Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Rat-tail (răt"tāl`) adjective Like a rat's tail in form; as, a rat-tail file, which is round, slender, and tapering. See Illust. of File .

Rat-tail noun
1. (Far.) plural An excrescence growing from the pastern to the middle of the shank of a horse.

2. (Zoology) (a) The California chimæra. See Chimæra . (b) Any fish of the genus Macrurus . See Grenadier , 2.

Rat-tailed (-tāld`) adjective (Zoology) Having a long, tapering tail like that of a rat.

Rat-tailed larva (Zoology) , the larva of a fly of the genus Eristalis. See Eristalis . -- Rat-tailed serpent (Zoology) , the fer- de-lance. -- Rat-tailed shrew (Zoology) , the musk shrew.

Ratio (rā"shĭ*o or rā"sho) noun [ Latin , from reri , ratus , to reckon, believe, think, judge. See Reason .]
1. (Math.) The relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind. It is expressed by the quotient of the division of the first by the second; thus, the ratio of 3 to 6 is expressed by &frac36; or ½; of a to b by a/b ; or (less commonly) the second term is made the dividend; as, a:b = b/a .

» Some writers consider ratio as the quotient itself, making ratio equivalent to a number.

The term ratio is also sometimes applied to the difference of two quantities as well as to their quotient , in which case the former is called arithmetical ratio , the latter, geometrical ratio . The name ratio is sometimes given to the rule of three in arithmetic. See under Rule .

2. Hence, fixed relation of number, quantity, or degree; rate; proportion; as, the ratio of representation in Congress.

Compound ratio , Duplicate ratio , Inverse ratio , etc. See under Compound , Duplicate , etc. -- Ratio of a geometrical progression , the constant quantity by which each term is multiplied to produce the succeeding one.

Ratiocinate (răsh`ĭ*ŏs"ĭ*nāt) intransitive verb [ Latin ratiocinatus , past participle of ratiocinari , from ratio reason. See Ratio .] To reason, esp. deductively; to offer reason or argument.

Ratiocination (-nā"shŭn) noun [ Latin ratiocinatio : confer French ratiocination .] The process of reasoning, or deducing conclusions from premises; deductive reasoning.

Ratiocinative (- ŏs"ĭ*na*tĭv) adjective [ Latin ratiocinativus .] Characterized by, or addicted to, ratiocination; consisting in the comparison of propositions or facts, and the deduction of inferences from the comparison; argumentative; as, a ratiocinative process.

The ratiocinative meditativeness of his character.

Ratiocinatory (-nȧ*to*rȳ) adjective Ratiocinative. [ R.]

Ration (rā"shŭn or răsh"ŭn) noun [ French, from Latin ratio a reckoning, calculation, relation, reference, Late Latin ratio ration. See Ratio .]
1. A fixed daily allowance of provisions assigned to a soldier in the army, or a sailor in the navy, for his subsistence.

» Officers have several rations, the number varying according to their rank or the number of their attendants.

2. Hence, a certain portion or fixed amount dealt out; an allowance; an allotment.

Ration transitive verb To supply with rations, as a regiment.

Rational (răsh"ŭn* a l) adjective [ Latin rationalis : confer French rationnel . See Ratio , Reason , and confer Rationale .]
1. Relating to the reason; not physical; mental.

Moral philosophy was his chiefest end; for the rational , the natural, and mathematics . . . were but simple pastimes in comparison of the other.
Sir T. North.

2. Having reason, or the faculty of reasoning; endowed with reason or understanding; reasoning.

It is our glory and happiness to have a rational nature.

3. Agreeable to reason; not absurd, preposterous, extravagant, foolish, fanciful, or the like; wise; judicious; as, rational conduct; a rational man.

4. (Chemistry) Expressing the type, structure, relations, and reactions of a compound; graphic; -- said of formulæ. See under Formula .

Rational horizon . (Astron.) See Horizon , 2 (b) . -- Rational quantity (Alg.) , one that can be expressed without the use of a radical sign, or in exact parts of unity; -- opposed to irrational or radical quantity . -- Rational symptom (Medicine) , one elicited by the statements of the patient himself and not as the result of a physical examination.

Syn. -- Sane; sound; intelligent; reasonable; sensible; wise; discreet; judicious. -- Rational , Reasonable . Rational has reference to reason as a faculty of the mind, and is opposed to ir rational; as, a rational being, a rational state of mind, rational views, etc. In these cases the speculative reason is more particularly referred to. Reasonable has reference to the exercise of this faculty for practical purposes, and means, governed or directed by reason; as, reasonable desires or plans; a reasonable charge; a reasonable prospect of success.

What higher in her society thou find'st
Attractive, human, rational , love still.

A law may be reasonable in itself, although a man does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgivers.

Rational noun A rational being. Young.

Rationale (răsh`ŭn*ā"le) noun [ Latin rationalis , neut. rationale . See Rational , adjective ] An explanation or exposition of the principles of some opinion, action, hypothesis, phenomenon, or the like; also, the principles themselves.

Rationalism (răsh"ŭn* a l*ĭz'm) noun [ Confer French rationalisme .]
1. (Theol.) The doctrine or system of those who deduce their religious opinions from reason or the understanding, as distinct from, or opposed to, revelation.

2. (Philos.) The system that makes rational power the ultimate test of truth; -- opposed to sensualism , or sensationalism , and empiricism . Fleming.

Rationalist noun [ Confer French rationaliste .] One who accepts rationalism as a theory or system; also, disparagingly, a false reasoner. See Citation under Reasonist .

Rationalistic (-ĭs"tĭk), Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al (-tĭ*k a l) adjective Belonging to, or in accordance with, the principles of rationalism. -- Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al*ly , adverb

Rationality (-ăl"ĭ*tȳ; 277) noun ; plural -ties (- tĭz). [ French rationalité , or Latin rationalitas .] The quality or state of being rational; agreement with reason; possession of reason; due exercise of reason; reasonableness.

When God has made rationality the common portion of mankind, how came it to be thy inclosure?
Gov. of Tongue.

Well-directed intentions, whose rationalities will never bear a rigid examination.
Sir T. Browne.

Rationalization (răsh`ŭn* a l*ĭ*zā"shŭn) noun The act or process of rationalizing.

Rationalize (răsh"ŭn* a l*īz) transitive verb
1. To make rational; also, to convert to rationalism.

2. To interpret in the manner of a rationalist.

3. To form a rational conception of.

4. (Alg.) To render rational; to free from radical signs or quantities.

Rationalize intransitive verb To use, and rely on, reason in forming a theory, belief, etc., especially in matters of religion: to accord with the principles of rationalism.

Theodore . . . is justly considered the chief rationalizing doctor of antiquity.
J. H. Newman.

Rationally adverb In a rational manner.

Rationalness noun The quality or state of being rational; rationality.

Ratitate (răt"ĭ*tat) adjective (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Ratitæ.

Ratite (răt"īt) adjective (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Ratitæ. - - noun One of the Ratitæ.

Ratitæ (rȧ*tī"te) noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin ratis a raft; confer Latin ratitus marked with the figure of a raft.] (Zoology) An order of birds in which the wings are small, rudimentary, or absent, and the breastbone is destitute of a keel. The ostrich, emu, moa, and apteryx are examples.

Ratlines, Ratlins (răt"lĭnz) noun plural [ Of uncertain origin.] (Nautical) The small transverse ropes attached to the shrouds and forming the steps of a rope ladder. [ Written also ratlings , and rattlings .] Totten.

Raton (răt"ŏn) noun [ Confer Raccoon .] A small rat. [ Obsolete] Piers Plowman.

Ratoon (rȧ*tōn") noun
1. Same as Rattoon , noun

2. A rattan cane. [ Obsolete] Pepys.

Ratoon intransitive verb Same as Rattoon , intransitive verb

Ratsbane (răts"bān`) noun [ Rat + bane .] Rat poison; white arsenic.

Ratsbaned (-bānd`) adjective Poisoned by ratsbane.

Rattan (răt*tăn") noun [ Malay rōtan .] [ Written also ratan .] (Botany) One of the long slender flexible stems of several species of palms of the genus Calamus , mostly East Indian, though some are African and Australian. They are exceedingly tough, and are used for walking sticks, wickerwork, chairs and seats of chairs, cords and cordage, and many other purposes.

Ratteen (-tēn") noun [ French ratine .] A thick woolen stuff quilled or twilled.

Ratten (răt"t'n) transitive verb [ Prov. English ratten a rat, hence the verb literally means, to do mischief like a rat.] To deprive feloniously of the tools used in one's employment (as by breaking or stealing them), for the purpose of annoying; as, to ratten a mechanic who works during a strike. [ Trades-union Cant] J. McCarthy.

Ratter (-tẽr) noun
1. One who, or that which, rats, as one who deserts his party.

2. Anything which catches rats; esp., a dog trained to catch rats; a rat terrier. See Terrier .

Rattinet (-tĭ*nĕt") noun A woolen stuff thinner than ratteen.

Ratting (răt"tĭng) noun
1. The conduct or practices of one who rats. See Rat , intransitive verb , 1. Sydney Smith.

2. The low sport of setting a dog upon rats confined in a pit to see how many he will kill in a given time.

Rattle (-t'l) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Rattled (-t'ld); present participle & verbal noun Rattling (-tlĭng).] [ Akin to Dutch ratelen , German rasseln , Anglo-Saxon hrætele a rattle, in hrætel wyrt rattlewort; confer Greek kradai`nein to swing, wave. Confer Rail a bird.]
1. To make a quick succession of sharp, inharmonious noises, as by the collision of hard and not very sonorous bodies shaken together; to clatter.

And the rude hail in rattling tempest forms.

'T was but the wind,
Or the car rattling o'er the stony street.

2. To drive or ride briskly, so as to make a clattering; as, we rattled along for a couple of miles. [ Colloq.]

3. To make a clatter with the voice; to talk rapidly and idly; to clatter; -- with on or away ; as, she rattled on for an hour. [ Colloq.]

Rattle (răt"t'l) transitive verb
1. To cause to make a rattling or clattering sound; as, to rattle a chain.

2. To assail, annoy, or stun with a rattling noise.

Sound but another [ drum], and another shall
As loud as thine rattle the welkin's ear.

3. Hence, to disconcert; to confuse; as, to rattle one's judgment; to rattle a player in a game. [ Colloq.]

4. To scold; to rail at. L'Estrange.

To rattle off . (a) To tell glibly or noisily; as, to rattle off a story. (b) To rail at; to scold. "She would sometimes rattle off her servants sharply." Arbuthnot.

Rattle noun
1. A rapid succession of sharp, clattering sounds; as, the rattle of a drum. Prior.

2. Noisy, rapid talk.

All this ado about the golden age is but an empty rattle and frivolous conceit.

3. An instrument with which a rattling sound is made; especially, a child's toy that rattles when shaken.

The rattles of Isis and the cymbals of Brasilea nearly enough resemble each other.
Sir W. Raleigh.

Pleased with a rattle , tickled with a straw.

4. A noisy, senseless talker; a jabberer.

It may seem strange that a man who wrote with so much perspicuity, vivacity, and grace, should have been, whenever he took a part in conversation, an empty, noisy, blundering rattle .

5. A scolding; a sharp rebuke. [ Obsolete] Heylin.

6. (Zoology) Any organ of an animal having a structure adapted to produce a rattling sound.

» The rattle of a rattlesnake is composed of the hardened terminal scales, loosened in succession, but not cast off, and so modified in form as to make a series of loose, hollow joints.

7. The noise in the throat produced by the air in passing through mucus which the lungs are unable to expel; -- chiefly observable at the approach of death, when it is called the death rattle . See Râle .

To spring a rattle , to cause it to sound. -- Yellow rattle (Botany) , a yellow-flowered herb ( Rhinanthus Crista-galli ), the ripe seeds of which rattle in the inflated calyx.

Rattle-brained (-brānd`) adjective Giddy; rattle-headed.

Rattle-headed adjective Noisy; giddy; unsteady.

Rattle-pated adjective Rattle- headed. "A noisy, rattle-pated fellow." W. Irving.

Rattlebox (-bŏks`) noun
1. A toy that makes a rattling sound; a rattle.

2. (Botany) (a) An American herb ( Crotalaria sagittalis ), the seeds of which, when ripe, rattle in the inflated pod. (b) Any species of Crotalaria , a genus of yellow-flowered herbs, with inflated, many-seeded pods.

Rattlehead (-hĕd`) noun An empty, noisy talker.

Rattlemouse (-mous`) noun A bat. [ Obsolete] Puttenham.

Rattlepate (-pāt`) noun A rattlehead. C. Kingsley.

Rattler (-tlẽr) noun One who, or that which, rattles.

Rattlesnake (răt"t'l*snāk`) noun (Zoology) Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera Crotalus and Caudisona , or Sistrurus . They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp rattling sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States ( Crotalus horridus ), and the diamond rattlesnake of the South ( C. adamanteus ), are the best known. See Illust. of Fang .

Ground rattlesnake (Zoology) , a small rattlesnake ( Caudisona, or Sistrurus, miliaria ) of the Southern United States, having a small rattle. It has nine large scales on its head. -- Rattlesnake fern (Botany) , a common American fern ( Botrychium Virginianum ) having a triangular decompound frond and a long- stalked panicle of spore cases rising from the middle of the frond. -- Rattlesnake grass (Botany) , a handsome American grass ( Glyceria Canadensis ) with an ample panicle of rather large ovate spikelets, each one composed of imbricated parts and slightly resembling the rattle of the rattlesnake. Sometimes called quaking grass . -- Rattlesnake plantain . (Botany) See under Plantain . -- Rattlesnake root (Botany) , a name given to certain American species of the composite genus Prenanthes ( P. alba and P. serpentaria ), formerly asserted to cure the bite of the rattlesnake. Called also lion's foot , gall of the earth , and white lettuce . -- Rattlesnake's master . (Botany) (a) A species of Agave ( Agave Virginica ) growing in the Southern United States . (b) An umbelliferous plant ( Eryngium yuccæfolium ) with large bristly-fringed linear leaves . (c) A composite plant, the blazing star ( Liatris squarrosa ). -- Rattlesnake weed (Botany) , a plant of the composite genus Hieracium ( H. venosum ); -- probably so named from its spotted leaves. See also Snakeroot .

Rattletrap (-trăp`) noun Any machine or vehicle that does not run smoothly. [ Colloq.] A. Trollope.