Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Jackslave noun A low servant; a mean fellow. Shak.

Jacksmith noun A smith who makes jacks. See 2d Jack , 4, c. Dryden.

Jacksnipe noun (Zoology) (a) A small European snipe ( Limnocryptes gallinula ); -- called also judcock , jedcock , juddock , jed , and half snipe . (b) A small American sandpiper ( Tringa maculata ); -- called also pectoral sandpiper , and grass snipe .

Jackstay noun (Nautical) A rail of wood or iron stretching along a yard of a vessel, to which the sails are fastened.

Jackstone noun (a) One of the pebbles or pieces used in the game of jackstones. (b) ( plural ) A game played with five small stones or pieces of metal. See 6th Chuck .

Jackstraw noun
1. An effigy stuffed with straw; a scarecrow; hence, a man without property or influence. Milton.

2. One of a set of straws of strips of ivory, bone, wood, etc., for playing a child's game, the jackstraws being thrown confusedly together on a table, to be gathered up singly by a hooked instrument, without touching or disturbing the rest of the pile. See Spilikin .

Jackwood noun Wood of the jack ( Artocarpus integrifolia ), used in cabinetwork.

Jacky noun ; plural Jackies . Dim. or pet from Jack . Hence: (a) A landsman's nickname for a seaman, resented by the latter. (b) English gin. [ Dial. Eng.]

Jacob noun [ Confer French Jacob . See 2d Jack .] A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven ( Gen. xxviii. 12 ); -- also called Israel .

And Jacob said . . . with my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am become two bands.
Gen. xxxii. 9, 10.

Thy name shall be called no more Jacob , but Israel.
Gen. xxxii. 28.

Jacob's ladder . (a) (Botany) A perennial herb of the genus Polemonium ( P. cœruleum), having corymbs of drooping flowers, usually blue. Gray . (b) (Nautical) A rope ladder, with wooden steps, for going aloft . R. H. Dana, Jr. (c) (Nautical) A succession of short cracks in a defective spar. -- Jacob's membrane . See Retina . -- Jacob's staff . (a) A name given to many forms of staff or weapon, especially in the Middle Ages; a pilgrim's staff . [ Obsolete] Spenser. (b) (Surveying) See under Staff .

Jacobean (?; 277), Ja*co"bi*an adjective [ From Latin Jacobus James. See 2d Jack .] Of or pertaining to a style of architecture and decoration in the time of James the First, of England. "A Jacobean table." C. Latin Eastlake.

Jacobin noun [ French See 2d Jack , Jacobite .]


1. (Eccl. Hist.) A Dominican friar; -- so named because, before the French Revolution, that order had a convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris.

2. One of a society of violent agitators in France, during the revolution of 1789, who held secret meetings in the Jacobin convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris, and concerted measures to control the proceedings of the National Assembly. Hence: A plotter against an existing government; a turbulent demagogue.

3. (Zoology) A fancy pigeon, in which the feathers of the neck form a hood, -- whence the name. The wings and tail are long, and the beak moderately short.

Jacobin adjective Same as Jacobinic .

Jacobine noun A Jacobin.

Jacobinic, Jacobinical adjective Of or pertaining to the Jacobins of France; revolutionary; of the nature of, or characterized by, Jacobinism. Burke. -- Jac`o*bin"ic*al*ly , adverb

Jacobinism noun [ Confer French Jacobinisme .] The principles of the Jacobins; violent and factious opposition to legitimate government.

Under this new stimulus, Burn's previous Jacobitism passed towards the opposite, but not very distant, extreme of Jacobinism .
J. C. Shairp.

Jacobinize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jacobinized ; present participle & verbal noun Jacobinizing .] [ Confer French Jacobiniser .] To taint with, or convert to, Jacobinism.

France was not then jacobinized .
Burke.

Jacobite noun [ Latin Jacobus James: confer French Jacobite . See 2d Jack .]


1. (Eng. Hist.) A partisan or adherent of James the Second, after his abdication, or of his descendants, an opposer of the revolution in 1688 in favor of William and Mary. Macaulay.

2. (Eccl.) One of the sect of Syrian Monophysites. The sect is named after Jacob Baradæus, its leader in the sixth century.

Jacobite adjective Of or pertaining to the Jacobites.

Jacobitic, Jacobitical adjective Of or pertaining to the Jacobites; characterized by Jacobitism. -- Jac`o*bit"ic*al*ly , adverb

Jacobitism noun The principles of the Jacobites. Mason.

Jacobus noun ; plural Jacobuses . [ See Jacobite .] An English gold coin, of the value of twenty-five shillings sterling, struck in the reign of James I.

Jacobæan lily [ See Jacobean .] (Botany) A bulbous plant ( Amaryllis, or Sprekelia, formosissima ) from Mexico. It bears a single, large, deep, red, lilylike flower. [ Written also Jacobean .]

Jaconet noun [ French jaconas .] A thin cotton fabric, between cambric and muslin, used for dresses, neckcloths, etc. [ Written also jacconet .]

Jacquard adjective Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard , a French mechanician, who died in 1834.

Jacquard apparatus or arrangement , a device applied to looms for weaving figured goods, consisting of mechanism controlled by a chain of variously perforated cards, which cause the warp threads to be lifted in the proper succession for producing the required figure. -- Jacquard card , one of the perforated cards of a Jacquard apparatus. -- Jacquard loom , a loom with Jacquard apparatus.

Jacqueminot noun A half- hardy, deep crimson rose of the remontant class; -- so named after General Jacqueminot , of France.

Jacquerie noun [ French] The name given to a revolt of French peasants against the nobles in 1358, the leader assuming the contemptuous title, Jacques Bonhomme , given by the nobles to the peasantry. Hence, any revolt of peasants.

Jactancy (jăk"t a n*sȳ) noun [ Latin jactantia , from jactans , present participle of jactare to throw, boast, freq. from jacere to throw; confer French jactance .] A boasting; a bragging. [ Obsolete]

Jactation (jăk*tā"shŭn) noun [ Latin jactatio , from jactare : af. French jactation . See Jactancy .] A throwing or tossing of the body; a shaking or agitation. Sir. W. Temple.

Jactitation noun [ Latin jactitare to utter in public, from jactare . See Jactancy .]


1. (Law) Vain boasting or assertions repeated to the prejudice of another's right; false claim. Mozley & W.

2. (Medicine) A frequent tossing or moving of the body; restlessness, as in delirium. Dunglison.

Jactitation of marriage (Eng. Eccl. Law) , a giving out or boasting by a party that he or she is married to another, whereby a common reputation of their matrimony may ensue. Blackstone.

Jaculable adjective Fit for throwing. [ Obsolete]

Jaculate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jaculated ; present participle & verbal noun Jaculating .] [ Latin jaculatus , past participle of jaculari . See Ejaculate .] To throw or cast, as a dart; to throw out; to emit.

Jaculation noun [ Latin jaculatio .] The act of tossing, throwing, or hurling, as spears.

Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire.
Milton.

Jaculator [ Latin ]
1. One who throws or casts. [ R.]

2. (Zoology) The archer fish ( Toxotes jaculator ).

Jaculatory adjective [ Latin jaculatorius : confer French jaculatoire .] Darting or throwing out suddenly; also, suddenly thrown out; uttered in short sentences; ejaculatory; as, jaculatory prayers. Smart.

Jadding noun (Mining) See Holing .

Jade noun [ French, from Spanish jade , from piedra de ijada stone of the side, from ijada flank, side, pain in the side, the stone being so named because it was supposed to cure this pain. Spanish ijada is derived from Latin ilia flanks. Confer Iliac .] (Min.) A stone, commonly of a pale to dark green color but sometimes whitish. It is very hard and compact, capable of fine polish, and is used for ornamental purposes and for implements, esp. in Eastern countries and among many early peoples.

» The general term jade includes nephrite, a compact variety of tremolite with a specific gravity of 3, and also the mineral jadeite, a silicate of alumina and soda, with a specific gravity of 3.3. The latter is the more highly prized and includes the feitsui of the Chinese. The name has also been given to other tough green minerals capable of similar use.

Jade noun [ Middle English jade ; confer Prov. English yaud , Scot. yade , yad , yaud , Icelandic jalda a mare.]


1. A mean or tired horse; a worthless nag. Chaucer.

Tired as a jade in overloaden cart.
Sir P. Sidney.

2. A disreputable or vicious woman; a wench; a quean; also, sometimes, a worthless man. Shak.

She shines the first of battered jades .
Swift.

3. A young woman; -- generally so called in irony or slight contempt.

A souple jade she was, and strang.
Burns.

Jade transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jaded ; present participle & verbal noun Jading .]


1. To treat like a jade; to spurn. [ Obsolete] Shak.

2. To make ridiculous and contemptible. [ Obsolete]

I do now fool myself, to let imagination jade me.
Shak.

3. To exhaust by overdriving or long- continued labor of any kind; to tire or wear out by severe or tedious tasks; to harass.

The mind, once jaded by an attempt above its power, . . . checks at any vigorous undertaking ever after.
Locke.

Syn. -- To fatigue; tire; weary; harass. -- To Jade , Fatigue , Tire , Weary . Fatigue is the generic term; tire denotes fatigue which wastes the strength; weary implies that a person is worn out by exertion; jade refers to the weariness created by a long and steady repetition of the same act or effort. A little exertion will tire a child or a weak person; a severe or protracted task wearies equally the body and the mind; the most powerful horse becomes jaded on a long journey by a continual straining of the same muscles. Wearied with labor of body or mind; tired of work, tired out by importunities; jaded by incessant attention to business.

Jade intransitive verb To become weary; to lose spirit.

They . . . fail, and jade , and tire in the prosecution.
South.

Jadeite noun (Min.) See Jade , the stone.

Jadery noun The tricks of a jade.

Jadish adjective
1. Vicious; ill-tempered; resembling a jade; -- applied to a horse.

2. Unchaste; -- applied to a woman. L'Estrange.

Jaeger noun See Jager .

Jag noun [ Prob. of Celtic origin; confer W. gag aperture, cleft, chink; akin to Ir. & Gael. gag .] [ Written also jagg .]


1. A notch; a cleft; a barb; a ragged or sharp protuberance; a denticulation.

Arethuss arose . . .
From rock and from jag .
Shelley.

Garments thus beset with long jags .
Holland.

2. A part broken off; a fragment. Bp. Hacket.

3. (Botany) A cleft or division.

Jag bolt , a bolt with a nicked or barbed shank which resists retraction, as when leaded into stone.

Jag transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jagged ; present participle & verbal noun Jagging .] To cut into notches or teeth like those of a saw; to notch. [ Written also jagg .]

Jagging iron , a wheel with a zigzag or jagged edge for cutting cakes or pastry into ornamental figures.

Jag noun [ Scot. jag , jaug , a leather bag or wallet, a pocket. Confer Jag a notch.] A small load, as of hay or grain in the straw, or of ore. [ Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.] [ Written also jagg .] Forby.

Jag transitive verb To carry, as a load; as, to jag hay, etc. [ Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.]

Jag noun
1. A leather bag or wallet; plural , saddlebags. [ Scot.]

2. Enough liquor to make a man noticeably drunk; a small "load;" a time or case of drunkeness; -- esp. in phr. To have a jag on , to be drunk. [ Slang, U. S. & Dial. Eng.]

Jaganatha Jag`a*nat"ha noun See Juggernaut .

Jagannath, Jagannatha noun Also Jug"ger*naut [ Hind. Jagan- nāth lord of the world, Sanskrit jagannātha .] (Hinduism) A particular form of Vishnu, or of Krishna, whose chief idol and worship are at Puri, in Orissa. The idol is considered to contain the bones of Krishna and to possess a soul. The principal festivals are the Snanayatra , when the idol is bathed, and the Rathayatra , when the image is drawn upon a car adorned with obscene paintings. Formerly it was erroneously supposed that devotees allowed themselves to be crushed beneath the wheels of this car. It is now known that any death within the temple of Jagannath is considered to render the place unclean, and any spilling of blood in the presence of the idol is a pollution.