Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Spectator noun [ Latin spectator : confer French spectateur . See Spectacle .] One who on; one who sees or beholds; a beholder; one who is personally present at, and sees, any exhibition; as, the spectators at a show. "Devised and played to take spectators ." Shak.

Syn. -- Looker-on; beholder; observer; witness.

Spectatorial adjective Of or pertaining to a spectator. Addison.

Spectatorship noun
1. The office or quality of a spectator. [ R.] Addison.

2. The act of beholding. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Spectatress, Spectatrix noun [ Latin spectatrix .] A female beholder or looker-on. "A spectatress of the whole scene." Jeffrey.

Specter, Spectre noun [ French spectre , from Latin spectrum an appearance, image, specter, from specere to look. See Spy , and confer Spectrum .]
1. Something preternaturally visible; an apparition; a ghost; a phantom.

The ghosts of traitors from the bridge descend,
With bold fanatic specters to rejoice.
Dryden.

2. (Zoology) (a) The tarsius. (b) A stick insect.

Specter bat (Zoology) , any phyllostome bat. -- Specter candle (Zoology) , a belemnite. -- Specter shrimp (Zoology) , a skeleton shrimp. See under Skeleton .

Spectioneer noun Same as Specsioneer .

Spectral adjective
1. Of or pertaining to a specter; ghosty.

He that feels timid at the spectral form of evil is not the man to spread light.
F. W. Robertson.

2. (Opt.) Of or pertaining to the spectrum; made by the spectrum; as, spectral colors; spectral analysis.

Spectral lemur . (Zoology) See Tarsius .

Spectrally adverb In the form or manner of a specter.

Spectre noun See Specter .

Spectrobolometer noun (Physics) A combination of spectroscope and bolometer for determining the distribution of energy in a spectrum. -- Spec`tro*bo`lo*met"ric adjective

Spectroelectric adjective Pert. to or designating any form of spark tube the electric discharge within which is used in spectroscopic observations.

Spectrogram noun [ Spectrum + -gram .] (Physics) A photograph, map, or diagram of a spectrum.

Spectrograph noun [ Spectrum + graph .] (Physics) (a) An apparatus for photographing or mapping a spectrum. (b) A photograph or picture of a spectrum. -- Spec`tro*graph"ic adjective -- Spec`tro*graph"ic*al*ly adverb -- Spec*trog"ra*phy noun

Spectroheliogram noun [ Spectrum + heloi- + -gram .] (Astrophysics) A photograph of the sun made by monochromatic light, usually of the calcium line (k), and showing the sun's faculæ and prominences.

Spectroheliograph noun (Astrophysics) An apparatus for making spectroheliograms, consisting of a spectroscopic camera used in combination with a telescope, and provided with clockwork for moving the sun's image across the slit. -- Spec`tro*he`li*o*graph"ic adjective

Spectrological adjective Of or pertaining to spectrology; as, spectrological studies or experiments. -- Spec`tro*log"ic*al*ly , adverb

Spectrology noun [ Spectrum + -logy .] (Chem.Physics ) The science of spectrum analysis in any or all of its relations and applications.

Spectrometer noun [ Spectrum + -meter .] (Physics) A spectroscope fitted for measurements of the luminious spectra observed with it.

Spectrometry noun (Physics) Art or process of using the spectrometer, or of measuring wave lengths of rays of a spectrum. -- Spec`tro*met"ric adjective

Spectrophone noun [ Spectrum + Greek ... sound.] An instrument constructed on the principle of the photophone and used in spectrum analysis as an adjunct to the spectroscope. -- Spec`tro*phon"ic adjective

Spectrophotometer noun [ Spectrum + photometer .] (Opt.) An instrument for measuring or comparing the intensites of the colors of the spectrum.

Spectrophotometry noun The art of comparing, photometrically, the brightness of two spectra, wave length by wave length; the use of the spectrophotometer. -- Spec`tro*pho`to*met"ric adjective

Spectroscope noun [ Spectrum + -scope .] (Physics) An optical instrument for forming and examining spectra (as that of solar light, or those produced by flames in which different substances are volatilized), so as to determine, from the position of the spectral lines, the composition of the substance.

Spectroscopic, Spectroscopical adjective Of or pertaining to a spectroscope, or spectroscopy. -- Spec`tro*scop"ic*al*ly , adverb

Spectroscopist noun One who investigates by means of a spectroscope; one skilled in the use of the spectroscope.

Spectroscopy noun The use of the spectroscope; investigations made with the spectroscope.

Spectroscopy noun The production and investigation of spectra; the use of the spectroscope; also, the science of spectroscopic phenomena.

Spectrum noun ; plural Spectra . [ Latin See Specter .]
1. An apparition; a specter. [ Obsolete]

2. (Opt.) (a) The several colored and other rays of which light is composed, separated by the refraction of a prism or other means, and observed or studied either as spread out on a screen, by direct vision, by photography, or otherwise. See Illust. of Light , and Spectroscope . (b) A luminous appearance, or an image seen after the eye has been exposed to an intense light or a strongly illuminated object. When the object is colored, the image appears of the complementary color, as a green image seen after viewing a red wafer lying on white paper. Called also ocular spectrum .

Absorption spectrum , the spectrum of light which has passed through a medium capable of absorbing a portion of the rays. It is characterized by dark spaces, bands, or lines. -- Chemical spectrum , a spectrum of rays considered solely with reference to their chemical effects, as in photography. These, in the usual photogrophic methods, have their maximum influence at and beyond the violet rays, but are not limited to this region. -- Chromatic spectrum , the visible colored rays of the solar spectrum, exhibiting the seven principal colors in their order, and covering the central and larger portion of the space of the whole spectrum. -- Continous spectrum , a spectrum not broken by bands or lines, but having the colors shaded into each other continously, as that from an incandescent solid or liquid, or a gas under high pressure. -- Diffraction spectrum , a spectrum produced by diffraction, as by a grating. -- Gaseous spectrum , the spectrum of an incandesoent gas or vapor, under moderate, or especially under very low, pressure. It is characterized by bright bands or lines. -- Normal spectrum , a representation of a spectrum arranged upon conventional plan adopted as standard, especially a spectrum in which the colors are spaced proportionally to their wave lengths, as when formed by a diffraction grating. -- Ocular spectrum . See Spectrum , 2 (b) , above. -- Prismatic spectrum , a spectrum produced by means of a prism. -- Solar spectrum , the spectrum of solar light, especially as thrown upon a screen in a darkened room. It is characterized by numerous dark lines called Fraunhofer lines . -- Spectrum analysis , chemical analysis effected by comparison of the different relative positions and qualities of the fixed lines of spectra produced by flames in which different substances are burned or evaporated, each substance having its own characteristic system of lines. -- Thermal spectrum , a spectrum of rays considered solely with reference to their heating effect, especially of those rays which produce no luminous phenomena.

Specular adjective [ Latin specularis (cf., from the same root, specula a lookout, watchtower): confer French spéculaire . See Speculum .]
1. Having the qualities of a speculum, or mirror; having a smooth, reflecting surface; as, a specular metal; a specular surface.

2. (Medicine) Of or pertaining to a speculum; conducted with the aid of a speculum; as, a specular examination.

3. Assisting sight, as a lens or the like. [ Obsolete]

Thy specular orb
Apply to well-dissected kernels; lo!
In each observe the slender threads
Of first-beginning trees.
J. Philips.

4. Affording view. [ R.] "Look once more, ere we leave this specular mount." Milton.

Specular iron . (Min.) See Hematite .

Speculate intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Speculated ; present participle & verbal noun Speculating .] [ Latin speculatus , past participle of speculari to spy out, observe, from specula a lookout, from specere to look. See Spy .]
1. To consider by turning a subject in the mind, and viewing it in its different aspects and relations; to meditate; to contemplate; to theorize; as, to speculate on questions in religion; to speculate on political events.

It is remarkable that persons who speculate the most boldly often conform with the most pefect quietude to the external regulations of society.
Hawthorne.

2. (Philos.) To view subjects from certain premises given or assumed, and infer conclusions respecting them a priori .

3. (Com.) To purchase with the expectation of a contingent advance in value, and a consequent sale at a profit; -- often, in a somewhat depreciative sense, of unsound or hazardous transactions; as, to speculate in coffee, in sugar, or in bank stock.

Speculate transitive verb To consider attentively; as, to speculate the nature of a thing. [ R.] Sir W. Hamilton.

Speculation noun [ Latin speculatio a spying out, observation: confer French spéculation .]
1. The act of speculating. Specifically: --

(a) Examination by the eye; view. [ Obsolete]

(b) Mental view of anything in its various aspects and relations; contemplation; intellectual examination.

Thenceforth to speculations high or deep
I turned my thoughts.
Milton.

(c) (Philos.) The act or process of reasoning a priori from premises given or assumed.

(d) (Com.) The act or practice of buying land, goods, shares, etc., in expectation of selling at a higher price, or of selling with the expectation of repurchasing at a lower price; a trading on anticipated fluctuations in price, as distinguished from trading in which the profit expected is the difference between the retail and wholesale prices, or the difference of price in different markets.

Sudden fortunes, indeed, are sometimes made in such places, by what is called the trade of speculation .
A. Smith.

Speculation , while confined within moderate limits, is the agent for equalizing supply and demand, and rendering the fluctuations of price less sudden and abrupt than they would otherwise be.
F. A. Walker.

(e) Any business venture in involving unusual risks, with a chance for large profits.

2. A conclusion to which the mind comes by speculating; mere theory; view; notion; conjecture.

From him Socrates derived the principles of morality, and most part of his natural speculations .
Sir W. temple.

To his speculations on these subjects he gave the lofty name of the "Oracles of Reason."
Macaulay.

3. Power of sight. [ Obsolete]

Thou hast no speculation in those eyes.
Shak.

4. A game at cards in which the players buy from one another trumps or whole hands, upon a chance of getting the highest trump dealt, which entitles the holder to the pool of stakes.

Speculatist noun One who speculates, or forms theories; a speculator; a theorist.

The very ingenious speculatist , Mr. Hume.
V. Knox.

Speculative adjective [ Confer French spéculatif , Latin speculativus .]
1. Given to speculation; contemplative.

The mind of man being by nature speculative .
Hooker.

2. Involving, or formed by, speculation; ideal; theoretical; not established by demonstration. Cudworth.

3. Of or pertaining to vision; also, prying; inquisitive; curious. [ R.] Bacon.

4. Of or pertaining to speculation in land, goods, shares, etc.; as, a speculative dealer or enterprise.

The speculative merchant exercises no one regular, established, or well-known branch of business.
A. Smith.

-- Spec"u*la*tive*ly , adverb -- Spec"u*la*tive*ness , noun

Speculator noun [ Latin , a spy, explorer, investigator: confer French spéculateur .] One who speculates. Specifically: (a) An observer; a contemplator; hence, a spy; a watcher. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.

(b) One who forms theories; a theorist.

A speculator who had dared to affirm that the human soul is by nature mortal.
Macaulay.

(c) (Com.) One who engages in speculation; one who buys and sells goods, land, etc., with the expectation of deriving profit from fluctuations in price.

Speculatorial adjective Speculatory; speculative. [ Obsolete]

Speculatory adjective [ Latin speculatorius belonging to spies or scouts.]
1. Intended or adapted for viewing or espying; having oversight. T. Warton.

2. Exercising speculation; speculative. T. Carew.

Speculist noun One who observes or considers; an observer. [ R.] Goldsmith.

Speculum noun ; plural Latin Specula , English Speculum . [ Latin , from specere to look, behold. See Spy .]
1. A mirror, or looking-glass; especially, a metal mirror, as in Greek and Roman archæology.

2. A reflector of polished metal, especially one used in reflecting telescopes. See Speculum metal , below.

3. (Surg.) An instrument for dilating certain passages of the body, and throwing light within them, thus facilitating examination or surgical operations.

4. (Zoology) A bright and lustrous patch of color found on the wings of ducks and some other birds. It is usually situated on the distal portions of the secondary quills, and is much more brilliant in the adult male than in the female.

Speculum metal , a hard, brittle alloy used for making the reflectors of telescopes and other instruments, usually consisting of copper and tin in various proportions, one of the best being that in which there are 126.4 parts of copper to 58.9 parts of tin, with sometimes a small proportion of arsenic, antimony, or zinc added to improve the whiteness.

Sped imperfect & past participle of Speed .

Speece noun Species; sort. [ Obsolete]

Speech noun [ Middle English speche , Anglo-Saxon sp...c , spr... , from specan , sprecan , to speak; akin to Dutch spraak speech, Old High German sprāhha , German sprache , Swedish spr...k , Danish sprog . See Speak .]
1. The faculty of uttering articulate sounds or words; the faculty of expressing thoughts by words or articulate sounds; the power of speaking.

There is none comparable to the variety of instructive expressions by speech , wherewith man alone is endowed for the communication of his thoughts.
Holder.

2. he act of speaking; that which is spoken; words, as expressing ideas; language; conversation.

» Speech is voice modulated by the throat, tongue, lips, etc., the modulation being accomplished by changing the form of the cavity of the mouth and nose through the action of muscles which move their walls.

O goode God! how gentle and how kind
Ye seemed by your speech and your visage
The day that maked was our marriage.
Chaucer.

The acts of God . . . to human ears
Can nort without process of speech be told.
Milton.

3. A particular language, as distinct from others; a tongue; a dialect.

People of a strange speech and of an hard language.
Ezek. iii. 6.

4. Talk; mention; common saying.

The duke . . . did of me demand
What was the speech among the Londoners
Concerning the French journey.
Shak.

5. formal discourse in public; oration; harangue.

The constant design of these orators, in all their speeches , was to drive some one particular point.
Swift.

6. ny declaration of thoughts.

I. with leave of speech implored, . . . replied.
Milton.

Syn. Harangue; language; address; oration. See Harangue , and Language .

Speech intransitive verb & t. To make a speech; to harangue. [ R.]

Speechful adjective Full of speech or words; voluble; loquacious. [ R.]

Speechification noun [ See Spechify .] The act of speechifying. [ Used humorously or in contempt.]

Speechifier noun One who makes a speech or speeches; an orator; a declaimer. [ Used humorously or in contempt.] G. Eliot.

Speechify intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Speechified ; present participle & verbal noun Speechifying .] [ Speech + -fy .] To make a speech; to harangue. [ Used derisively or humorously.]

Speechifying noun The act of making a speech or speeches. [ Used derisively or humorously.]

The dinner and speechifying . . . at the opening of the annual season for the buckhounds.
M. Arnold.

Speeching noun The act of making a speech. [ R.]

Speechless adjective
1. Destitute or deprived of the faculty of speech.

2. Not speaking for a time; dumb; mute; silent.

Speechless with wonder, and half dead with fear.
Addison.

-- Speech"less*ly , adverb -- Speech"less*ness , noun