Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Clod (klŏd) noun [ Middle English clodde , latter form of clot . See Clot .]
1. A lump or mass, especially of earth, turf, or clay. " Clods of a slimy substance." Carew. " Clods of iron and brass." Milton. " Clods of blood." E. Fairfax.

The earth that casteth up from the plow a great clod , is not so good as that which casteth up a smaller clod .
Bacon.

2. The ground; the earth; a spot of earth or turf.

The clod
Where once their sultan's horse has trod .
Swift.

3. That which is earthy and of little relative value, as the body of man in comparison with the soul.

This cold clod of clay which we carry about with us.
T. Burnet.

4. A dull, gross, stupid fellow; a dolt Dryden.

5. A part of the shoulder of a beef creature, or of the neck piece near the shoulder. See Illust. of Beef .

Clod (klŏd) v. i To collect into clods, or into a thick mass; to coagulate; to clot; as, clodded gore. See Clot .

Clodded in lumps of clay.
G. Fletcher.

Clod transitive verb
1. To pelt with clods. Jonson.

2. To throw violently; to hurl. [ Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Cloddish adjective Resembling clods; gross; low; stupid; boorish. Hawthorne.

-- Clod"dish*ness , noun

Cloddy adjective Consisting of clods; full of clods.

Clodhopper noun A rude, rustic fellow.

Clodhopping adjective Boorish; rude. C. Bronté.

Clodpate noun A blockhead; a dolt.

Clodpated adjective Stupid; dull; doltish.

Clodpoll noun [ Clod + poll head.] A stupid fellow; a dolt. [ Written also clodpole .] Shak.

Cloff noun [ Etymol. uncertain.] Formerly an allowance of two pounds in every three hundred weight after the tare and tret are subtracted; now used only in a general sense, of small deductions from the original weight. [ Written also clough .] McCulloch.

Clog noun [ Middle English clogge clog, Scot. clag , noun , a clot, v. , to to obstruct, cover with mud or anything adhesive; probably of the same origin as English clay .]
1. That which hinders or impedes motion; hence, an encumbrance, restraint, or impediment, of any kind.

All the ancient, honest, juridical principles and institutions of England are so many clogs to check and retard the headlong course of violence and opression.
Burke.

2. A weight, as a log or block of wood, attached to a man or an animal to hinder motion.

As a dog . . . but chance breaks loose,
And quits his clog .
Hudibras.

A clog of lead was round my feet.
Tennyson.

3. A shoe, or sandal, intended to protect the feet from wet, or to increase the apparent stature, and having, therefore, a very thick sole. Confer Chopine .

In France the peasantry goes barefoot; and the middle sort . . . makes use of wooden clogs .
Harvey.

Clog almanac , a primitive kind of almanac or calendar, formerly used in England, made by cutting notches and figures on the four edges of a clog, or square piece of wood, brass, or bone; -- called also a Runic staff , from the Runic characters used in the numerical notation. -- Clog dance , a dance performed by a person wearing clogs, or thick-soled shoes. -- Clog dancer .

Clog transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Clogged ; present participle & verbal noun Clogging .]
1. To encumber or load, especially with something that impedes motion; to hamper.

The winds of birds were clogged with ace and snow.
Dryden.

2. To obstruct so as to hinder motion in or through; to choke up; as, to clog a tube or a channel.

3. To burden; to trammel; to embarrass; to perplex.

The commodities are clogged with impositions.
Addison.

You 'll rue the time
That clogs me with this answer.
Shak.

Syn. -- Impede; hinder; obstruct; embarrass; burden; restrain; restrict.

Clog intransitive verb
1. To become clogged; to become loaded or encumbered, as with extraneous matter.

In working through the bone, the teeth of the saw will begin to clog .
S. Sharp.

2. To coalesce or adhere; to unite in a mass.

Move it sometimes with a broom, that the seeds clog not together.
Evelyn.

Clogginess noun The state of being clogged.

Clogging noun Anything which clogs. Dr. H. More.

Cloggy adjective Clogging, or having power to clog.

Cloisonné adjective [ French, partitioned, from cloison a partition.] Inlaid between partitions: -- said of enamel when the lines which divide the different patches of fields are composed of a kind of metal wire secured to the ground; as distinguished from champlevé enamel, in which the ground is engraved or scooped out to receive the enamel. S. Wells Williams.

Cloister noun [ Old French cloistre , French cloître , Latin claustrum , plural claustra , bar, bolt, bounds, from claudere , clausum , to close. See Close , transitive verb , and confer Claustral .]


1. An inclosed place. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. A covered passage or ambulatory on one side of a court; ( plural ) the series of such passages on the different sides of any court, esp. that of a monastery or a college.

But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale.
Milton.

3. A monastic establishment; a place for retirement from the world for religious duties.

Fitter for a cloister than a crown.
Daniel.

Cloister garth (Architecture) , the garden or open part of a court inclosed by the cloisters.

Syn. -- Cloister , Monastery , Nunnery , Convent , Abbey , Priory . Cloister and convent are generic terms, and denote a place of seclusion from the world for persons who devote their lives to religious purposes. They differ is that the distinctive idea of cloister is that of seclusion from the world, that of convent , community of living. Both terms denote houses for recluses of either sex. A cloister or convent for monks is called a monastery ; for nuns , a nunnery . An abbey is a convent or monastic institution governed by an abbot or an abbess; a priory is one governed by a prior or a prioress, and is usually affiliated to an abbey.

Cloister transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cloistered ; present participle & verbal noun Cloistering .] To confine in, or as in, a cloister; to seclude from the world; to immure.

None among them are thought worthy to be styled religious persons but those that cloister themselves up in a monastery.
Sharp.

Cloisteral adjective Cloistral. [ Obsolete] I. Walton.

Cloistered adjective
1. Dwelling in cloisters; solitary. " Cloistered friars and vestal nuns." Hudibras.

In cloistered state let selfish sages dwell,
Proud that their heart is narrow as their cell.
Shenstone.

2. Furnished with cloisters. Sir H. Wotton.

Cloisterer noun [ Confer Old French cloistier .] One belonging to, or living in, a cloister; a recluse.

Cloistral adjective Of, pertaining to, or confined in, a cloister; recluse. [ Written also cloisteral .]

Best become a cloistral exercise.
Daniel.

Cloistress noun A nun. [ R.] Shak.

Cloke noun & v. See Cloak. [ Obsolete]

Clomb, Clomben imperfect & past participle of Climb (for climbed ). [ Obsolete]

The sonne, he sayde, is clomben up on hevene.
Chaucer.

Clomp noun See Clamp .

Clong imperfect of Cling . [ Obsolete]

Clonic adjective [ Greek klo`nos a violent, confused motion; confer French clonique .] (Medicine) Having an irregular, convulsive motion. Dunglison.

Clonic spasm . (Medicine) See under Spasm .

Clonus noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... violent, confused motion.] (Medicine) A series of muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle, -- a sign of certain neuropathies.

Cloom transitive verb [ A variant of clam to clog.] To close with glutinous matter. [ Obsolete] Mortimer.

Cloop noun [ An onomatopœia.] The sound made when a cork is forcibly drawn from a bottle. "The cloop of a cork wrenched from a bottle." Thackeray.

Cloot noun [ Confer G. dial. kleuzen to split.] (Scot. & Dial. Eng.)
1. One of the divisions of a cleft hoof, as in the ox; also, the whole hoof.

2. The Devil; Clootie; -- usually in the plural Burns.

Clootie noun (Scot. & Dial. Eng.)
1. A little hoof.

2. The Devil. "Satan, Nick, or Clootie ." Burns.

Close transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Closed ; present participle & verbal noun Closing .] [ From Old French & French clos , past participle of clore to close, from Latin claudere ; akin to German schliessen to shut, and to English clot , cloister , clavicle , conclude , sluice . Confer Clause , noun ]
1. To stop, or fill up, as an opening; to shut; as, to close the eyes; to close a door.

2. To bring together the parts of; to consolidate; as, to close the ranks of an army; -- often used with up .

3. To bring to an end or period; to conclude; to complete; to finish; to end; to consummate; as, to close a bargain; to close a course of instruction.

One frugal supper did our studies close .
Dryden.

4. To come or gather around; to inclose; to encompass; to confine.

The depth closed me round about.
Jonah ii. 5.

But now thou dost thyself immure and close
In some one corner of a feeble heart.
Herbert.

A closed sea , a sea within the jurisdiction of some particular nation, which controls its navigation.

Close intransitive verb
1. To come together; to unite or coalesce, as the parts of a wound, or parts separated.

What deep wounds ever closed without a scar?
Byron.

2. To end, terminate, or come to a period; as, the debate closed at six o'clock.

3. To grapple; to engage in hand-to-hand fight.

They boldly closed in a hand-to-hand contest.
Prescott.

To close on or upon , to come to a mutual agreement; to agree on or join in. "Would induce France and Holland to close upon some measures between them to our disadvantage." Sir W. Temple. -- To close with . (a) To accede to; to consent or agree to; as, to close with the terms proposed. (b) To make an agreement with. -- To close with the land (Nautical) , to approach the land.

Close noun
1. The manner of shutting; the union of parts; junction. [ Obsolete]

The doors of plank were; their close exquisite.
Chapman.

2. Conclusion; cessation; ending; end.

His long and troubled life was drawing to a close .
Macaulay.

3. A grapple in wrestling. Bacon.

4. (Mus.) (a) The conclusion of a strain of music; cadence. (b) A double bar marking the end.

At every close she made, the attending throng
Replied, and bore the burden of the song.
Dryden.

Syn. -- Conclusion; termination; cessation; end; ending; extremity; extreme.

Close noun [ Old French & French clos an inclosure, from clos , past participle of clore . See Close , transitive verb ]
1. An inclosed place; especially, a small field or piece of land surrounded by a wall, hedge, or fence of any kind; -- specifically, the precinct of a cathedral or abbey.

Closes surrounded by the venerable abodes of deans and canons.
Macaulay.

2. A narrow passage leading from a street to a court, and the houses within. [ Eng.] Halliwell

3. (Law) The interest which one may have in a piece of ground, even though it is not inclosed. Bouvier.

Close adjective [ Compar. Closer ; superl. Closest .] [ Of. & French clos , past participle of clore . See Close , transitive verb ]
1. Shut fast; closed; tight; as, a close box.

From a close bower this dainty music flowed.
Dryden.

2. Narrow; confined; as, a close alley; close quarters. "A close prison." Dickens.

3. Oppressive; without motion or ventilation; causing a feeling of lassitude; -- said of the air, weather, etc.

If the rooms be low-roofed, or full of windows and doors, the one maketh the air close , . . . and the other maketh it exceeding unequal.
Bacon.

4. Strictly confined; carefully quarded; as, a close prisoner.

5. Out of the way observation; secluded; secret; hidden. "He yet kept himself close because of Saul." 1 Chron. xii. 1

"Her close intent."
Spenser.

6. Disposed to keep secrets; secretive; reticent. "For secrecy, no lady closer ." Shak.

7. Having the parts near each other; dense; solid; compact; as applied to bodies; viscous; tenacious; not volatile, as applied to liquids.

The golden globe being put into a press, . . . the water made itself way through the pores of that very close metal.
Locke.

8. Concise; to the point; as, close reasoning. "Where the original is close no version can reach it in the same compass." Dryden.

9. Adjoining; near; either in space; time, or thought; -- often followed by to .

Plant the spring crocuses close to a wall.
Mortimer.

The thought of the Man of sorrows seemed a very close thing -- not a faint hearsay.
G. Eliot.

10. Short; as, to cut grass or hair close .

11. Intimate; familiar; confidential.

League with you I seek
And mutual amity, so strait, so close ,
That I with you must dwell, or you with me.
Milton.

12. Nearly equal; almost evenly balanced; as, a close vote. "A close contest." Prescott.

13. Difficult to obtain; as, money is close . Bartlett.

14. Parsimonious; stingy. "A crusty old fellow, as close as a vise." Hawthorne.

15. Adhering strictly to a standard or original; exact; strict; as, a close translation. Locke.

16. Accurate; careful; precise; also, attentive; undeviating; strict; not wandering; as, a close observer.

17. (Phon.) Uttered with a relatively contracted opening of the mouth, as certain sounds of e and o in French, Italian, and German; -- opposed to open .

Close borough . See under Borough . -- Close breeding . See under Breeding . -- Close communion , communion in the Lord's supper, restricted to those who have received baptism by immersion. -- Close corporation , a body or corporation which fills its own vacancies. -- Close fertilization . (Botany) See Fertilization . -- Close harmony (Mus.) , compact harmony, in which the tones composing each chord are not widely distributed over several octaves. -- Close time , a fixed period during which killing game or catching certain fish is prohibited by law. -- Close vowel (Pron.) , a vowel which is pronounced with a diminished aperture of the lips, or with contraction of the cavity of the mouth. -- Close to the wind (Nautical) , directed as nearly to the point from which the wind blows as it is possible to sail; closehauled; -- said of a vessel.

Close adverb
1. In a close manner.

2. Secretly; darkly. [ Obsolete]

A wondrous vision which did close imply
The course of all her fortune and posterity.
Spenser.

Close-banded adjective Closely united.

Close-barred adjective Firmly barred or closed.

Close-bodied adjective Fitting the body exactly; setting close, as a garment. Ayliffe.

Close-fights noun plural (Nautical) Barriers with loopholes, formerly erected on the deck of a vessel to shelter the men in a close engagement with an enemy's boarders; -- called also close quarters . [ Obsolete]

Closefisted adjective Covetous; niggardly. Bp. Berkeley. " Closefisted contractors." Hawthorne.

Closehanded adjective Covetous; penurious; stingy; closefisted. -- Close"hand`ed*ness , noun

Closehauled adjective (Nautical) Under way and moving as nearly as possible toward the direction from which the wind blows; -- said of a sailing vessel.

Closely adverb
1. In a close manner.

2. Secretly; privately. [ Obsolete]

That nought she did but wayle, and often steepe
Her dainty couch with tears which
closely she did weepe.
Spenser.

Closemouthed adjective Cautious in speaking; secret; wary; uncommunicative.

Closen transitive verb To make close. [ R.]