Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Atmolyzer noun (Chemistry) An apparatus for effecting atmolysis.

Atmometer noun [ Greek ... smoke, vapor + -meter : confer French atmomètre .] An instrument for measuring the rate of evaporation from a moist surface; an evaporometer. Huxley.

Atmosphere noun [ Greek ... vapor (akin to Sanskrit ātman breath, soul, German athem breath) + ... sphere: confer French atmosphère . See Sphere .]
1. (Physics) (a) The whole mass of aëriform fluid surrounding the earth; -- applied also to the gaseous envelope of any celestial orb, or other body; as, the atmosphere of Mars. (b) Any gaseous envelope or medium.

An atmosphere of cold oxygen.

2. A supposed medium around various bodies; as, electrical atmosphere , a medium formerly supposed to surround electrical bodies. Franklin.

3. The pressure or weight of the air at the sea level, on a unit of surface, or about 14.7 Ibs. to the sq. inch.

Hydrogen was liquefied under a pressure of 650 atmospheres .

4. Any surrounding or pervading influence or condition.

The chillest of social atmospheres .

5. The portion of air in any locality, or affected by a special physical or sanitary condition; as, the atmosphere of the room; a moist or noxious atmosphere .

Atmospheric, Atmospherical adjective [ Confer French atmosphérique .]
1. Of or pertaining to the atmosphere; of the nature of, or resembling, the atmosphere; as, atmospheric air; the atmospheric envelope of the earth.

2. Existing in the atmosphere.

The lower atmospheric current.

3. Caused, or operated on, by the atmosphere; as, an atmospheric effect; an atmospheric engine.

4. Dependent on the atmosphere. [ R.]

In am so atmospherical a creature.

Atmospheric engine , a steam engine whose piston descends by the pressure of the atmosphere, when the steam which raised it is condensed within the cylinder. Tomlinson. -- Atmospheric line (Steam Engin.) , the equilibrium line of an indicator card. Steam is expanded "down to the atmosphere" when its pressure is equal to that of the atmosphere. (See Indicator card .) -- Atmospheric pressure , the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, not merely downwards, but in every direction. In amounts to about 14.7 Ibs. on each square inch. -- Atmospheric railway , one in which pneumatic power, obtained from compressed air or the creation of a vacuum, is the propelling force. -- Atmospheric tides . See under Tide .

Atmospherically adverb In relation to the atmosphere.

Atmospherology noun [ Atmosphere + -logy .] The science or a treatise on the atmosphere.

Atokous adjective [ Greek ... barren; 'a priv. + ... offspring.] (Zoology) Producing only asexual individuals, as the eggs of certain annelids.

Atole noun [ Mex. Spanish ] A porridge or gruel of maize meal and water, milk, or the like. [ Spanish Amer.]

Atoll noun [ The native name in the Indian Ocean.] A coral island or islands, consisting of a belt of coral reef, partly submerged, surrounding a central lagoon or depression; a lagoon island.

Atom noun [ Latin atomus , Greek ..., uncut, indivisible; 'a priv. + ..., verbal adj. of ... to cut: confer French atome . See Tome .]
1. (Physics) (a) An ultimate indivisible particle of matter. (b) An ultimate particle of matter not necessarily indivisible; a molecule. (c) A constituent particle of matter, or a molecule supposed to be made up of subordinate particles.

» These three definitions correspond to different views of the nature of the ultimate particles of matter. In the case of the last two, the particles are more correctly called molecules . Dana.

2. (Chemistry) The smallest particle of matter that can enter into combination; one of the elementary constituents of a molecule.

3. Anything extremely small; a particle; a whit.

There was not an atom of water.
Sir J. Ross.

Atom transitive verb To reduce to atoms. [ Obsolete] Feltham.

Atomic, Atomical adjective [ Confer French atomique .]
1. Of or pertaining to atoms.

2. Extremely minute; tiny.

Atomic philosophy , or Doctrine of atoms , a system which, assuming that atoms are endued with gravity and motion, accounted thus for the origin and formation of all things. This philosophy was first broached by Leucippus, was developed by Democritus, and afterward improved by Epicurus, and hence is sometimes denominated the Epicurean philosophy. -- Atomic theory , or the Doctrine of definite proportions (Chemistry) , teaches that chemical combinations take place between the supposed ultimate particles or atoms of bodies, in some simple ratio, as of one to one, two to three, or some other, always expressible in whole numbers. -- Atomic weight (Chemistry) , the weight of the atom of an element as compared with the weight of the atom of hydrogen, taken as a standard.

Atomically adverb In an atomic manner; in accordance with the atomic philosophy.

Atomician noun An atomist. [ R.]

Atomicism noun Atomism. [ Obsolete]

Atomicity noun [ Confer French atomicité .] (Chemistry) Degree of atomic attraction; equivalence; valence; also (a later use) the number of atoms in an elementary molecule. See Valence .

Atomism noun [ Confer French atomisme .] The doctrine of atoms. See Atomic philosophy , under Atomic .

Atomist noun [ Confer French atomiste .] One who holds to the atomic philosophy or theory. Locke.

Atomistic adjective Of or pertaining to atoms; relating to atomism. [ R.]

It is the object of the mechanical atomistic philosophy to confound synthesis with synartesis.

Atomization noun
1. The act of reducing to atoms, or very minute particles; or the state of being so reduced.

2. (Medicine) The reduction of fluids into fine spray.

Atomize transitive verb To reduce to atoms, or to fine spray.

The liquids in the form of spray are said to be pulverized, nebulized, or atomized .

Atomizer (ăt"ŭm*ī`zẽr) noun One who, or that which, atomizes; esp., an instrument for reducing a liquid to spray for disinfecting, cooling, or perfuming.

Atomology (ăt`ŭm*ŏl"o*jȳ) noun [ Atom + -logy .] The doctrine of atoms. Cudworth.

Atomy (ăt"ŭm*ȳ) noun An atom; a mite; a pigmy.

Atomy noun [ For anatomy , taken as an atomy .] A skeleton. [ Ludicrous] Shak.

Atonable adjective Admitting an atonement; capable of being atoned for; expiable.

Atone (ȧ*tōn") intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Atoned ; present participle & verbal noun Atoning .] [ From at one , , i. e., to be, or cause to be, at one. See At one .]
1. To agree; to be in accordance; to accord. [ Obsolete]

He and Aufidius can no more atone
Than violentest contrariety.

2. To stand as an equivalent; to make reparation, compensation, or amends, for an offense or a crime.

The murderer fell, and blood atoned for blood.

The ministry not atoning for their former conduct by any wise or popular measure.

Atone transitive verb
1. To set at one; to reduce to concord; to reconcile, as parties at variance; to appease. [ Obsolete]

I would do much
To atone them, for the love I bear to Cassio.

2. To unite in making. [ Obsolete & R.]

The four elements . . . have atoned
A noble league.

3. To make satisfaction for; to expiate.

Or each atone his guilty love with life.

Atonement noun
1. (Literally, a setting at one .) Reconciliation; restoration of friendly relations; agreement; concord. [ Archaic]

By whom we have now received the atonement .
Rom. v. 11.

He desires to make atonement
Betwixt the Duke of Gloucester and your brothers.

2. Satisfaction or reparation made by giving an equivalent for an injury, or by doing of suffering that which will be received in satisfaction for an offense or injury; expiation; amends; -- with for . Specifically, in theology: The expiation of sin made by the obedience, personal suffering, and death of Christ.

When a man has been guilty of any vice, the best atonement be can make for it is, to warn others.

The Phocians behaved with, so much gallantry, that they were thought to have made a sufficient atonement for their former offense.

Atonement noun -- Day of Atonement (Jewish Antiq.) , the only fast day of the Mosaic ritual, celebrated on the tenth day of the seventh month (Tisri), according to the rites described in Leviticus xvi.

Atoner noun One who makes atonement.

Atones adverb [ See At one .] [ Obsolete]

Down he fell atones as a stone.

Atonic adjective [ Confer French atonique . See Atony .]
1. (Medicine) Characterized by atony, or want of vital energy; as, an atonic disease.

2. (Gram.) Unaccented; as, an atonic syllable.

3. Destitute of tone vocality; surd. Rush.

Atonic noun
1. (Gram.) A word that has no accent.

2. An element of speech entirely destitute of vocality, or produced by the breath alone; a nonvocal or surd consonant; a breathing. Rush.

3. (Medicine) A remedy capable of allaying organic excitement or irritation. Dunglison.

Atony noun [ Greek ... slackness; 'a priv. + ... tone, strength, ... to stretch: confer French atonie .] (Medicine) Want of tone; weakness of the system, or of any organ, especially of such as are contractile.

Atop adverb On or at the top. Milton.

Atrabilarian noun A person much given to melancholy; a hypochondriac. I. Disraeli.

Atrabilarian, Atrabilarious adjective [ Late Latin atrabilarius , from Latin atra bilis black bile: confer French atrabilaire , from atrabile .] Affected with melancholy; atrabilious. Arbuthnot.

Atrabiliar adjective Melancholy; atrabilious.

Atrabiliary adjective
1. Of or pertaining to atra bilis or black bile, a fluid formerly supposed to be produced by the kidneys.

2. Melancholic or hypohondriac; atrabilious; -- from the supposed predominance of black bile, to the influence of which the ancients attributed hypochondria, melancholy, and mania.

Atrabiliary arteries , capsules , and veins (Anat.) , those pertaining to the kidney; -- called also renal arteries, capsules, and veins.

Atrabilious adjective Melancholic or hypochondriac; atrabiliary. Dunglision.

A hard-faced, atrabilious , earnest-eyed race.

He was constitutionally atrabilious and scornful.

Atramentaceous adjective [ Latin atramentum ink, from ater black.] Black, like ink; inky; atramental. [ Obsolete] Derham.

Atramental, Atramentous adjective Of or pertaining to ink; inky; black, like ink; as, atramental galls; atramentous spots.

Atramentarious adjective [ Confer French atramentaire . See Atramentaceous .] Like ink; suitable for making ink. Sulphate of iron (copperas, green vitriol) is called atramentarious , as being used in making ink.

Atrede transitive verb [ Middle English at (AS. æt ) out + rede .] To surpass in council. [ Obsolete]

Men may the olde atrenne, but hat atrede .

Atrenne transitive verb [ Middle English at + renne to run.] To outrun. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Atresia noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... not perforated.] (Medicine) Absence or closure of a natural passage or channel of the body; imperforation.

Atrial adjective Of or pertaining to an atrium.

Atrip adverb [ Prefix a- + trip .] (Nautical) (a) Just hove clear of the ground; -- said of the anchor. (b) Sheeted home, hoisted taut up and ready for trimming; -- said of sails. (c) Hoisted up and ready to be swayed across; -- said of yards.