Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Co-ally noun ; plural Co-allies . A joint ally. Kent.

Co-assessor noun A joint assessor.

Coak (kōk) noun See Coke , noun

Coak noun
1. (Carp.) A kind of tenon connecting the face of a scarfed timber with the face of another timber, or a dowel or pin of hard wood or iron uniting timbers. [ Also spelt coag .]

2. A metallic bushing or strengthening piece in the center of a wooden block sheave.

Coak transitive verb (Carp.) To unite, as timbers, by means of tenons or dowels in the edges or faces. Totten.

Coal noun [ Anglo-Saxon col ; akin to Dutch kool , Old High German chol , cholo , German kohle , Icelandic kol , plural, Swedish kol , Danish kul ; confer Sanskrit jval to burn. Confer Kiln , Collier .]
1. A thoroughly charred, and extinguished or still ignited, fragment from wood or other combustible substance; charcoal.

2. (Min.) A black, or brownish black, solid, combustible substance, dug from beds or veins in the earth to be used for fuel, and consisting, like charcoal, mainly of carbon, but more compact, and often affording, when heated, a large amount of volatile matter.

» This word is often used adjectively, or as the first part of self-explaining compounds; as, coal -black; coal formation; coal scuttle; coal ship. etc.

» In England the plural coals is used, for the broken mineral coal burned in grates, etc.; as, to put coals on the fire. In the United States the singular in a collective sense is the customary usage; as, a hod of coal .

Age of coal plants . See Age of Acrogens , under Acrogen . -- Anthracite or Glance coal . See Anthracite . -- Bituminous coal . See under Bituminous . -- Blind coal . See under Blind . -- Brown coal , or Lignite . See Lignite . -- Caking coal , a bituminous coal, which softens and becomes pasty or semi-viscid when heated. On increasing the heat, the volatile products are driven off, and a coherent, grayish black, cellular mass of coke is left. -- Cannel coal , a very compact bituminous coal, of fine texture and dull luster. See Cannel coal . -- Coal bed (Geol.) , a layer or stratum of mineral coal. -- Coal breaker , a structure including machines and machinery adapted for crushing, cleansing, and assorting coal. -- Coal field (Geol.) , a region in which deposits of coal occur. Such regions have often a basinlike structure, and are hence called coal basins . See Basin . -- Coal gas , a variety of carbureted hydrogen, procured from bituminous coal, used in lighting streets, houses, etc., and for cooking and heating. -- Coal heaver , a man employed in carrying coal, and esp. in putting it in, and discharging it from, ships. -- Coal measures . (Geol.) (a) Strata of coal with the attendant rocks. (b) A subdivision of the carboniferous formation, between the millstone grit below and the Permian formation above, and including nearly all the workable coal beds of the world. -- Coal oil , a general name for mineral oils; petroleum. -- Coal plant (Geol.) , one of the remains or impressions of plants found in the strata of the coal formation. -- Coal tar . See in the Vocabulary. -- To haul over the coals , to call to account; to scold or censure. [ Colloq.] -- Wood coal . See Lignite .

Coal transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Coaled ; present participle & verbal noun Coaling .]
1. To burn to charcoal; to char. [ R.]

Charcoal of roots, coaled into great pieces.

2. To mark or delineate with charcoal. Camden.

3. To supply with coal; as, to coal a steamer.

Coal intransitive verb To take in coal; as, the steamer coaled at Southampton.

Coal tar A thick, black, tarry liquid, obtained by the distillation of bituminous coal in the manufacture of illuminating gas; used for making printer's ink, black varnish, etc. It is a complex mixture from which many substances have been obtained, especially hydrocarbons of the benzene or aromatic series.

» Among its important ingredients are benzene, aniline, phenol, naphtalene, anthracene, etc., which are respectively typical of many dye stuffs, as the aniline dyes, the phthaleïns, indigo, alizarin, and many flavoring extracts whose artificial production is a matter of great commercial importance.

Coal works A place where coal is dug, including the machinery for raising the coal.

Coal-black (-blăk`) adjective As black as coal; jet black; very black. Dryden.

Coal-meter noun A licensed or official coal measurer in London. See Meter . Simmonds.

Coal-whipper noun One who raises coal out of the hold of a ship. [ Eng.] Dickens.

Coalery noun [ Obsolete] See Colliery .

Coalesce intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Coalesced ; present participle & verbal noun Coalescing .] [ Latin coalescere , coalitium ; co- + alescere to grow up, incho. from alere to nourish. See Aliment , noun ]
1. To grow together; to unite by growth into one body; as, the parts separated by a wound coalesce .

2. To unite in one body or product; to combine into one body or community; as, vapors coalesce .

The Jews were incapable of coalescing with other nations.

Certain combinations of ideas that, once coalescing , could not be shaken loose.
De Quincey.

Syn. -- See Add .

Coalescence noun The act or state of growing together, as similar parts; the act of uniting by natural affinity or attraction; the state of being united; union; concretion.

Coalescent adjective [ Latin coalescens , present participle] Growing together; cohering, as in the organic cohesion of similar parts; uniting.

Coalfish noun [ Named from the dark color of the back.] (Zoology) (a) The pollock; -- called also, coalsey , colemie , colmey , coal whiting , etc. See Pollock . (b) The beshow or candlefish of Alaska. (c) The cobia.

Coalgoose noun (Zoology) The cormorant; -- so called from its black color.

Coalite intransitive verb [ Latin coalitus , past participle of coalescere . See Coalesce .] To unite or coalesce. [ Obsolete]

Let them continue to coalite .

Coalite transitive verb To cause to unite or coalesce. [ Obsolete]

Time has by degrees blended . . . and coalited the conquered with the conquerors.

Coalition noun [ Late Latin coalitio : confer French coalition . See Coalesce .]
1. The act of coalescing; union into a body or mass, as of separate bodies or parts; as, a coalition of atoms. Bentley.

2. A combination, for temporary purposes, of persons, parties, or states, having different interests.

A coalition of the puritan and the blackleg.
J. Randolph.

The coalition between the religious and worldly enemies of popery.

Syn. -- Alliance; confederation; confederacy; league; combination; conjunction; conspiracy; union.

Coalitioner noun A coalitionist.

Coalitionist noun One who joins or promotes a coalition; one who advocates coalition.

Coalmouse noun (Zoology) A small species of titmouse, with a black head; the coletit.

Coalpit noun
1. A pit where coal is dug.

2. A place where charcoal is made. [ U. S.]

Coalsack noun [ Coal + 2d sack .] (Astron.) Any one of the spaces in the Milky Way which are very black, owing to the nearly complete absence of stars; esp., the large space near the Southern Cross sometimes called the Black Magellanic Cloud .

Coaly adjective [ From Coal , noun ] Pertaining to, or resembling, coal; containing coal; of the nature of coal.

Coamings noun plural [ Confer Comb a crest.] (Nautical) Raised pieces of wood of iron around a hatchway, skylight, or other opening in the deck, to prevent water from running bellow; esp. the fore-and-aft pieces of a hatchway frame as distinguished from the transverse head ledges. [ Written also combings .]

Coannex transitive verb To annex with something else.

Coaptation noun [ Latin coaptatio , from coaptare to fit together; co- + aptare . See Aptate .] The adaptation or adjustment of parts to each other, as of a broken bone or dislocated joint.

Coarct, Coarctate transitive verb [ See Coarctate , adjective ]
1. To press together; to crowd; to straiten; to confine closely. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

2. To restrain; to confine. [ Obsolete] Ayliffe.

Coarctate adjective [ Latin coarctatus , past participle of coarctare to press together; co- + arctare to press together, from arctus , past participle See Arctation .] (Zoology) Pressed together; closely connected; -- applied to insects having the abdomen separated from the thorax only by a constriction.

Coarctate pupa (Zoology) , a pupa closely covered by the old larval skin, as in most Diptera.

Coarctation noun [ Latin coarctatio .]
1. Confinement to a narrow space. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

2. Pressure; that which presses. [ Obsolete] Ray.

3. (Medicine) A stricture or narrowing, as of a canal, cavity, or orifice.

Coarse (kōrs) adjective [ Compar. Coarser (kōrs"ẽr); superl. Coarsest .] [ As this word was anciently written course , or cours , it may be an abbreviation of of course , in the common manner of proceeding, common, and hence, homely, made for common domestic use, plain, rude, rough, gross, e. g. , "Though the threads be course ." Gascoigne. See Course .]

1. Large in bulk, or composed of large parts or particles; of inferior quality or appearance; not fine in material or close in texture; gross; thick; rough; -- opposed to fine ; as, coarse sand; coarse thread; coarse cloth; coarse bread.

2. Not refined; rough; rude; unpolished; gross; indelicate; as, coarse manners; coarse language.

I feel
Of what coarse metal ye are molded.

To copy, in my coarse English, his beautiful expressions.

Syn. -- Large; thick; rough; gross; blunt; uncouth; unpolished; inelegant; indelicate; vulgar.

Coarse-grained (kōrs"grānd`) adjective Having a coarse grain or texture, as wood; hence, wanting in refinement.

Coarsely adverb In a coarse manner; roughly; rudely; inelegantly; uncivilly; meanly.

Coarsen (kōrs"'n) transitive verb To make coarse or vulgar; as, to coarsen one's character. [ R.] Graham.

Coarseness (kōrs"nĕs) noun The quality or state of being coarse; roughness; inelegance; vulgarity; grossness; as, coarseness of food, texture, manners, or language. "The coarseness of the sackcloth." Dr. H. More.

Pardon the coarseness of the illustration.

A coarseness and vulgarity in all the proceedings.

Coarticulation noun (Anat.) The union or articulation of bones to form a joint.

Coast noun [ Old French coste , French côte , rib, hill, shore, coast, Latin costa rib, side. Confer Accost , transitive verb , Cutlet .]
1. The side of a thing. [ Obsolete] Sir I. Newton.

2. The exterior line, limit, or border of a country; frontier border. [ Obsolete]

From the river, the river Euphrates, even to the uttermost sea, shall your coast be.
Deut. xi. 24.

3. The seashore, or land near it.

He sees in English ships the Holland coast .

We the Arabian coast do know
At distance, when the species blow.

The coast is clear , the danger is over; no enemy in sight. Dryden. Fig.: There are no obstacles. "Seeing that the coast was clear , Zelmane dismissed Musidorus." Sir P. Sidney. -- Coast guard . (a) A body of men originally employed along the coast to prevent smuggling; now, under the control of the admiralty, drilled as a naval reserve. [ Eng.] (b) The force employed in life-saving stations along the seacoast. [ U. S.] -- Coast rat (Zoology) , a South African mammal ( Bathyergus suillus ), about the size of a rabbit, remarkable for its extensive burrows; -- called also sand mole . -- Coast waiter , a customhouse officer who superintends the landing or shipping of goods for the coast trade. [ Eng.]

Coast intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Coasted ; present participle & verbal noun Coasting .] [ Middle English costien , costeien , costen , Old French costier , costoier , French côtoyer , fr . Of . coste coast, French côte . See Coast , noun ]
1. To draw or keep near; to approach. [ Obsolete]

Anon she hears them chant it lustily,
And all in haste she coasteth to the cry.

2. To sail by or near the shore.

The ancients coasted only in their navigation.

3. To sail from port to port in the same country.

4. [ Confer Old French coste , French côte , hill, hillside.] To slide down hill; to slide on a sled, upon snow or ice. [ Local, U. S.]

Coast transitive verb
1. To draw near to; to approach; to keep near, or by the side of. [ Obsolete] Hakluyt.

2. To sail by or near; to follow the coast line of.

Nearchus, . . . not knowing the compass, was fain to coast that shore.
Sir T. Browne.

3. To conduct along a coast or river bank. [ Obsolete]

The Indians . . . coasted me along the river.

Coast and Geodetic Survey A bureau of the United States government charged with the topographic and hydrographic survey of the coast and the execution of belts of primary triangulation and lines of precise leveling in the interior. It now belongs to the Department of Commerce and Labor.

Coastal adjective Of or pertaining to a coast.

Coaster noun
1. A vessel employed in sailing along a coast, or engaged in the coasting trade.

2. One who sails near the shore.

Coasting adjective Sailing along or near a coast, or running between ports along a coast.

Coasting trade , trade carried on by water between neighboring ports of the same country, as distinguished from foreign trade or trade involving long voyages. -- Coasting vessel , a vessel employed in coasting; a coaster.

Coasting noun
1. A sailing along a coast, or from port to port; a carrying on a coasting trade.

2. Sliding down hill; sliding on a sled upon snow or ice. [ Local, U. S.]

Coastwise (-wīz`), Coast"ways` adverb By way of, or along, the coast.

Coat (kōt; 110) noun [ Old French cote , French cotte , petticoat, cotte d'armes coat of arms, cotte de mailles coat of mail, Late Latin cota , cotta , tunic, probably of German origin; confer Old High German chozzo coarse mantle, German klotze , Dutch kot , hut, English cot . Confer Cot a hut.]
1. An outer garment fitting the upper part of the body; especially, such a garment worn by men.

Let each
His adamantine coat gird well.

2. A petticoat. [ Obsolete] "A child in coats ." Locke.

3. The habit or vesture of an order of men, indicating the order or office; cloth.

Men of his coat should be minding their prayers.

She was sought by spirits of richest coat .

4. An external covering like a garment, as fur, skin, wool, husk, or bark; as, the horses coats were sleek.

Fruit of all kinds, in coat
Rough or smooth rined, or bearded husk, or shell.

5. A layer of any substance covering another; a cover; a tegument; as, the coats of the eye; the coats of an onion; a coat of tar or varnish.

6. Same as Coat of arms . See below.

Hark, countrymen! either renew the fight,
Or tear the lions out of England's coat .

7. A coat card. See below. [ Obsolete]

Here's a trick of discarded cards of us! We were ranked with coats as long as old master lived.

Coat armor . See under Armor . -- Coat of arms (Her.) , a translation of the French cotte d'armes , a garment of light material worn over the armor in the 15th and 16th centuries. This was often charged with the heraldic bearings of the wearer. Hence, an heraldic achievement; the bearings of any person, taken together. -- Coat card , a card bearing a coated figure; the king, queen, or knave of playing cards. "‘I am a coat card indeed.' ‘Then thou must needs be a knave, for thou art neither king nor queen.'" Rowley. -- Coat link , a pair of buttons or studs joined by a link, to hold together the lappels of a double-breasted coat; or a button with a loop for a single-breasted coat. -- Coat of mail , a defensive garment of chain mail. See Chain mail , under Chain . -- Mast coat (Nautical) , a piece of canvas nailed around a mast, where it passes through the deck, to prevent water from getting below. -- Sail coat (Nautical) , a canvas cover laced over furled sails, and the like, to keep them dry and clean.

Coat transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Coated ; present participle & verbal noun Coating .]
1. To cover with a coat or outer garment.

2. To cover with a layer of any substance; as, to coat a jar with tin foil; to coat a ceiling.