Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Plane noun [ French, from Latin platanus , Greek ..., from ... broad; -- so called on account of its broad leaves and spreading form. See Place , and confer Platane , Plantain the tree.] (Botany) Any tree of the genus Platanus.

» The Oriental plane ( Platanus orientalis ) is a native of Asia. It rises with a straight, smooth, branching stem to a great height, with palmated leaves, and long pendulous peduncles, sustaining several heads of small close-sitting flowers. The seeds are downy, and collected into round, rough, hard balls. The Occidental plane ( Platanus occidentalis ), which grows to a great height, is a native of North America, where it is popularly called sycamore , buttonwood , and buttonball , names also applied to the California species ( Platanus racemosa ).

Plane adjective [ Latin planus : confer French plan . See Plan , adjective ] Without elevations or depressions; even; level; flat; lying in, or constituting, a plane; as, a plane surface.

» In science, this word (instead of plain ) is almost exclusively used to designate a flat or level surface.

Plane angle , the angle included between two straight lines in a plane. -- Plane chart , Plane curve . See under Chart and Curve . -- Plane figure , a figure all points of which lie in the same plane. If bounded by straight lines it is a rectilinear plane figure , if by curved lines it is a curvilinear plane figure . -- Plane geometry , that part of geometry which treats of the relations and properties of plane figures. -- Plane problem , a problem which can be solved geometrically by the aid of the right line and circle only. -- Plane sailing (Nautical) , the method of computing a ship's place and course on the supposition that the earth's surface is a plane. -- Plane scale (Nautical) , a scale for the use of navigators, on which are graduated chords, sines, tangents, secants, rhumbs, geographical miles, etc. -- Plane surveying , surveying in which the curvature of the earth is disregarded; ordinary field and topographical surveying of tracts of moderate extent. -- Plane table , an instrument used for plotting the lines of a survey on paper in the field. -- Plane trigonometry , the branch of trigonometry in which its principles are applied to plane triangles.

Plane noun [ French plane , Latin plana . See Plane , v. & adjective ]
1. (Geom.) A surface, real or imaginary, in which, if any two points are taken, the straight line which joins them lies wholly in that surface; or a surface, any section of which by a like surface is a straight line; a surface without curvature.

2. (Astron.) An ideal surface, conceived as coinciding with, or containing, some designated astronomical line, circle, or other curve; as, the plane of an orbit; the plane of the ecliptic, or of the equator.

3. (Mech.) A block or plate having a perfectly flat surface, used as a standard of flatness; a surface plate.

4. (Joinery) A tool for smoothing boards or other surfaces of wood, for forming moldings, etc. It consists of a smooth-soled stock, usually of wood, from the under side or face of which projects slightly the steel cutting edge of a chisel, called the iron , which inclines backward, with an apperture in front for the escape of shavings; as, the jack plane ; the smoothing plane ; the molding plane , etc.

Objective plane (Surv.) , the horizontal plane upon which the object which is to be delineated, or whose place is to be determined, is supposed to stand. -- Perspective plane . See Perspective . -- Plane at infinity (Geom.) , a plane in which points infinitely distant are conceived as situated. -- Plane iron , the cutting chisel of a joiner's plane. -- Plane of polarization . (Opt.) See Polarization . -- Plane of projection . (a) The plane on which the projection is made, corresponding to the perspective plane in perspective; -- called also principal plane . (b) (Descriptive Geom.) One of the planes to which points are referred for the purpose of determining their relative position in space. -- Plane of refraction or reflection (Opt.) , the plane in which lie both the incident ray and the refracted or reflected ray.

Plane transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Planed ; present participle & verbal noun Planing .] [ Confer French planer , Latin planare , from planus . See Plane , adjective , Plain , adjective , and confer Planish .]
1. To make smooth; to level; to pare off the inequalities of the surface of, as of a board or other piece of wood, by the use of a plane; as, to plane a plank.

2. To efface or remove.

He planed away the names . . . written on his tables.

3. Figuratively, to make plain or smooth. [ R.]

What student came but that you planed her path.

Plane intransitive verb Of a boat, to lift more or less out of the water while in motion, after the manner of a hydroplane; to hydroplane.

Plane table See under Plane , adjective

Plane tree (Botany) Same as 1st Plane .

Plane-parallel adjective (Optics) Having opposite surfaces exactly plane and parallel, as a piece of glass.

Planer noun
1. One who, or that which, planes; a planing machine; esp., a machine for planing wood or metals.

2. (Print.) A wooden block used for forcing down the type in a form, and making the surface even. Hansard.

Planer centers . See under Center .

Planer tree [ From J. S. Planer , a German botanist.] (Botany) A small-leaved North American tree ( Planera aquatica ) related to the elm, but having a wingless, nutlike fruit.

Planet noun [ Middle English planete , French planète , Latin planeta , from Greek ..., and ... a planet; prop. wandering, from ... to wander, from ... a wandering.]
1. (Astron.) A celestial body which revolves about the sun in an orbit of a moderate degree of eccentricity. It is distinguished from a comet by the absence of a coma, and by having a less eccentric orbit. See Solar system .

» The term planet was first used to distinguish those stars which have an apparent motion through the constellations from the fixed stars, which retain their relative places unchanged. The inferior planets are Mercury and Venus, which are nearer to the sun than is the earth; the superior planets are Mars, the asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, which are farther from the sun than is the earth. Primary planets are those which revolve about the sun; secondary planets , or moons , are those which revolve around the primary planets as satellites, and at the same time revolve with them about the sun.

2. A star, as influencing the fate of a men.

There's some ill planet reigns.

Planet gear . (Machinery) See Epicyclic train , under Epicyclic . -- Planet wheel , a gear wheel which revolves around the wheel with which it meshes, in an epicyclic train.

Planet-stricken, Planet-struck adjective Affected by the influence of planets; blasted. Milton.

Like planet-stricken men of yore
He trembles, smitten to the core
By strong compunction and remorse.

Planetarium noun [ New Latin : confer French planétaire . See Planetary .] An orrery. See Orrery .

Planetary adjective [ Confer Latin planetarius an astrologer, French planétaire planetary. See Planet .]
1. Of or pertaining to the planets; as, planetary inhabitants; planetary motions; planetary year.

2. Consisting of planets; as, a planetary system.

3. (Astrol.) Under the dominion or influence of a planet. "Skilled in the planetary hours." Drayton.

4. Caused by planets. "A planetary plague." Shak.

5. Having the nature of a planet; erratic; revolving; wandering. "Erratical and planetary life." Fuller.

Planetary days , the days of the week as shared among the planets known to the ancients, each having its day. Hutton. -- Planetary nebula , a nebula exhibiting a uniform disk, like that of a planet.

Planeted adjective Belonging to planets. [ R.] Young.

Planetic, Planetical adjective [ Latin planeticus , Greek ....] Of or pertaining to planets. Sir T. Browne.

Planetoid noun [ Planet + -oid .] (Astron.) A body resembling a planet; an asteroid.

Planetoidal adjective Pertaining to a planetoid.

Planetule noun A little planet. [ R.] Conybeare.

Plangency noun The quality or state of being plangent; a beating sound. [ R.]

Plangent adjective [ Latin plangens , -entis , from plangere to beat. See Plaint .] Beating; dashing, as a wave. [ R.] "The plangent wave." H. Taylor.

Plani-, Plano- [ Latin planus . See Plane , adjective ] Combining forms signifying flat , level , plane ; as plani folious, plani metry, plano - concave.

Planifolious adjective [ Plani- + Latin folium leaf.] (Botany) Flat-leaved.

Planiform adjective (Anat.) Having a plane surface; as, a planiform , gliding, or arthrodial articulation.

Planimeter noun [ Plani- + -meter . Confer Planometer .] An instrument for measuring the area of any plane figure, however irregular, by passing a tracer around the bounding line; a platometer.

Planimetric (?; 277), Plan`i*met"ric*al adjective [ Confer French planimétrique .] Of or pertaining to planimetry.

Planimetry noun [ Confer French planimétrie .] The mensuration of plane surfaces; -- distinguished from stereometry , or the mensuration of volumes.

Planing adjective & verbal noun from Plane , transitive verb

Planing machine . (a) See Planer . (b) A complex machine for planing wood, especially boards, containing usually a rapidly revolving cutter, which chips off the surface in small shavings as the piece to be planed is passed under it by feeding apparatus.

Planipennate adjective Of or pertaining to Planipennia.

Planipennia noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin planus plane + penna wing.] (Zoology) A suborder of Neuroptera, including those that have broad, flat wings, as the ant-lion, lacewing, etc. Called also Planipennes .

Planipetalous adjective [ Plani- + petal .] (Botany) Having flat petals.

Planish transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Planished ; present participle & verbal noun Planishing .] [ Old French planir , French planer . See Plane , v. , and -ish .] To make smooth or plane, as a metallic surface; to condense, toughen, and polish by light blows with a hammer.

Planisher noun One who, or that which, planishes. Weale.

Planishing adjective & verbal noun from Planish , transitive verb

Planishing rolls (Coining) , rolls between which metal strips are passed while cold, to bring them to exactly the required thickness.

Planisphere noun [ Plani- + sphere : confer French planisphère . See Plain , and Sphere .] The representation of the circles of the sphere upon a plane; especially, a representation of the celestial sphere upon a plane with adjustable circles, or other appendages, for showing the position of the heavens, the time of rising and setting of stars, etc., for any given date or hour.

Planispheric adjective Of or pertaining to a planisphere.

Plank noun [ Middle English planke , Old French planque , planche , French planche , from Latin planca ; confer Greek ..., ..., anything flat and broad. Confer Planch .]
1. A broad piece of sawed timber, differing from a board only in being thicker. See Board .

2. Fig.: That which supports or upholds, as a board does a swimmer.

His charity is a better plank than the faith of an intolerant and bitter-minded bigot.

3. One of the separate articles in a declaration of the principles of a party or cause; as, a plank in the national platform. [ Cant]

Plank road , or Plank way , a road surface formed of planks. [ U.S.] -- To walk the plank , to walk along a plank laid across the bulwark of a ship, until one overbalances it and falls into the sea; -- a method of disposing of captives practiced by pirates.

Plank transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Planked ; present participle & verbal noun Planking .]
1. To cover or lay with planks; as, to plank a floor or a ship. " Planked with pine." Dryden.

2. To lay down, as on a plank or table; to stake or pay cash; as, to plank money in a wager. [ Colloq. U.S.]

3. To harden, as hat bodies, by felting.

4. (Wooden Manuf.) To splice together the ends of slivers of wool, for subsequent drawing.

Planked shad , shad split open, fastened to a plank, and roasted before a wood fire.

Plank-sheer noun (Shipbuilding) The course of plank laid horizontally over the timberheads of a vessel's frame.

Planking noun
1. The act of laying planks; also, planks, collectively; a series of planks in place, as the wooden covering of the frame of a vessel.

2. The act of splicing slivers. See Plank , transitive verb , 4.

Plankton (plănk"tŏn) noun [ New Latin , from Greek plagto`n , neut. of plagto`s wandering, pla`zesqai to wander.] (Biol.) All the animals and plants, taken collectively, which live at or near the surface of salt or fresh waters. -- Plank*ton"ic adjective

Planless adjective Having no plan.

Planner noun One who plans; a projector.

Plano- See Plani- .

Plano-concave adjective [ Plano- + concave .] Plane or flat on one side, and concave on the other; as, a plano-concave lens. See Lens .

Plano-conical adjective [ Plano- + conical .] Plane or flat on one side, and conical on the other. Grew.

Plano-convex adjective [ Plano- + convex .] Plane or flat on one side, and convex on the other; as, a plano-convex lens. See Convex , and Lens .

Plano-horizontal adjective [ Plano- + horizontal .] Having a level horizontal surface or position. Lee.

Planoblast noun [ Greek ... to wander + -blast .] (Zoology) Any free-swimming gonophore of a hydroid; a hydroid medusa.

Planogamete noun [ Greek ... wandering + English gamete .] (Botany) One of the motile ciliated gametes, or zoögametes, found in isogamous plants, as many green algæ (Chlorophyceæ).

Planometer noun [ Plano- + -meter . Confer Planimeter .] An instrument for gauging or testing a plane surface. See Surface gauge , under Surface .

Planometry noun (Mech.) The art or process of producing or gauging a plane surface.