Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Hold noun [ Dutch hol hole, hollow. See Hole .] (Nautical) The whole interior portion of a vessel below the lower deck, in which the cargo is stowed.

Hold transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Held ; present participle & verbal noun Holding . Holden past participle , is obsolete in elegant writing, though still used in legal language.] [ Middle English haldan , Dutch houden , Old High German hoten , Icelandic halda , Danish holde , Swedish hålla , Goth . haldan to feed, tend (the cattle); of unknown origin. Gf. Avast , Halt , Hod .]

1. To cause to remain in a given situation, position, or relation, within certain limits, or the like; to prevent from falling or escaping; to sustain; to restrain; to keep in the grasp; to retain.

The loops held one curtain to another.
Ex. xxxvi. 12.

Thy right hand shall hold me.
Ps. cxxxix. 10.

They all hold swords, being expert in war.
Cant. iii. 8.

In vain he seeks, that having can not hold .

France, thou mayst hold a serpent by the tongue, . . .
A fasting tiger safer by the tooth,
Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold .

2. To retain in one's keeping; to maintain possession of, or authority over; not to give up or relinquish; to keep; to defend.

We mean to hold what anciently we claim
Of deity or empire.

3. To have; to possess; to be in possession of; to occupy; to derive title to; as, to hold office.

This noble merchant held a noble house.

Of him to hold his seigniory for a yearly tribute.

And now the strand, and now the plain, they held .

4. To impose restraint upon; to limit in motion or action; to bind legally or morally; to confine; to restrain.

We can not hold mortality's strong hand.

Death! what do'st? O, hold thy blow.

He had not sufficient judgment and self-command to hold his tongue.

5. To maintain in being or action; to carry on; to prosecute, as a course of conduct or an argument; to continue; to sustain.

Hold not thy peace, and be not still.
Ps. lxxxiii. 1.

Seedtime and harvest, heat and hoary frost,
Shall hold their course.

6. To prosecute, have, take, or join in, as something which is the result of united action; as to, hold a meeting, a festival, a session, etc.; hence, to direct and bring about officially; to conduct or preside at; as, the general held a council of war; a judge holds a court; a clergyman holds a service.

I would hold more talk with thee.

7. To receive and retain; to contain as a vessel; as, this pail holds milk; hence, to be able to receive and retain; to have capacity or containing power for.

Broken cisterns that can hold no water.
Jer. ii. 13.

One sees more devils than vast hell can hold .

8. To accept, as an opinion; to be the adherent of, openly or privately; to persist in, as a purpose; to maintain; to sustain.

Stand fast and hold the traditions which ye have been taught.
2 Thes. ii.15.

But still he held his purpose to depart.

9. To consider; to regard; to esteem; to account; to think; to judge.

I hold him but a fool.

I shall never hold that man my friend.

The Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
Ex. xx. 7.

10. To bear, carry, or manage; as he holds himself erect; he holds his head high.

Let him hold his fingers thus.

To hold a wager , to lay or hazard a wager. Swift. -- To hold forth , to offer; to exhibit; to propose; to put forward. "The propositions which books hold forth and pretend to teach." Locke. -- To held in , to restrain; to curd. -- To hold in hand , to toy with; to keep in expectation; to have in one's power. [ Obsolete]

O, fie! to receive favors, return falsehoods,
And hold a lady in hand .
Beaw. & Fl.

-- To hold in play , to keep under control; to dally with. Macaulay. -- To hold off , to keep at a distance. -- To hold on , to hold in being, continuance or position; as, to hold a rider on . -- To hold one's day , to keep one's appointment. [ Obsolete] Chaucer. -- To hold one's own . (a) To keep good one's present condition absolutely or relatively; not to fall off, or to lose ground; as, a ship holds her own when she does not lose ground in a race or chase; a man holds his own when he does not lose strength or weight. -- To hold one's peace , to keep silence. - To hold out . (a) To extend; to offer. "Fortune holds out these to you as rewards." B. Jonson. (b) To continue to do or to suffer; to endure. "He can not long hold out these pangs." Shak. -- To hold up . (a) To raise; to lift; as, hold up your head. (b) To support; to sustain. "He holds himself up in virtue." Sir P. Sidney. (c) To exhibit; to display; as, he was held up as an example. (d) To rein in; to check; to halt; as, hold up your horses. -- To hold water . (a) Literally, to retain water without leaking; hence (Fig.), to be whole, sound, consistent, without gaps or holes; -- commonly used in a negative sense; as, his statements will not hold water . [ Collog.] (b) (Nautical) To hold the oars steady in the water, thus checking the headway of a boat.

Hold intransitive verb In general, to keep one's self in a given position or condition; to remain fixed. Hence:

1. Not to move; to halt; to stop; -- mostly in the imperative.

And damned be him that first cries, " Hold , enough!"

2. Not to give way; not to part or become separated; to remain unbroken or unsubdued.

Our force by land hath nobly held .

3. Not to fail or be found wanting; to continue; to last; to endure a test or trial; to abide; to persist.

While our obedience holds .

The rule holds in land as all other commodities.

4. Not to fall away, desert, or prove recreant; to remain attached; to cleave; -- often with with , to , or for .

He will hold to the one and despise the other.
Matt. vi. 24

5. To restrain one's self; to refrain.

His dauntless heart would fain have held
From weeping, but his eyes rebelled.

6. To derive right or title; -- generally with of .

My crown is absolute, and holds of none.

His imagination holds immediately from nature.

Hold on! Hold up! wait; stop; forbear. [ Collog] -- To hold forth , to speak in public; to harangue; to preach. L'Estrange. -- To hold in , to restrain one's self; as, he wanted to laugh and could hardly hold in . -- To hold off , to keep at a distance. -- To hold on , to keep fast hold; to continue; to go on. "The trade held on for many years," Swift. -- To hold out , to last; to endure; to continue; to maintain one's self; not to yield or give way. -- To hold over , to remain in office, possession, etc., beyond a certain date. -- To hold to or with , to take sides with, as a person or opinion. -- To hold together , to be joined; not to separate; to remain in union. Dryden. Locke. -- To hold up . (a) To support one's self; to remain unbent or unbroken; as, to hold up under misfortunes. (b) To cease raining; to cease to stop; as, it holds up . Hudibras. (c) To keep up; not to fall behind; not to lose ground. Collier.

Hold noun
1. The act of holding, as in or with the hands or arms; the manner of holding, whether firm or loose; seizure; grasp; clasp; gripe; possession; -- often used with the verbs take and lay .

Ne have I not twelve pence within mine hold .

Thou should'st lay hold upon him.
B. Jonson.

My soul took hold on thee.

Take fast hold of instruction.
Pror. iv. 13.

2. The authority or ground to take or keep; claim.

The law hath yet another hold on you.

3. Binding power and influence.

Fear . . . by which God and his laws take the surest hold of .

4. Something that may be grasped; means of support.

If a man be upon an high place without rails or good hold , he is ready to fall.

5. A place of confinement; a prison; confinement; custody; guard.

They . . . put them in hold unto the next day.
Acts. iv. 3.

King Richard, he is in the mighty hold
Of Bolingbroke.

6. A place of security; a fortified place; a fort; a castle; -- often called a stronghold . Chaucer.

New comers in an ancient hold

7. (Mus.) A character [ thus ...] placed over or under a note or rest, and indicating that it is to be prolonged; -- called also pause , and corona .

Hold transitive verb -- To hold up . To stop in order to rob, often with the demand to hold up the hands. [ Colloq.]

Holdback noun
1. Check; hindrance; restraint; obstacle.

The only holdback is the affection . . . that we bear to our wealth.

2. The projection or loop on the thill of a vehicle. to which a strap of the harness is attached, to hold back a carriage when going down hill, or in backing; also, the strap or part of the harness so used.

Holder noun One who is employed in the hold of a vessel.

Holder noun
1. One who, or that which, holds.

2. One who holds land, etc., under another; a tenant.

3. (Com.) The payee of a bill of exchange or a promissory note, or the one who owns or holds it.

» Holder is much used as the second part of a compound; as, share holder , office holder , stock holder ,etc.

Holder-forth noun One who speaks in public; an haranguer; a preacher. Addison.

Holdfast noun
1. Something used to secure and hold in place something else, as a long flat-headed nail, a catch a hook, a clinch, a clamp, etc.; hence, a support. "His holdfast was gone." Bp. Montagu.

2. (Botany) A conical or branching body, by which a seaweed is attached to its support, and differing from a root in that it is not specially absorbent of moisture.

Holding noun
1. The act or state of sustaining, grasping, or retaining.

2. A tenure; a farm or other estate held of another.

3. That which holds, binds, or influences. Burke.

4. The burden or chorus of a song. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Holding note (Mus.) , a note sustained in one part, while the other parts move.

Hole (hōl) adjective Whole. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Hole noun [ Middle English hol , hole , Anglo-Saxon hol , hole, cavern, from hol , adjective , hollow ; akin to Dutch hol , Old High German hol , German hohl , Danish huul hollow, hul hole, Swedish hål , Icelandic hola ; probably from the root of Anglo-Saxon helan to conceal. See Hele , Hell , and confer Hold of a ship.]
1. A hollow place or cavity; an excavation; a pit; an opening in or through a solid body, a fabric, etc.; a perforation; a rent; a fissure.

The holes where eyes should be.

The blind walls
Were full of chinks and holes .

The priest took a chest, and bored a hole in the lid.
2 Kings xii. 9.

2. An excavation in the ground, made by an animal to live in, or a natural cavity inhabited by an animal; hence, a low, narrow, or dark lodging or place; a mean habitation. Dryden.

The foxes have holes , . . . but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
Luke ix. 58.

Syn. -- Hollow; concavity; aperture; rent; fissure; crevice; orifice; interstice; perforation; excavation; pit; cave; den; cell.

Hole and corner , clandestine, underhand. [ Colloq.] "The wretched trickery of hole and corner buffery." Dickens. -- Hole board (Fancy Weaving) , a board having holes through which cords pass which lift certain warp threads; -- called also compass board .

Hole transitive verb [ Anglo-Saxon holian . See Hole , noun ]
1. To cut, dig, or bore a hole or holes in; as, to hole a post for the insertion of rails or bars. Chapman.

2. To drive into a hole, as an animal, or a billiard ball.

Hole intransitive verb To go or get into a hole. B. Jonson.

Hole noun (Games) (a) A small cavity used in some games, usually one into which a marble or ball is to be played or driven; hence, a score made by playing a marble or ball into such a hole, as in golf. (b) (Fives) At Eton College, England, that part of the floor of the court between the step and the pepperbox.

Hole in the air (Aëronautics) = Air hole , above.

Holethnic adjective Of or pertaining to a holethnos or parent race.

The holethnic history of the Arians.
London Academy.

Holethnos noun [ Holo + Greek ... race.] A parent stock or race of people, not yet divided into separate branches or tribes.

Holibut noun (Zoology) See Halibut .

Holidam noun [ Obsolete] See Halidom .

Holiday noun [ Holy + day .]
1. A consecrated day; religious anniversary; a day set apart in honor of some person, or in commemoration of some event. See Holyday .

2. A day of exemption from labor; a day of amusement and gayety; a festival day.

And young and old come forth to play
On a sunshine holiday .

3. (Law) A day fixed by law for suspension of business; a legal holiday.

» In the United States legal holidays , so called, are determined by law, commonly by the statutes of the several States. The holidays most generally observed are: the 22d day of February (Washington's birthday), the 30th day of May (Memorial day), the 4th day of July (Independence day), the 25th day of December (Christmas day). In most of the States the 1st day of January is a holiday. When any of these days falls on Sunday, usually the Monday following is observed as the holiday. In many of the States a day in the spring (as Good Friday, or the first Thursday in April), and a day in the fall (as the last Thursday in November) are now regularly appointed by Executive proclamation to be observed, the former as a day of fasting and prayer, the latter as a day of thanksgiving and are kept as holidays. In England, the days of the greater church feasts (designated in the calendar by a red letter, and commonly called red-letter days ) are observed as general holidays. Bank holidays are those on which, by act of Parliament, banks may suspend business. Although Sunday is a holiday in the sense of a day when business is legally suspended, it is not usually included in the general term, the phrase "Sundays and holidays" being more common.

The holidays , any fixed or usual period for relaxation or festivity; especially, Christmas and New Year's day with the intervening time.

Holiday adjective
1. Of or pertaining to a festival; cheerful; joyous; gay. Shak.

2. Occurring rarely; adapted for a special occasion.

Courage is but a holiday kind of virtue, to be seldom exercised.

Holily adverb [ From Holy .]
1. Piously; with sanctity; in a holy manner.

2. Sacredly; inviolably. [ R.] Shak.

Holiness noun [ Anglo-Saxon hālignes .]
1. The state or quality of being holy; perfect moral integrity or purity; freedom from sin; sanctity; innocence.

Who is like thee, glorious in holiness !
Ex. xv. 11.

2. The state of being hallowed, or consecrated to God or to his worship; sacredness.

Israel was holiness unto the Lord.

His holiness , a title of the pope; -- formerly given also to Greek bishops and Greek emperors.

Syn. -- Piety; devotion; godliness; sanctity; sacredness; righteousness.

Holing noun [ See Hole a hollow.] (Mining) Undercutting in a bed of coal, in order to bring down the upper mass. Raymond.

Holla interj. [ French hola ; ho ho + là there, from Latin illac that way, there. Confer Hollo .] Hollo.

Holla intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Hollaed ; present participle & vb. noun Hollaing .] See Hollo , intransitive verb

Holland noun A kind of linen first manufactured in Holland; a linen fabric used for window shades, children's garments, etc.; as, brown or unbleached hollands .

Hollandaise sauce, Hollandaise noun [ French hollandaise , fem. of hollandais Dutch.] (Cookery) A sauce consisting essentially of a seasoned emulsion of butter and yolk of eggs with a little lemon juice or vinegar.

Hollander noun
1. A native or one of the people of Holland; a Dutchman.

2. A very hard, semi-glazed, green or dark brown brick, which will not absorb water; -- called also, Dutch clinker . Wagner.

Hollandish adjective Relating to Holland; Dutch.

Hollands noun
1. Gin made in Holland.

2. plural See Holland .

Hollo interj. & noun [ See Halloo , and confer Holla .] Ho there; stop; attend; hence, a loud cry or a call to attract attention; a halloo.

And every day, for food or play,
Came to the mariner's hollo .

Hollo intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Holloed ; present participle & verbal noun Holloing .] [ See Hollo , interj. , and confer Halloo .] To call out or exclaim; to halloo. This form is now mostly replaced by hello .

Holloa interj. , noun & intransitive verb Same as Hollo .

Hollow adjective [ Middle English holow , holgh , holf , Anglo-Saxon holh a hollow, hole. Confer Hole .]
1. Having an empty space or cavity, natural or artificial, within a solid substance; not solid; excavated in the interior; as, a hollow tree; a hollow sphere.

Hollow with boards shalt thou make it.
Ex. xxvii. 8.

2. Depressed; concave; gaunt; sunken.

With hollow eye and wrinkled brow.

3. Reverberated from a cavity, or resembling such a sound; deep; muffled; as, a hollow roar. Dryden.

4. Not sincere or faithful; false; deceitful; not sound; as, a hollow heart; a hollow friend. Milton.

Hollow newel (Architecture) , an opening in the center of a winding staircase in place of a newel post, the stairs being supported by the wall; an open newel; also, the stringpiece or rail winding around the well of such a staircase. -- Hollow quoin (Engineering) , a pier of stone or brick made behind the lock gates of a canal, and containing a hollow or recess to receive the ends of the gates. -- Hollow root . (Botany) See Moschatel . -- Hollow square . See Square . -- Hollow ware , hollow vessels; -- a trade name for cast-iron kitchen utensils, earthenware, etc.

Syn. - Concave; sunken; low; vacant; empty; void; false; faithless; deceitful; treacherous.

Hollow noun
1. A cavity, natural or artificial; an unfilled space within anything; a hole, a cavern; an excavation; as the hollow of the hand or of a tree.

2. A low spot surrounded by elevations; a depressed part of a surface; a concavity; a channel.

Forests grew
Upon the barren hollows .

I hate the dreadful hollow behind the little wood.

Hollow transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Hollowed ; present participle & verbal noun Hollowing .] To make hollow, as by digging, cutting, or engraving; to excavate. "Trees rudely hollowed ." Dryden.

Hollow adverb Wholly; completely; utterly; -- chiefly after the verb to beat , and often with all ; as, this story beats the other all hollow . See All , adverb [ Collog.]

The more civilized so-called Caucasian races have beaten the Turks hollow in the struggle for existence.

Hollow interj. [ See Hollo .] Hollo.

Hollow intransitive verb To shout; to hollo.

Whisperings and hollowings are alike to a deaf ear.

Hollow transitive verb To urge or call by shouting.

He has hollowed the hounds.
Sir W. Scott.

Hollow-hearted adjective Insincere; deceitful; not sound and true; having a cavity or decayed spot within.

Syn. -- Faithless; dishonest; false; treacherous.

Hollow-horned adjective (Zoology) Having permanent horns with a bony core, as cattle.

Hollowly adverb Insincerely; deceitfully. Shak.

Hollowness noun
1. State of being hollow. Bacon.

2. Insincerity; unsoundness; treachery. South.

Holluschickie noun sing. & plural [ Prob. of Russian goluishka bare of possessions, offspring, etc., from goluiĭ naked.] (Zoology) A young male fur seal, esp. one from three to six years old; -- called also bachelor , because prevented from breeding by the older full- grown males.

» The holluschickie are the seals that may legally be killed for their skins.

But he'll lie down on the killing grounds where the holluschickie go.

Holly adverb Wholly. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Holly (hŏl"lȳ) noun [ OE holi , holin , Anglo-Saxon holen , holegn ; akin to D. & German hulst , Old High German huls hulis , W. celyn , Armor. kelen , Gael. cuilionn , Ir. cuileann . Confer 1st Holm , Hulver .]
1. (Botany) A tree or shrub of the genus Ilex . The European species ( Ilex Aquifolium ) is best known, having glossy green leaves, with a spiny, waved edge, and bearing berries that turn red or yellow about Michaelmas.

» The holly is much used to adorn churches and houses, at Christmas time, and hence is associated with scenes of good will and rejoicing. It is an evergreen tree, and has a finegrained, heavy, white wood. Its bark is used as a febrifuge, and the berries are violently purgative and emetic. The American holly is the Ilex opaca , and is found along the coast of the United States, from Maine southward. Gray.

2. (Botany) The holm oak. See 1st Holm .

Holly-leaved oak (Botany) , the black scrub oak. See Scrub oak . -- Holly rose (Botany) , a West Indian shrub, with showy, yellow flowers ( Turnera ulmifolia ). -- Sea holly (Botany) , a species of Eryngium. See Eryngium .

Hollyhock noun [ Middle English holihoc ; holi holy + hoc mallow, Anglo-Saxon hoc ; confer W. hocys mallows, hocys bendigaid hollyhock, lit., blessed mallow. Prob. so named because brought from the Holy Land. See Holy .] (Botany) A species of Althæa ( A. rosea ), bearing flowers of various colors; -- called also rose mallow .