic surveying, by reflecting upon it a beam of light from the sun.
1. A stick with which a drum is beaten. 2. Anything resembling a drumstick in form, as the tibiotarsus, or second joint, of the leg of a fowl.
[ Middle English dronke
, Anglo-Saxon druncen
. Orig. the same as drunken
, past participle of drink
. See Drink
.] 1. Intoxicated with, or as with, strong drink; inebriated; drunken; -- never used attributively , but always predicatively ; as, the man is drunk (not, a drunk man).
Be not drunk with wine, where in is excess. Eph. v. 18.
Drunk with recent prosperity. Macaulay. 2. Drenched or saturated with moisture or liquid.
I will make mine arrows drunk with blood. Deut. xxxii. 42.
Drunk noun A drunken condition; a spree. [ Slang]
+ - ard
.] One who habitually drinks strong liquors immoderately; one whose habit it is to get drunk; a toper; a sot.
The drunkard and glutton shall come to poverty. Prov. xxiii. 21.
[ Anglo-Saxon druncen
, prop., that has drunk, past participle of drincan
, taken as active. See Drink
, intransitive verb
, and confer Drunk
.] 1. Overcome by strong drink; intoxicated by, or as by, spirituous liquor; inebriated.
Drunken men imagine everything turneth round. Bacon. 2. Saturated with liquid or moisture; drenched.
Let the earth be drunken with our blood. Shak. 3. Pertaining to, or proceeding from, intoxication.
The drunken quarrels of a rake. Swift.
Drunkenhead noun Drunkenness. [ Obsolete]
Drunkenly adverb In a drunken manner. [ R.] Shak.
Drunkenness noun 1. The state of being drunken with, or as with, alcoholic liquor; intoxication; inebriety; -- used of the casual state or the habit.
The Lacedemonians trained up their children to hate drunkenness by bringing a drunken man into their company. I. Watts. 2. Disorder of the faculties, resembling intoxication by liquors; inflammation; frenzy; rage.
Passion is the drunkenness of the mind. South. Syn.
-- Intoxication; inebriation; inebriety. -- Drunkenness
refers more to the habit; intoxication
, to specific acts. The first two words are extensively used in a figurative sense; a person is intoxicated
with success, and is drunk
with joy. "This plan of empire was not taken up in the first intoxication
of unexpected success." Burke.
Drunkenship, Drunkship noun The state of being drunk; drunkenness. [ Obsolete] Gower.
Drupaceous adjective [ Confer French drupacé .] (Botany) Producing, or pertaining to, drupes; having the form of drupes; as, drupaceous trees or fruits.
Drupal adjective (Botany) Drupaceous.
Drupe noun [ French drupe , Latin drupa an overripe, wrinkled olive, from Greek ....] (Botany) A fruit consisting of pulpy, coriaceous, or fibrous exocarp, without valves, containing a nut or stone with a kernel. The exocarp is succulent in the plum, cherry, apricot, peach, etc.; dry and subcoriaceous in the almond; and fibrous in the cocoanut.
Drupel, Drupelet noun
[ Dim. of Drupe
.] (Botany) A small drupe, as one of the pulpy grains of the blackberry.
[ Confer German druse
bonny, crystallized piece of ore, Bohem. druza
. Confer Dross
.] (Min.) A cavity in a rock, having its interior surface studded with crystals and sometimes filled with water; a geode.
Druse noun One of a people and religious sect dwelling chiefly in the Lebanon mountains of Syria.
The Druses separated from the Mohammedan Arabs in the 9th century. Their characteristic dogma is the unity of God. Am. Cyc.
Drusy, Drused adjective (Min.) Covered with a large number of minute crystals.
Druxey, Druxy adjective [ Etymol. uncertain.] Having decayed spots or streaks of a whitish color; -- said of timber. Weale.
[ Compar. Drier
; superl. Driest
.] [ Middle English dru...e
, Anglo-Saxon dryge
; akin to LG. dröge
, Dutch droog
, Old High German trucchan
, German trocken
, Icelandic draugr
a dry log. Confer Drought
, 3d Drug
.] 1. Free from moisture; having little humidity or none; arid; not wet or moist; deficient in the natural or normal supply of moisture, as rain or fluid of any kind; -- said especially: (a) Of the weather: Free from rain or mist.
The weather, we agreed, was too dry for the season. Addison. (b) Of vegetable matter: Free from juices or sap; not succulent; not green; as, dry wood or hay. (c) Of animals: Not giving milk; as, the cow is dry . (d) Of persons: Thirsty; needing drink.
Give the dry fool drink. Shak (e) Of the eyes: Not shedding tears.
Not a dry eye was to be seen in the assembly. Prescott. (f) (Medicine) Of certain morbid conditions, in which there is entire or comparative absence of moisture; as, dry gangrene; dry catarrh. 2. Destitute of that which interests or amuses; barren; unembellished; jejune; plain.
These epistles will become less dry , more susceptible of ornament. Pope. 3. Characterized by a quality somewhat severe, grave, or hard; hence, sharp; keen; shrewd; quaint; as, a dry tone or manner; dry wit.
He was rather a dry , shrewd kind of body. W. Irving. 4. (Fine Arts) Exhibiting a sharp, frigid preciseness of execution, or the want of a delicate contour in form, and of easy transition in coloring. Dry area (Architecture)
, a small open space reserved outside the foundation of a building to guard it from damp.
-- Dry blow
. (a) (Medicine) A blow which inflicts no wound, and causes no effusion of blood. (b) A quick, sharp blow.
-- Dry bone (Min.)
, Smithsonite, or carbonate of zinc; -- a miner's term.
-- Dry castor (Zoology) a kind of beaver; -- called also parchment beaver .
-- Dry cupping
. (Medicine) See under Cupping .
- - Dry dock
. See under Dock .
-- Dry fat
. See Dry vat (below).
-- Dry light
, pure unobstructed light; hence, a clear, impartial view. Bacon.
The scientific man must keep his feelings under stern control, lest they obtrude into his researches, and color the dry light in which alone science desires to see its objects. J. C. Shairp.
-- Dry masonry
. See Masonry .
-- Dry measure
, a system of measures of volume for dry or coarse articles, by the bushel, peck, etc.
-- Dry pile (Physics)
, a form of the Voltaic pile, constructed without the use of a liquid, affording a feeble current, and chiefly useful in the construction of electroscopes of great delicacy; -- called also Zamboni's , from the names of the two earliest constructors of it.
-- Dry pipe (Steam Engine)
, a pipe which conducts dry steam from a boiler.
-- Dry plate (Photog.)
, a glass plate having a dry coating sensitive to light, upon which photographic negatives or pictures can be made, without moistening.
-- Dry-plate process
, the process of photographing with dry plates.
-- Dry point
. (Fine Arts) (a) An engraving made with the needle instead of the burin, in which the work is done nearly as in etching, but is finished without the use acid
. (b) A print from such an engraving, usually upon paper. (c)
Hence: The needle with which such an engraving is made.
-- Dry rent (Eng. Law)
, a rent reserved by deed, without a clause of distress. Bouvier.
-- Dry rot
, a decay of timber, reducing its fibers to the condition of a dry powdery dust, often accompanied by the presence of a peculiar fungus ( Merulius lacrymans ), which is sometimes considered the cause of the decay; but it is more probable that the real cause is the decomposition of the wood itself. D. C. Eaton. Called also sap rot , and, in the United States, powder post . Hebert.
-- Dry stove
, a hothouse adapted to preserving the plants of arid climates. Brande & C.
-- Dry vat
, a vat, basket, or other receptacle for dry articles.
-- Dry wine
, that in which the saccharine matter and fermentation were so exactly balanced, that they have wholly neutralized each other, and no sweetness is perceptible; -- opposed to sweet wine , in which the saccharine matter is in excess.
Dry transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Dried
; present participle & verbal noun Drying
.] [ Anglo-Saxon drygan
; confer drugian
to grow dry. See Dry
] To make dry; to free from water, or from moisture of any kind, and by any means; to exsiccate; as, to dry the eyes; to dry one's tears; the wind dries the earth; to dry a wet cloth; to dry hay. To dry up
. (a) To scorch or parch with thirst; to deprive utterly of water; to consume.
Their honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst. Is. v. 13.
The water of the sea, which formerly covered it, was in time exhaled and dried up by the sun. Woodward. (b) To make to cease, as a stream of talk.
Their sources of revenue were dried up . Jowett (Thucyd. )
-- To dry, or dry up
, a cow
, to cause a cow to cease secreting milk. Tylor.
Dry intransitive verb 1. To grow dry; to become free from wetness, moisture, or juice; as, the road dries rapidly. 2. To evaporate wholly; to be exhaled; -- said of moisture, or a liquid; -- sometimes with up ; as, the stream dries , or dries up. 3. To shrivel or wither; to lose vitality.
And his hand, which he put forth against him, dried up, so that he could not pull it in again to him. I Kings xiii. 4.
Dry dock (Nautical) See under Dock .
Dry goods A commercial name for textile fabrics, cottons, woolens, linen, silks, laces, etc., -- in distinction from groceries . [ U.S.]
Dry nurse A nurse who attends and feeds a child by hand; -- in distinction from a wet nurse , who suckles it.
[ Latin dryas
, plural dryades
, Greek ..., plural ..., from ... oak, tree. See Tree
.] (Class. Myth.) A wood nymph; a nymph whose life was bound up with that of her tree.