Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Compar. Rawer
(-ẽr); superl. Rawest
.] [ Anglo-Saxon hreáw
; akin to Dutch raauw
, LG. rau
, German roh
, Old High German rō
, Icelandic hrār
, Danish raa
, Swedish rå
, Latin crudus
, Greek kre`as
flesh, Sanskrit kravis
raw flesh. √18. Confer Crude
.] 1. Not altered from its natural state; not prepared by the action of heat; as, raw sienna; specifically, not cooked; not changed by heat to a state suitable for eating; not done; as, raw meat. 2. Hence: Unprepared for use or enjoyment; immature; unripe; unseasoned; inexperienced; unpracticed; untried; as, raw soldiers; a raw recruit.
Approved himself to the raw judgment of the multitude. De Quincey. 3. Not worked in due form; in the natural state; untouched by art; unwrought.
Specifically: (a) Not distilled; as, raw water
. [ Obsolete] Bacon. (b) Not spun or twisted; as, raw silk or cotton
. (c) Not mixed or diluted; as, raw spirits
. (d) Not tried; not melted and strained; as, raw tallow
. (e) Not tanned; as, raw hides
. (f) Not trimmed, covered, or folded under; as, the raw edge of a piece of metal or of cloth. 4. Not covered; bare.
Specifically: (a) Bald.
[ Obsolete] "With skull all raw
." Spenser (b) Deprived of skin; galled; as, a raw sore. (c) Sore, as if by being galled.
And all his sinews waxen weak and raw Spenser. 5. Disagreeably damp or cold; chilly; bleak; as, a raw wind.
Through long imprisonment.
and gusty day." Shak. Raw material
, material that has not been subjected to a (specified) process of manufacture; as, ore is the raw material used in smelting; leather is the raw material of the shoe industry.
-- Raw pig
, cast iron as it comes from the smelting furnace.
Raw noun A raw, sore, or galled place; a sensitive spot; as, to touch one on the raw .
Like savage hackney coachmen, they know where there is a raw . De Quincey.
Rawbone (ra"bōn`) adjective Rawboned. [ Obsolete] Spenser.
Rawboned (-bōnd`) adjective Having little flesh on the bones; gaunt. Shak.
Rawhead (ra"hĕd`) noun A specter mentioned to frighten children; as, rawhead and bloodybones.
Rawhide (ra"hīd`) noun A cowhide, or coarse riding whip, made of untanned (or raw) hide twisted.
Rawish adjective Somewhat raw. [ R.] Marston.
1. In a raw manner; unskillfully; without experience. 2. Without proper preparation or provision. Shak.
Rawness noun The quality or state of being raw.
(rā) transitive verb
[ An aphetic form of array
; confer Beray
.] 1. To array.
[ Obsolete] Sir T. More. 2. To mark, stain, or soil; to streak; to defile.
[ Obsolete] "The filth that did it ray
Ray noun Array; order; arrangement; dress.
And spoiling all her gears and goodly ray . Spenser.
[ Old French rai
, French rais
, from Latin radius
a beam or ray, staff, rod, spoke of a wheel. Confer Radius
.] 1. One of a number of lines or parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six rays . 2. (Botany) A radiating part of a flower or plant; the marginal florets of a compound flower, as an aster or a sunflower; one of the pedicels of an umbel or other circular flower cluster; radius. See Radius . 3. (Zoology) (a) One of the radiating spines, or cartilages, supporting the fins of fishes. (b) One of the spheromeres of a radiate, especially one of the arms of a starfish or an ophiuran. 4. (Physics) (a) A line of light or heat proceeding from a radiant or reflecting point; a single element of light or heat propagated continuously; as, a solar ray ; a polarized ray . (b) One of the component elements of the total radiation from a body; any definite or limited portion of the spectrum; as, the red ray ; the violet ray . See Illust . under Light . 5. Sight; perception; vision; -- from an old theory of vision, that sight was something which proceeded from the eye to the object seen.
All eyes direct their rays Pope. 6. (Geom.) One of a system of diverging lines passing through a point, and regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions. See Half-ray . Bundle of rays
On him, and crowds turn coxcombs as they gaze.
. (Geom.) See Pencil of rays , below.
-- Extraordinary ray (Opt.)
, that one of two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which does not follow the ordinary law of refraction.
-- Ordinary ray (Opt.)
, that one of the two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which follows the usual or ordinary law of refraction.
-- Pencil of rays (Geom.)
, a definite system of rays.
-- Ray flower
, or Ray floret (Botany)
, one of the marginal flowers of the capitulum in such composite plants as the aster, goldenrod, daisy, and sunflower. They have an elongated, strap-shaped corolla, while the corollas of the disk flowers are tubular and five-lobed.
-- Ray point (Geom.)
, the common point of a pencil of rays.
-- Röntgen ray
(rẽnt"gĕn) (Physics )
, a kind of ray generated in a very highly exhausted vacuum tube by the electrical discharge. It is capable of passing through many bodies opaque to light, and producing photographic and fluorescent effects by which means pictures showing the internal structure of opaque objects are made, called radiographs , or sciagraphs .. So called from the discoverer, W. C. Röntgen .
-- X ray
, the Röntgen ray; -- so called by its discoverer because of its enigmatical character, x being an algebraic symbol for an unknown quantity.
Ray transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Rayed
(rād); present participle & verbal noun Raying
.] [ Confer Old French raier
, Latin radiare
to irradiate. See Ray
, and confer Radiate
.] 1. To mark with long lines; to streak.
[ Obsolete] Chaucer. 2.
[ From Ray
] To send forth or shoot out; to cause to shine out; as, to ray smiles.
[ R.] Thomson.
Ray intransitive verb To shine, as with rays. Mrs. Browning.
[ French raie
, Latin raia
. Confer Roach
.] (Zoology) (a) Any one of numerous elasmobranch fishes of the order Raiæ, including the skates, torpedoes, sawfishes, etc. (b) In a restricted sense, any of the broad, flat, narrow-tailed species, as the skates and sting rays. See Skate . Bishop ray
, a yellow-spotted, long-tailed eagle ray ( Stoasodon nÃ rinari ) of the Southern United States and the West Indies.
-- Butterfly ray
, a short-tailed American sting ray ( Pteroplatea Maclura ), having very broad pectoral fins.
-- Devil ray
. See Sea devil .
-- Eagle ray
, any large ray of the family Myliobatidæ , or Ætobatidæ . The common European species ( Myliobatis aquila ) is called also whip ray , and miller .
-- Electric ray
, or Cramp ray
, a torpedo.
-- Starry ray
, a common European skate ( Raia radiata ).
-- Sting ray
, any one of numerous species of rays of the family Trygonidæ having one or more large, sharp, barbed dorsal spines on the whiplike tail. Called also stingaree .
(rā" grȧs`). [ Etymol. of ray
is uncertain.] (Botany) A perennial European grass ( Lolium perenne ); -- called also rye grass , and red darnel . See Darnel , and Grass . Italian ray
, or rye
. See Darnel , and Grass .
Rayah (rā"yȧ or rä"yȧ) noun [ Arabic ra'iyah a herd, a subject, from ra'a to pasture, guard.] A person not a Mohammedan, who pays the capitation tax. [ Turkey]
Rayless (rā"lĕs) adjective Destitute of rays; hence, dark; not illuminated; blind; as, a rayless sky; rayless eyes.
Rayon (rā"ŏn) noun [ French] Ray; beam. [ Obsolete] Spenser.
Rayonnant (rā"ŏn*nănt) adjective [ French] (Her.) Darting forth rays, as the sun when it shines out.
[ See Race
.] A Shakespearean word (used once) supposed to mean the same as race , a root.
Raze transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Razed
(rāzd); present participle & verbal noun Razing
.] [ French raser
. See Rase
, transitive verb
] [ Written also rase
.] 1. To erase; to efface; to obliterate.
Razing the characters of your renown. Shak. 2. To subvert from the foundation; to lay level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to demolish.
The royal hand that razed unhappy Troy. Dryden. Syn.
-- To demolish; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; ruin. See Demolish
Razed (rāzd) adjective Slashed or striped in patterns. [ Obsolete] "Two Provincial roses on my razed shoes." Shak.
[ French vaisseau rasé
, from raser
to raze, to cut down ships. See Raze
, transitive verb
, transitive verb
] (Nautical) An armed ship having her upper deck cut away, and thus reduced to the next inferior rate, as a seventy-four cut down to a frigate. Totten.
Razee transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Razeed
(rȧ*zēd"); present participle & verbal noun Razeeing
.] To cut down to a less number of decks, and thus to an inferior rate or class, as a ship; hence, to prune or abridge by cutting off or retrenching parts; as, to razee a book, or an article.
[ Middle English rasour
, Old French rasur
, Late Latin rasor
: confer French rasoir
, Late Latin rasorium
. See Raze
, transitive verb
, transitive verb
] 1. A keen-edged knife of peculiar shape, used in shaving the hair from the face or the head.
"Take thee a barber's razor
." Ezek. v. 1.
--> 2. (Zoology) A tusk of a wild boar. Razor fish
. (Zoology) (a) A small Mediterranean fish ( Coryphæna novacula ), prized for the table
. (b) The razor shell.
-- Razor grass (Botany)
, a West Indian plant ( Scleria scindens ), the triangular stem and the leaves of which are edged with minute sharp teeth.
-- Razor grinder (Zoology)
, the European goat-sucker.
-- Razor shell (Zoology)
, any marine bivalve shell belonging to Solen and allied genera, especially Solen, or Ensatella, ensis, & Americana , which have a long, narrow, somewhat curved shell, resembling a razor handle in shape. Called also razor clam , razor fish , knife handle .
-- Razor stone
. Same as Novaculite .
-- Razor strap
, or Razor strop
, a strap or strop used in sharpening razors.
Razor-backed (-băkt`) adjective (Zoology) Having a sharp, lean, or thin back; as, a razor-backed hog, perch, etc.
Razorable (-ȧ*b'l) adjective Ready for the razor; fit to be shaved. [ R.] Shak.
Razorback (-băk`) noun (Zoology) The rorqual.
(-bĭl`) noun (Zoology) (a) A species of auk ( Alca torda ) common in the Arctic seas. See Auk , and Illust. in Appendix. (b) See Cutwater , 3.
(rā"zhur; 135) noun
[ See Rasure
.] 1. The act of erasing or effacing, or the state of being effaced; obliteration. See Rasure . Shak. 2. An erasure; a change made by erasing.
Razzia (rä"ze*ä) noun [ French, from Arabic ghāzīa (pron. razia in Algeria).] A plundering and destructive incursion; a foray; a raid.
Re (rā). [ Italian ] (Mus.) A syllable applied in solmization to the second tone of the diatonic scale of C; in the American system, to the second tone of any diatonic scale.
Re coverance (- a ns) noun Recovery. [ Obsolete]
Re proval (- a l) noun Reproof. Sir P. Sidney.
Re sign noun Resignation. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.
Re- (rē-). [ Latin re- , older form (retained before vowels) red- : confer French re- , ré- .] A prefix signifying back , against , again , anew ; as, re cline, to lean back; re call, to call back; re cede; re move; re claim, to call out against; re pugn, to fight against; re cognition, a knowing again; re join, to join again; re iterate; re assure. Combinations containing the prefix re- are readily formed, and are for the most part of obvious signification.
Re*lax adjective Relaxed; lax; hence, remiss; careless.
Re*mindful adjective Tending or adapted to remind; careful to remind. Southey.
[ See Remunerate
.] Admitting, or worthy, of remuneration.
(r...-m..."n...r- ...-b...l"i-t...) noun
Re*pel transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Repelled
(-p?ld"); present participle & verbal noun Repelling
.] [ Latin repellere
; prefix re-
re- + pellere
to drive. See Pulse
a beating, and confer Repulse
.] 1. To drive back; to force to return; to check the advance of; to repulse as, to repel an enemy or an assailant.
Hippomedon repelled the hostile tide. Pope.
They repelled each other strongly, and yet attracted each other strongly. Macaulay. 2. To resist or oppose effectually; as, to repel an assault, an encroachment, or an argument.
[ He] gently repelled their entreaties. Hawthorne. Syn.
-- Tu repulse; resist; oppose; reject; refuse.
Reabsorb (rē`ăb*sôrb") transitive verb To absorb again; to draw in, or imbibe, again what has been effused, extravasated, or thrown off; to swallow up again; as, to reabsorb chyle, lymph, etc.; -- used esp. of fluids.
Reabsorption (-sôrp"shŭn) noun The act or process of reabsorbing.
Reaccess (rē`ăk*sĕs" or re*ăk"sĕs) noun A second access or approach; a return. Hakewill.
Reaccuse (rē`ăk*kūz") transitive verb To accuse again.
Reach (rēch) intransitive verb To retch. Cheyne.
Reach noun An effort to vomit. [ R.]
Reach transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Reached
(rēcht) ( Raught
, the old preterit, is obsolete); present participle & verbal noun Reaching
.] [ Middle English rechen
, Anglo-Saxon rǣcan
, to extend, stretch out; akin to Dutch reiken
, German reichen
, and possibly to Anglo-Saxon rīce
powerful, rich, English rich
. √115.] 1. To extend; to stretch; to thrust out; to put forth, as a limb, a member, something held, or the like.
Her tresses yellow, and long straughten, Rom. of R.
Unto her heeles down they raughten .
Reach hither thy hand and thrust it into my side. John xx. 27.
Fruit trees, over woody, reached too far Milton. 2. Hence, to deliver by stretching out a member, especially the hand; to give with the hand; to pass to another; to hand over; as, to reach one a book.
Their pampered boughs.
He reached me a full cup. 2 Esd. xiv. 39. 3. To attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; to extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to reach an object with the hand, or with a spear.
O patron power, . . . thy present aid afford, Dryden. 4. To strike, hit, or touch with a missile; as, to reach an object with an arrow, a bullet, or a shell. 5. Hence, to extend an action, effort, or influence to; to penetrate to; to pierce, or cut, as far as.
Than I may reach the beast.
If these examples of grown men reach not the case of children, let them examine. Locke. 6. To extend to; to stretch out as far as; to touch by virtue of extent; as, his land reaches the river.
Thy desire . . . leads to no excess Milton. 7. To arrive at; to come to; to get as far as.
That reaches blame.
Before this letter reaches your hands. Pope. 8. To arrive at by effort of any kind; to attain to; to gain; to be advanced to.
The best account of the appearances of nature which human penetration can reach , comes short of its reality. Cheyne. 9. To understand; to comprehend.
Do what, sir? I reach you not. Beau. & Fl. 10. To overreach; to deceive.
[ Obsolete] South.
Reach intransitive verb 1. To stretch out the hand.
Goddess humane, reach , then, and freely taste! Milton. 2. To strain after something; to make efforts.
Reaching above our nature does no good. Dryden. 3. To extend in dimension, time, amount, action, influence, etc., so as to touch, attain to, or be equal to, something.
And behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. Gen. xxviii. 12.
The new world reaches quite across the torrid zone. Boyle. 4. (Nautical) To sail on the wind, as from one point of tacking to another, or with the wind nearly abeam. To reach after
, to make efforts to attain to or obtain.
He would be in the posture of the mind reaching after a positive idea of infinity. Locke.
Reach noun 1. The act of stretching or extending; extension; power of reaching or touching with the person, or a limb, or something held or thrown; as, the fruit is beyond my reach ; to be within reach of cannon shot. 2. The power of stretching out or extending action, influence, or the like; power of attainment or management; extent of force or capacity.
Drawn by others who had deeper reaches than themselves to matters which they least intended. Hayward.
Be sure yourself and your own reach to know. Pope. 3. Extent; stretch; expanse; hence, application; influence; result; scope.
And on the left hand, hell, Milton.
With long reach , interposed.
I am to pray you not to strain my speech Shak. 4. An extended portion of land or water; a stretch; a straight portion of a stream or river, as from one turn to another; a level stretch, as between locks in a canal; an arm of the sea extending up into the land.
To grosser issues, nor to larger reach
Than to suspicion.
"The river's wooded reach
The coast . . . is very full of creeks and reaches . Holland. 5. An artifice to obtain an advantage.
The Duke of Parma had particular reaches and ends of his own underhand to cross the design. Bacon. 6. The pole or rod which connects the hind axle with the forward bolster of a wagon.
Reachable (-ȧ*b'l) adjective Being within reach.