Sphenogram Sphe"no·gram noun [ Greek sfh`n a wedge + -gram .] A cuneiform, or arrow- headed, character.
Sphenographer Sphe·nog"ra·pher noun One skilled in sphenography; a sphenographist.
Sphenographic Sphe`no·graph"ic adjective Of or pertaining to sphenography.
Sphenographist Sphe·nog"ra·phist noun A sphenographer.
Sphenography Sphe·nog"ra·phy noun [ Greek sfh`n a wedge + -graphy .] The art of writing in cuneiform characters, or of deciphering inscriptions made in such characters.
Sphenoid Sphe"noid adjective [ Greek .........; sfh`n a wedge + e'i^dos form: confer French sphénoïde .] 1. Wedge-shaped; as, a sphenoid crystal. 2. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the sphenoid bone. Sphenoid bone (Anat.) , an irregularly shaped bone in front of the occipital in the base of the skull of the higher vertebrates. It is composed of several fetal bones which become united the adult. See Alisphenoid , Basisphenoid , Orbitosphenoid , Presphenoid .
Sphenoid Sphe"noid noun 1. (Crystallog.) A wedge-shaped crystal bounded by four equal isosceles triangles. It is the hemihedral form of a square pyramid. 2. (Anat.) The sphenoid bone.
Sphenoidal Sphe·noid"al adjective 1. Sphenoid. 2. (Crystalloq.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a sphenoid.
Sphenotic Sphe·not"ic adjective [ Spheno- + ........., ........., the ear.] (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the sphenotic bone. Sphenotic bone (Anat.) , a bone on the anterior side of the auditory capsule of many fishes, and connected with, or adjoining, the sphenoid bone.
Sphenotic Sphe·not"ic noun (Anat.) The sphenotic bone.
Spheral Spher"al adjective 1. Of or pertaining to a sphere or the spheres. 2. Rounded like a sphere; sphere-shaped; hence, symmetrical; complete; perfect.
Sphere Sphere noun
[ Middle English spere
, Old French espere
, French sphère
, Latin sphaera
,. Greek ......... a sphere, a ball.] 1. (Geom.) A body or space contained under a single surface, which in every part is equally distant from a point within called its center . 2. Hence, any globe or globular body, especially a celestial one, as the sun, a planet, or the earth.
Of celestial bodies, first the sun, Milton. 3. (Astron.) (a) The apparent surface of the heavens, which is assumed to be spherical and everywhere equally distant, in which the heavenly bodies appear to have their places, and on which the various astronomical circles, as of right ascension and declination, the equator, ecliptic, etc., are conceived to be drawn; an ideal geometrical sphere, with the astronomical and geographical circles in their proper positions on it. (b) In ancient astronomy, one of the concentric and eccentric revolving spherical transparent shells in which the stars, sun, planets, and moon were supposed to be set, and by which they were carried, in such a manner as to produce their apparent motions. 4. (Logic) The extension of a general conception, or the totality of the individuals or species to which it may be applied. 5. Circuit or range of action, knowledge, or influence; compass; province; employment; place of existence.
A mighty sphere , he framed.
To be called into a huge sphere , and not to be seen to move in 't. Shak.
Taking her out of the ordinary relations with humanity, and inclosing her in a sphere by herself. Hawthorne.
Each in his hidden sphere of joy or woe Keble. 6. Rank; order of society; social positions. 7. An orbit, as of a star; a socket.
Our hermit spirits dwell.
[ R.] Shak. Armillary sphere
, Crystalline sphere
, Oblique sphere
,. See under Armillary , Crystalline ,.
-- Doctrine of the sphere
, applications of the principles of spherical trigonometry to the properties and relations of the circles of the sphere, and the problems connected with them, in astronomy and geography, as to the latitudes and longitudes, distance and bearing, of places on the earth, and the right ascension and declination, altitude and azimuth, rising and setting, etc., of the heavenly bodies; spherical geometry.
-- Music of the spheres
. See under Music . Syn.
-- Globe; orb; circle. See Globe
Sphere Sphere transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Sphered
; present participle & verbal noun Sphering
.] 1. To place in a sphere, or among the spheres; to insphere.
The glorious planet Sol Shak. 2. To form into roundness; to make spherical, or spheral; to perfect. Tennyson.
In noble eminence enthroned and sphered
Amidst the other.
Spherical, Spheric Spher"ic·al, Spher"ic adjective
[ Latin sphaericus
, Greek .........: confer French sphérique
.] 1. Having the form of a sphere; like a sphere; globular; orbicular; as, a spherical body. 2. Of or pertaining to a sphere. 3. Of or pertaining to the heavenly orbs, or to the sphere or spheres in which, according to ancient astronomy and astrology, they were set.
Knaves, thieves, and treachers by spherical predominance. Shak.
Though the stars were suns, and overburned Mrs. Browning. Spherical angle
Their spheric limitations.
, Spherical coördinate
, Spherical excess
, etc. See under Angle , Coordinate , etc.
-- Spherical geometry
, that branch of geometry which treats of spherical magnitudes; the doctrine of the sphere, especially of the circles described on its surface.
-- Spherical harmonic analysis
. See under Harmonic , adjective
-- Spherical lune
, portion of the surface of a sphere included between two great semicircles having a common diameter.
-- Spherical opening
, the magnitude of a solid angle. It is measured by the portion within the solid angle of the surface of any sphere whose center is the angular point.
-- Spherical polygon
, portion of the surface of a sphere bounded by the arcs of three or more great circles.
-- Spherical projection
, the projection of the circles of the sphere upon a plane. See Projection .
-- Spherical sector
. See under Sector .
-- Spherical segment
, the segment of a sphere. See under Segment .
-- Spherical triangle
, re on the surface of a sphere, bounded by the arcs of three great circles which intersect each other.
-- Spherical trigonometry
. See Trigonometry .
Sphericity Sphe·ric"i·ty noun [ Confer French sphéricité .] The quality or state of being spherial; roundness; as, the sphericity of the planets, or of a drop of water.
Sphericle Spher"i·cle noun A small sphere.
Spherics Spher"ics noun (Math.) The doctrine of the sphere; the science of the properties and relations of the circles, figures, and other magnitudes of a sphere, produced by planes intersecting it; spherical geometry and trigonometry.
Spherobacteria Sphe`ro·bac·te"ri·a noun plural ; sing. Spherobacterium [ New Latin See Sphere , and Bacterium .] (Biol.) See the Note under Microbacteria .
Spheroconic Sphe`ro·con"ic noun (Geom.) A nonplane curve formed by the intersection of the surface of an oblique cone with the surface of a sphere whose center is at the vertex of the cone.
Spherograph Spher"o·graph noun [ Sphere + -graph .] An instrument for facilitating the practical use of spherics in navigation and astronomy, being constructed of two cardboards containing various circles, and turning upon each other in such a manner that any possible spherical triangle may be readily found, and the measures of the parts read off by inspection.
Spheroid Sphe"roid noun [ Latin spheroides ball-like, spherical, Greek .........; ............ sphere + ......... form: confer French sphéroïde .] A body or figure approaching to a sphere, but not perfectly spherical; esp., a solid generated by the revolution of an ellipse about one of its axes. Oblate spheroid , Prolate spheroid . See Oblate , Prolate , and Ellipsoid .
Spheroidal Sphe·roid"al adjective [ Confer French sphéroïdal .] Having the form of a spheroid. -- Sphe*roid"al*ly , adverb Spheroidal state (Physics.) , the state of a liquid, as water, when, on being thrown on a surface of highly heated metal, it rolls about in spheroidal drops or masses, at a temperature several degrees below ebullition, and without actual contact with the heated surface, -- a phenomenon due to the repulsive force of heat, the intervention of a cushion of nonconducting vapor, and the cooling effect of evaporation.
Spheroidic, Spheroidical Sphe·roid"ic, Sphe·roid"ic·al adjective See Spheroidal . Cheyne.
Spheroidicity, Spheroidity Sphe`roi·dic"i·ty, Sphe·roid"i·ty noun The quality or state of being spheroidal.
Spheromere Sphe"ro·mere noun [ Sphere + -mere .] (Zoology) Any one of the several symmetrical segments arranged around the central axis and composing the body of a radiate anmal.
Spherometer Sphe·rom"e·ter noun [ Sphere + -meter : confer French sphéromètre .] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the curvature of spherical surface, as of lenses for telescope, etc.
Spherosiderite Spher`o·sid"er·ite noun [ Sphere + siderite .] (Min.) Siderite occuring in spheroidal masses.
Spherosome Sphe"ro·some noun [ Sphere + -some body.] (Zoology) The body wall of any radiate animal.
Spherulate Spher"u·late adjective Covered or set with spherules; having one or more rows of spherules, or minute tubercles.
Spherule Spher"ule noun [ Latin spherula : confer French sphérule .] A little sphere or spherical body; as, quicksilver, when poured upon a plane, divides itself into a great number of minute spherules .
Spherulite Spher"u·lite noun [ Confer French sphérulite .] (Min.) A minute spherical crystalline body having a radiated structure, observed in some vitreous volcanic rocks, as obsidian and pearlstone.
Spherulitic Spher`u·lit"ic adjective Of or pertaining to a spherulite; characterized by the presence of spherulites.
Sphery Spher"y adjective 1. Round; spherical; starlike.
[ R.] "Hermia's sphery
eyne." Shak. 2. Of or pertaining to the spheres.
She can teach ye how to climb Milton.
Higher than the sphery chime.
Sphex Sphex noun [ New Latin , from Greek ........., ........., a wasp.] (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of sand wasps of the genus Sphex and allied genera. These wasps have the abdomen attached to the thorax by a slender pedicel. See Illust. of Sand wasp , under Sand . Sphex fly (Zoology) , any one of numerous species of small dipterous flies of the genus Conops and allied genera. The form of the body is similar to that of a sphex.
Sphigmometer Sphig·mom"e·ter noun See Sphygmometer .
Sphincter Sphinc"ter noun [ New Latin , from ......... to bind tight.] (Anat.) A muscle which surrounds, and by its contraction tends to close, a natural opening; as, the sphincter of the bladder.
Sphincter Sphinc"ter adjective (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a sphincter; as, a sphincter muscle.
Sphingid Sphin"gid noun (Zoology) A sphinx.
Sphingid Sphin"gid adjective Of or pertaining to a sphinx, or the family Sphingidæ .
Sphinx Sphinx noun
[ Latin , from Greek sfi`gx
, usually derived from sfi`ggein
to bind tight or together, as if the Throttler.] 1. (a) In Egyptian art, an image of granite or porphyry, having a human head, or the head of a ram or of a hawk, upon the wingless body of a lion.
The awful ruins of the days of old . . . Shelley. (b) On Greek art and mythology, a she-monster, usually represented as having the winged body of a lion, and the face and breast of a young woman.
Or jasper tomb, or mutilated sphinx .
The most famous Grecian sphinx, that of Thebes in Bœotia, is said to have proposed a riddle to the Thebans, and killed those who were unable to guess it. The enigma was solved by Œdipus, whereupon the sphinx slew herself. "Subtle as sphinx
." Shak. 2. Hence: A person of enigmatical character and purposes, especially in politics and diplomacy. 3. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of large moths of the family Sphingidæ ; -- called also hawk moth .
» The larva is a stout naked caterpillar which, when at rest, often assumes a position suggesting the Egyptian sphinx, whence the name. 4. (Zoology) The Guinea, or sphinx, baboon ( Cynocephalus sphinx ). Sphinx baboon (Zoology)
, a large West African baboon ( Cynocephalus sphinx ), often kept in menageries.
-- Sphinx moth
. (Zoology) Same as Sphinx , 3.
Sphragide Sphrag"ide noun [ Latin sphragis , -idis , Lemnian earth, from Greek ........., ........., a seal; -- so called because sold in sealed packets.] (Min.) Lemnian earth.
Sphragistics Sphra·gis"tics noun [ Greek ............ of or for sealing, from ......... a seal.] The science of seals, their history, age, distinctions, etc., esp. as verifying the age and genuiness of documents.
Sphrigosis Sphri·go"sis noun [ New Latin , from Greek ......... to be full of strength.] (Botany) A condition of vegetation in which there is too abundant growth of the stem and leaves, accompanied by deficiency of flowers and fruit.
Sphygmic Sphyg"mic adjective [ Greek ......... the pulse.] (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to the pulse.
Sphygmogram Sphyg"mo·gram noun [ Greek ............ pulse + -gram .] (Physiol.) A tracing, called a pulse tracing, consisting of a series of curves corresponding with the beats of the heart, obtained by the application of the sphygmograph.
Sphygmograph Sphyg"mo·graph noun [ Greek ......... the pulse + -graph .] (Physiol.) An instrument which, when applied over an artery, indicates graphically the movements or character of the pulse. See Sphygmogram .
Sphygmographic Sphyg`mo·graph"ic adjective (Phusiol.) Relating to, or produced by, a sphygmograph; as, a sphygmographic tracing.
Sphygmometer Sphyg·mom"e·ter noun [ Greek ............ pulse + -meter .] (Physiol.) An instrument for measuring the strength of the pulse beat; a sphygmograph.
Sphygmophone Sphyg"mo·phone noun [ Greek ......... the pulse + ......... sound.] (Physiol.) An electrical instrument for determining by the ear the rhythm of the pulse of a person at a distance.
Sphygmoscope Sphyg"mo·scope noun [ Greek ......... the pulse + -scope .] (Physiol.) Same as Sphygmograph .
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