Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Pendulosity noun [ See Pendulous .] The state or quality of being pendulous. Sir T. Browne.

Pendulous adjective [ Latin pendulus , from pendere to hang. Confer Pendant , and confer Pendulum .]
1. Depending; pendent loosely; hanging; swinging. Shak. "The pendulous round earth." Milton.

2. Wavering; unstable; doubtful. [ R.] "A pendulous state of mind." Atterbury.

3. (Botany) Inclined or hanging downwards, as a flower on a recurved stalk, or an ovule which hangs from the upper part of the ovary.

Pendulously adverb In a pendulous manner.

Pendulousness noun The quality or state of being pendulous; the state of hanging loosely; pendulosity.

Pendulum noun ; plural Pendulums . [ New Latin , from Latin pendulus hanging, swinging. See Pendulous .] A body so suspended from a fixed point as to swing freely to and fro by the alternate action of gravity and momentum. It is used to regulate the movements of clockwork and other machinery.

» The time of oscillation of a pendulum is independent of the arc of vibration, provided this arc be small.

Ballistic pendulum . See under Ballistic . -- Compensation pendulum , a clock pendulum in which the effect of changes of temperature of the length of the rod is so counteracted, usually by the opposite expansion of differene metals, that the distance of the center of oscillation from the center of suspension remains invariable; as, the mercurial compensation pendulum , in which the expansion of the rod is compensated by the opposite expansion of mercury in a jar constituting the bob; the gridiron pendulum , in which compensation is effected by the opposite expansion of sets of rodsof different metals. -- Compound pendulum , an ordinary pendulum; -- so called, as being made up of different parts, and contrasted with simple pendulum . -- Conical or Revolving , pendulum , a weight connected by a rod with a fixed point; and revolving in a horizontal cyrcle about the vertical from that point. -- Pendulum bob , the weight at the lower end of a pendulum. -- Pendulum level , a plumb level. See under Level . -- Pendulum wheel , the balance of a watch. -- Simple or Theoretical , pendulum , an imaginary pendulum having no dimensions except length, and no weight except at the center of oscillation; in other words, a material point suspended by an ideal line.

Penelope (pe*nĕl"o*pē) noun [ From. Latin Penelope , the wife of Ulysses, the hero of the Odyssey, Greek Phnelo`ph .] (Zoology) A genus of curassows, including the guans.

Peneplain noun [ Latin paene , pene , almost + English plain .] (Physics Geology) A land surface reduced by erosion to the general condition of a plain, but not wholly devoid of hills; a base-level plain.

Penetrability noun [ Confer French pénétrabilité .] The quality of being penetrable; susceptibility of being penetrated, entered, or pierced. Cheyne.

Penetrable adjective [ Latin penetrabilus : confer French pénétrable .] Capable of being penetrated, entered, or pierced. Used also figuratively.

And pierce his only penetrable part.
Dryden.

I am not made of stones,
But penetrable to your kind entreats.
Shak.

-- Pen"e*tra*ble*ness , noun -- Pen"e*tra*bly , adverb

Penetrail noun Penetralia. [ Obsolete] Harvey.

Penetralia noun plural [ Latin , from penetralis penetrating, internal. See Penetrate .]
1. The recesses, or innermost parts, of any thing or place, especially of a temple or palace.

2. Hidden things or secrets; privacy; sanctuary; as, the sacred penetralia of the home.

Penetrance, Penetrancy noun The quality or state of being penetrant; power of entering or piercing; penetrating power of quality; as, the penetrancy of subtile effluvia.

Penetrant adjective [ Latin penetrans , present participle of penetrare : confer French pénétrant .] Having power to enter or pierce; penetrating; sharp; subtile; as, penetrant cold. " Penetrant and powerful arguments." Boyle.

Penetrate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Penetrated ; present participle & verbal noun Penetrating .] [ Latin penetratus , past participle of penetrare to penetrate; akin to penitus inward, inwardly, and perhaps to pens with, in the power of, penus store of food, innermost part of a temple.]
1. To enter into; to make way into the interior of; to effect an entrance into; to pierce; as, light penetrates darkness.

2. To affect profoundly through the senses or feelings; to touch with feeling; to make sensible; to move deeply; as, to penetrate one's heart with pity. Shak.

The translator of Homer should penetrate himself with a sense of the plainness and directness of Homer's style.
M. Arnold.

3. To pierce into by the mind; to arrive at the inner contents or meaning of, as of a mysterious or difficult subject; to comprehend; to understand.

Things which here were too subtile for us to penetrate .
Ray.

Penetrate intransitive verb To pass; to make way; to pierce. Also used figuratively.

Preparing to penetrate to the north and west.
J. R. Green.

Born where Heaven's influence scarce can penetrate .
Pope.

The sweet of life that penetrates so near.
Daniel.

Penetrating adjective
1. Having the power of entering, piercing, or pervading; sharp; subtile; penetrative; as, a penetrating odor.

2. Acute; discerning; sagacious; quick to discover; as, a penetrating mind.

Penetratingly adverb In a penetrating manner.

Penetration noun [ Latin penetratio : confer French pénétration .]
1. The act or process of penetrating, piercing, or entering; also, the act of mentally penetrating into, or comprehending, anything difficult.

And to each in ward part,
With gentle penetration , though unseen,
Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep.
Milton.

A penetration into the difficulties of algebra.
Watts.

2. Acuteness; insight; sharp discoverment; sagacity; as, a person of singular penetration . Walpole.

Syn. -- Discernment; sagacity; acuteness; sharpness; discrimination. See Discernment , and Sagacity .

Penetrative adjective [ Confer French pénétratif .]
1. Tending to penetrate; of a penetrating quality; piercing; as, the penetrative sun.

His look became keen and penetrative .
Hawthorne.

2. Having the power to affect or impress the mind or heart; impressive; as, penetrative shame. Shak.

3. Acute; discerning; sagacious; as, penetrative wisdom. "The penetrative eye." Wordsworth.

Led on by skill of penetrative soul.
Grainger.

Penetrativeness noun The quality of being penetrative.

Penfish noun (Zoology) A squid.

Penfold noun See Pinfold .

Pengolin noun (Zoology) The pangolin.

Penguin noun [ Perh. orig. the name of another bird, and from W. pen head + gwyn white; or perhaps from a native South American name.]
1. (Zoology) Any bird of the order Impennes, or Ptilopteri. They are covered with short, thick feathers, almost scalelike on the wings, which are without true quills. They are unable to fly, but use their wings to aid in diving, in which they are very expert. See King penguin , under Jackass .

» Penguins are found in the south temperate and antarctic regions. The king penguins ( Aptenodytes Patachonica , and A. longirostris ) are the largest; the jackass penguins ( Spheniscus ) and the rock hoppers ( Catarractes ) congregate in large numbers at their breeding grounds.

2. (Botany) The egg-shaped fleshy fruit of a West Indian plant ( Bromelia Pinguin ) of the Pineapple family; also, the plant itself, which has rigid, pointed, and spiny- toothed leaves, and is used for hedges. [ Written also pinguin .]

Arctic penguin (Zoology) , the great auk. See Auk .

Penguinery noun (Zoology) A breeding place, or rookery, of penguins.

Penholder noun A handle for a pen.

Penhouse noun A penthouse. [ Obsolete]

Penible adjective [ Old French penible . Confer Painable .] Painstaking; assidous. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Penicil noun [ Latin penicillum , penicillus , a painter's brush, a roil of lint, a tent for wounds.] (mented.) A tent or pledget for wounds or ulcers.

Penicillate adjective [ Confer French pénicillé . See Penicil .] (Biol.) Having the form of a pencil; furnished with a pencil of fine hairs; ending in a tuft of hairs like a camel's-hair brush, as the stigmas of some grasses.

Penicilliform adjective (Botany) Penicillate.

Peninsula noun [ Latin peninsula or paeninsula ; paene almost + insula an island. See Isle .] A portion of land nearly surrounded by water, and connected with a larger body by a neck, or isthmus.

Peninsula State Florida; -- a nickname.

Peninsular adjective [ Confer French péninsulaire .] Of or pertaining to a peninsula; as, a peninsular form; peninsular people; the peninsular war.

Peninsulate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Peninsulated ; present participle & verbal noun Peninsulating .] To form into a peninsula.

South River . . . peninsulates Castle Hill farm.
W. Bentley.

Penis (pē"nĭs) noun [ Latin ] (Anat.) The male member, or organ of generation.

Penitence noun [ French pénitence , Latin paenitentia . See Penitent , and confer Penance .] The quality or condition of being penitent; the disposition of a penitent; sorrow for sins or faults; repentance; contrition. " Penitence of his old guilt." Chaucer.

Death is deferred, and penitenance has room
To mitigate, if not reverse, the doom.
Dryden.

Syn. -- Repentance; contrition; compunction.

Penitencer noun [ French pénitencier .] A priest who heard confession and enjoined penance in extraordinary cases. [ Written also penitenser .] [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Penitency noun Penitence. [ Obsolete]

Penitent adjective [ French pénitent , Latin paenitens , -entis , poenitens , present participle of paenitere , poenitere , to cause to repent, to repent; probably akin to poena punishment. See Pain .]
1. Feeling pain or sorrow on account of sins or offenses; repentant; contrite; sincerely affected by a sense of guilt, and resolved on amendment of life.

Be penitent , and for thy fault contrite.
Milton.

The pound he tamed, the penitent he cheered.
Dryden.

2. Doing penance. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Penitent noun
1. One who repents of sin; one sorrowful on account of his transgressions.

2. One under church censure, but admitted to penance; one undergoing penance.

3. One under the direction of a confessor.

» Penitents is an appellation given to certain fraternities in Roman Catholic countries, distinguished by their habit, and employed in charitable acts.

Penitential adjective [ Confer French pénitentiel .] Of or pertaining to penitence, or to penance; expressing penitence; of the nature of penance; as, the penitential book; penitential tears. " Penitential stripes." Cowper.

Guilt that all the penitential fires of hereafter can not cleanse.
Sir W. Scott.

Penitential noun (R. C. Ch.) A book formerly used by priests hearing confessions, containing rules for the imposition of penances; -- called also penitential book .

Penitentially adverb In a penitential manner.

Penitentiary adjective [ Confer French pénitentiaire .]
1. Relating to penance, or to the rules and measures of penance. "A penitentiary tax." Abp. Bramhall.

2. Expressive of penitence; as, a penitentiary letter.

3. Used for punishment, discipline, and reformation. " Penitentiary houses." Blackstone.

Penitentiary noun ; plural Penitentiaries . [ Confer French pénitencier . See Penitent .]
1. One who prescribes the rules and measures of penance. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

2. One who does penance. [ Obsolete] Hammond.

3. A small building in a monastery where penitents confessed. Shpiley.

4. That part of a church to which penitents were admitted. Shipley.

5. (R. C. Ch.) (a) An office of the papal court which examines cases of conscience, confession, absolution from vows, etc., and delivers decisions, dispensations, etc. Its chief is a cardinal, called the Grand Penitentiary , appointed by the pope. (b) An officer in some dioceses since A. D. 1215, vested with power from the bishop to absolve in cases reserved to him.

6. A house of correction, in which offenders are confined for punishment, discipline, and reformation, and in which they are generally compelled to labor.

Penitentiaryship noun The office or condition of a penitentiary of the papal court. [ R.] Wood.

Penitently adverb In a penitent manner.

Penk noun A minnow. See Pink , noun , 4. [ Prov. Eng.] Walton.

Penknife noun ; plural Penknives . [ Pen + knife .] A small pocketknife; formerly, a knife used for making and mending quill pens.