Encyclo - Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Gnash transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Gnashed ; present participle & verbal noun Gnashing .] [ Middle English gnasten , gnaisten , confer Icelandic gnastan a gnashing, gn...sta to gnash, Danish knaske , Swedish gnissla , Dutch knarsen , German knirschen .] To strike together, as in anger or pain; as, to gnash the teeth.

Gnash intransitive verb To grind or strike the teeth together.

There they him laid,
Gnashing for anguish, and despite, and shame.
Milton.

Gnashingly adverb With gnashing.

Gnat noun [ Anglo-Saxon gnæt .]
1. (Zoology) A blood-sucking dipterous fly, of the genus Culex , undergoing a metamorphosis in water. The females have a proboscis armed with needlelike organs for penetrating the skin of animals. These are wanting in the males. In America they are generally called mosquitoes . See Mosquito .

2. Any fly resembling a Culex in form or habits; esp., in America, a small biting fly of the genus Simulium and allies, as the buffalo gnat, the black fly, etc.

Gnat catcher (Zoology) , one of several species of small American singing birds, of the genus Polioptila , allied to the kinglets. -- Gnat flower , the bee flower. -- Gnat hawk (Zoology) , the European goatsucker; -- called also gnat owl . -- Gnat snapper (Zoology) , a bird that catches gnats. -- Gnat strainer , a person ostentatiously punctilious about trifles. Confer Matt. xxiii. 24.

Gnathic adjective [ Greek ... the jaw.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the jaw.

Gnathic index , in a skull, the ratio of the distance from the middle of the nasofrontal suture to the basion (taken equal to 100), to the distance from the basion to the middle of the front edge of the upper jaw; -- called also alveolar index .

Skulls with the gnathic index below 98 are orthognathous, from 98 to 103 mesognathous, and above 103 are prognathous.
Flower.

Gnathidium noun ; plural Gnathidia . [ New Latin , from Greek gna`qos the jaw.] (Zoology) The ramus of the lower jaw of a bird as far as it is naked; -- commonly used in the plural.

Gnathite noun [ Greek gna`qos the jaw.] (Zoology) Any one of the mouth appendages of the Arthropoda. They are known as mandibles, maxillæ, and maxillipeds.

Gnathonic, Gnathonical adjective [ Latin Gnatho , name of a parasite in the "Eunuchus" of Terence, Greek ...; hence, a parasite in general.] Flattering; deceitful. [ Obsolete]

Gnathopod noun [ Greek gna`qos the jaw + -pod .] (Zoology) A gnathopodite or maxilliped. See Maxilliped .

Gnathopodite noun (Zoöl,) Any leglike appendage of a crustacean, when modified wholly, or in part, to serve as a jaw, esp. one of the maxillipeds.

Gnathostegite noun [ Greek gna`qos the jaw + ... a roof.] (Zoology) One of a pair of broad plates, developed from the outer maxillipeds of crabs, and forming a cover for the other mouth organs.

Gnathostoma noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek gna`qos the jaw + ..., ..., the mouth.] (Zoology) A comprehensive division of vertebrates, including all that have distinct jaws, in contrast with the leptocardians and marsipobranchs ( Cyclostoma ), which lack them. [ Written also Gnathostomata .]

Gnathotheca noun ; plural GnathothecÆ . [ New Latin , from Greek gna`qos the jaw + ... a box.] (Zoology) The horney covering of the lower mandible of a bird.

Gnatling noun (Zoology) A small gnat.

Gnatworm noun (Zoology) The aquatic larva of a gnat; -- called also, colloquially, wiggler .

Gnaw (na) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Gnawed (nad); present participle & verbal noun Gnawing .] [ Middle English gnawen , Anglo-Saxon gnagan ; akin to Dutch knagen , Old High German gnagan , nagan , German nagen , Icelandic & Swedish gnaga , Danish gnave , nage . Confer Nag to tease.]
1. To bite, as something hard or tough, which is not readily separated or crushed; to bite off little by little, with effort; to wear or eat away by scraping or continuous biting with the teeth; to nibble at.

His bones clean picked; his very bones they gnaw .
Dryden.

2. To bite in agony or rage.

They gnawed their tongues for pain.
Rev. xvi. 10.

3. To corrode; to fret away; to waste.

Gnaw intransitive verb To use the teeth in biting; to bite with repeated effort, as in eating or removing with the teethsomething hard, unwiedly, or unmanageable.

I might well, like the spaniel, gnaw upon the chain that ties me.
Sir P. Sidney.

Gnawer noun
1. One who, or that which, gnaws.

2. (Zoology) A rodent.

Gneiss (nīs) noun [ G.] (Geol.) A crystalline rock, consisting, like granite, of quartz, feldspar, and mica, but having these materials, especially the mica, arranged in planes, so that it breaks rather easily into coarse slabs or flags. Hornblende sometimes takes the place of the mica, and it is then called hornblendic or syenitic gneiss . Similar varieties of related rocks are also called gneiss.

Gneissic (nīs"sĭk) adjective Relating to, or resembling, gneiss; consisting of gneiss.

Gneissoid (-soid) adjective [ Gneiss + -oid .] Resembling gneiss; having some of the characteristics of gneiss; -- applied to rocks of an intermediate character between granite and gneiss, or mica slate and gneiss.

Gneissose adjective Having the structure of gneiss.

Gnew (nū), obsolete imperfect of Gnaw . Chaucer.

Gnide (nīd) transitive verb [ Anglo-Saxon gnīdan .] To rub; to bruise; to break in pieces. [ Obsolete]

» This word is found in Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, but improperly. The woed, though common in Old English, does not occur in Chaucer. T. R. Lounsbury.

Gnof (nŏf) noun Churl; curmudgeon. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Gnome noun [ French gnome , probably from Greek gnw`mon one that knows, a guardian, i. e. , of the treasures in the inner parts of the earth, or from ... intelligence, both from gnw^nai , gignw^skein , to know. See Know .]
1. An imaginary being, supposed by the Rosicrucians to inhabit the inner parts of the earth, and to be the guardian of mines, quarries, etc.

2. A dwarf; a goblin; a person of small stature or misshapen features, or of strange appearance.

3. (Zoology) A small owl ( Glaucidium gnoma ) of the Western United States.

4. [ Greek ....] A brief reflection or maxim. Peacham.

Gnomic, Gnomical adjective [ Greek ..., from ...: confer French gnomique . See Gnome maxim.] Sententious; uttering or containing maxims, or striking detached thoughts; aphoristic.

A city long famous as the seat of elegiac and gnomic poetry.
G. R. Lewes.

Gnomic Poets , Greek poets, as Theognis and Solon, of the sixth century B. C. , whose writings consist of short sententious precepts and reflections.

Gnomical adjective [ See Gnomon .] Gnomonical. Boyle.

Gnomically adverb In a gnomic, didactic, or sententious manner.

Gnomologic, Gnomological adjective [ Greek ....] Pertaining to, of the nature of, or resembling, a gnomology.

Gnomology noun [ Greek ...; ... judgment, maxim + ... discourse: confer French gnomologie .] A collection of, or a treatise on, maxims, grave sentences, or reflections. [ Obsolete] Milton.

Gnomon noun [ Latin gnomon , Greek ... one that knows, the index of a sundial. See Gnome .]


1. (Dialing) The style or pin, which by its shadow, shows the hour of the day. It is usually set parallel to the earth's axis.

2. (Astron.) A style or column erected perpendicularly to the horizon, formerly used in astronomocal observations. Its principal use was to find the altitude of the sun by measuring the length of its shadow.

3. (Geom.) The space included between the boundary lines of two similar parallelograms, the one within the other, with an angle in common; as, the gnomon bcdefg of the parallelograms ac and af . The parallelogram bf is the complement of the parallelogram df.

4. The index of the hour circle of a globe.

Gnomonic, Gnomonical adjective [ Latin gnomonicus , Greek ...: confer French gnomonique . See Gnomon .] Of or pertaining to the gnomon, or the art of dialing.

Gnomonic projection , a projection of the circles of the sphere, in which the point of sight is taken at the center of the sphere, and the principal plane is tangent to the surface of the sphere. "The gnomonic projection derives its name from the connection between the methods of describing it and those for the construction of a gnomon or dial." Cyc. of Arts & Sciences.

Gnomonically adverb According to the principles of the gnomonic projection.

Gnomonics noun [ See Gnomonic .] The art or science of dialing, or of constructing dials to show the hour of the day by the shadow of a gnomon.

Gnomonist noun One skilled in gnomonics. Boyle.

Gnomonology noun [ Gnomon + -logy . Confer Gnomonology .] A treatise on gnomonics.

Gnoscopine noun [ Greek gignw`skein to know + English opium ?] (Chemistry) An alkaloid existing in small quantities in opium.

Gnosis noun [ New Latin , from Greek gnw^sis .] (Metaph.) The deeper wisdom; knowledge of spiritual truth, such as was claimed by the Gnostics.

Gnostic adjective
1. Knowing; wise; shrewd. [ Old Slang]

I said you were a gnostic fellow.
Sir W. Scott.

2. (Eccl. Hist.) Of or pertaining to Gnosticism or its adherents; as, the Gnostic heresy.

Gnostic noun [ Latin gnosticus , Greek ... good at knowing, sagacious; as a noun , man that claims to have a deeper wisdom, from gignw`skein to know: confer French gnostique . See Know .] (Eccl. Hist.) One of the so-called philosophers in the first ages of Christianity, who claimed a true philosophical interpretation of the Christian religion. Their system combined Oriental theology and Greek philosophy with the doctrines of Christianity. They held that all natures, intelligible, intellectual, and material, are derived from the Deity by successive emanations, which they called Eons .

Gnosticism noun The system of philosophy taught by the Gnostics.

Gnow obsolete imperfect of Gnaw . Gnawed. Chaucer.

Gnu noun [ Hottentot gnu , or nju : confer French gnou .] (Zoology) One of two species of large South African antelopes of the genus Catoblephas , having a mane and bushy tail, and curved horns in both sexes. [ Written also gnoo .]

» The common gnu or wildebeest ( Catoblephas gnu ) is plain brown; the brindled gnu or blue wildebeest ( C. gorgon ) is larger, with transverse stripes of black on the neck and shoulders.

Go (gō), obsolete past participle of Go . Gone. Chaucer.

Go intransitive verb [ imperfect Went (wĕnt); past participle Gone (gŏn; 115); present participle & verbal noun Going . Went comes from the AS, wendan . See Wend , intransitive verb ] [ Middle English gan , gon , Anglo-Saxon gān , akin to Dutch gaan , German gehn , gehen , Old High German gēn , gān , SW. , Danish gaae ; confer Greek kicha`nai to reach, overtake, Sanskrit to go, Anglo-Saxon gangan , and English gang . The past tense in Anglo-Saxon , eode , is from the root i to go, as is also Goth. iddja went. √47 a . Confer Gang , intransitive verb , Wend .]
1. To pass from one place to another; to be in motion; to be in a state not motionless or at rest; to proceed; to advance; to make progress; -- used, in various applications, of the movement of both animate and inanimate beings, by whatever means, and also of the movements of the mind; also figuratively applied.

2. To move upon the feet, or step by step; to walk; also, to walk step by step, or leisurely.

» In old writers go is much used as opposed to run , or ride . "Whereso I go or ride ." Chaucer.

You know that love
Will creep in service where it can not go .
Shak.

Thou must run to him; for thou hast staid so long that going will scarce serve the turn.
Shak.

He fell from running to going , and from going to clambering upon his hands and his knees.
Bunyan.

» In Chaucer go is used frequently with the pronoun in the objective used reflexively; as, he goeth him home.

3. To be passed on fron one to another; to pass; to circulate; hence, with for , to have currency; to be taken, accepted, or regarded.

The man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul.
1 Sa. xvii. 12.

[ The money] should go according to its true value.
Locke.

4. To proceed or happen in a given manner; to fare; to move on or be carried on; to have course; to come to an issue or result; to succeed; to turn out.

How goes the night, boy ?
Shak.

I think, as the world goes , he was a good sort of man enough.
Arbuthnot.

Whether the cause goes for me or against me, you must pay me the reward.
I Watts.

5. To proceed or tend toward a result, consequence, or product; to tend; to conduce; to be an ingredient; to avail; to apply; to contribute; -- often with the infinitive; as, this goes to show.

Against right reason all your counsels go .
Dryden.

To master the foul flend there goeth some complement knowledge of theology.
Sir W. Scott.

6. To apply one's self; to set one's self; to undertake.

Seeing himself confronted by so many, like a resolute orator, he went not to denial, but to justify his cruel falsehood.
Sir P. Sidney.

» Go , in this sense, is often used in the present participle with the auxiliary verb to be , before an infinitive, to express a future of intention, or to denote design; as, I was going to say; I am going to begin harvest.

7. To proceed by a mental operation; to pass in mind or by an act of the memory or imagination; -- generally with over or through .

By going over all these particulars, you may receive some tolerable satisfaction about this great subject.
South.

8. To be with young; to be pregnant; to gestate.

The fruit she goes with,
I pray for heartily, that it may find
Good time, and live.
Shak.

9. To move from the person speaking, or from the point whence the action is contemplated; to pass away; to leave; to depart; -- in opposition to stay and come .

I will let you go , that ye may sacrifice to the Lord your God; . . . only ye shall not go very far away.
Ex. viii. 28.

10. To pass away; to depart forever; to be lost or ruined; to perish; to decline; to decease; to die.

By Saint George, he's gone !
That spear wound hath our master sped.
Sir W. Scott.

11. To reach; to extend; to lead; as, a line goes across the street; his land goes to the river; this road goes to New York.

His amorous expressions go no further than virtue may allow.
Dryden.

12. To have recourse; to resort; as, to go to law.

» Go is used, in combination with many prepositions and adverbs, to denote motion of the kind indicated by the preposition or adverb, in which, and not in the verb, lies the principal force of the expression; as, to go against to go into , to go out , to go aside , to go astray , etc.

Go to , come; move; go away; -- a phrase of exclamation, serious or ironical. -- To go a- begging , not to be in demand; to be undesired. -- To go about . (a) To set about; to enter upon a scheme of action; to undertake. "They went about to slay him." Acts ix. 29.

They never go about . . . to hide or palliate their vices.
Swift.

(b) (Nautical) To tack; to turn the head of a ship; to wear. -- To go abraod . (a) To go to a foreign country. (b) To go out of doors. (c) To become public; to be published or disclosed; to be current.

Then went this saying abroad among the brethren.
John xxi. 23.

-- To go against . (a) To march against; to attack. (b) To be in opposition to; to be disagreeable to. -- To go ahead . (a) To go in advance. (b) To go on; to make progress; to proceed. -- To go and come . See To come and go , under Come . -- To go aside . (a) To withdraw; to retire.

He . . . went aside privately into a desert place.
Luke. ix. 10.

(b) To go from what is right; to err. Num. v. 29. -- To go back on . (a) To retrace (one's path or footsteps). (b) To abandon; to turn against; to betray. [ Slang, U. S.] -- To go below (Naut) , to go below deck. -- To go between , to interpose or mediate between; to be a secret agent between parties; in a bad sense, to pander. -- To go beyond . See under Beyond . -- To go by , to pass away unnoticed; to omit. -- To go by the board (Nautical) , to fall or be carried overboard; as, the mast went by the board . -- To go down . (a) To descend. (b) To go below the horizon; as, the sun has gone down . (c) To sink; to founder; -- said of ships, etc. (d) To be swallowed; -- used literally or figuratively. [ Colloq.]

Nothing so ridiculous, . . . but it goes down whole with him for truth.
L' Estrange.

-- To go far . (a) To go to a distance. (b) To have much weight or influence. -- To go for . (a) To go in quest of. (b) To represent; to pass for. (c) To favor; to advocate. (d) To attack; to assault. [ Low] (e) To sell for; to be parted with for (a price). -- To go for nothing , to be parted with for no compensation or result; to have no value, efficacy, or influence; to count for nothing. -- To go forth . (a) To depart from a place. (b) To be divulged or made generally known; to emanate.

The law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.
Micah iv. 2.

-- To go hard with , to trouble, pain, or endanger. -- To go in , to engage in; to take part. [ Colloq.] -- To go in and out , to do the business of life; to live; to have free access. John x. 9. -- To go in for . [ Colloq.] (a) To go for; to favor or advocate (a candidate, a measure, etc.). (b) To seek to acquire or attain to (wealth, honor, preferment, etc.) (c) To complete for (a reward, election, etc.). (d) To make the object of one's labors, studies, etc.

He was as ready to go in for statistics as for anything else.
Dickens.

-- To go in to or unto . (a) To enter the presence of. Esther iv. 16. (b) To have sexual intercourse with. [ Script.] -- To go into . (a) To speak of, investigate, or discuss (a question, subject, etc.). (b) To participate in (a war, a business, etc.). -- To go large . (Naut) See under Large . -- To go off . (a) To go away; to depart.

The leaders . . . will not go off until they hear you.
Shak.

(b) To cease; to intermit; as, this sickness went off . (c) To die. Shak. (d) To explode or be discharged; -- said of gunpowder, of a gun, a mine, etc. (e) To find a purchaser; to be sold or disposed of. (f) To pass off; to take place; to be accomplished.

The wedding went off much as such affairs do.
Mrs. Caskell.

-- To go on . (a) To proceed; to advance further; to continue; as, to go on reading. (b) To be put or drawn on; to fit over; as, the coat will not go on . -- To go all fours , to correspond exactly, point for point.

It is not easy to make a simile go on all fours .
Macaulay.

-- To go out . (a) To issue forth from a place. (b) To go abroad; to make an excursion or expedition.

There are other men fitter to go out than I.
Shak.

What went ye out for to see ?
Matt. xi. 7, 8, 9.

(c) To become diffused, divulged, or spread abroad, as news, fame etc. (d) To expire; to die; to cease; to come to an end; as, the light has gone out .

Life itself goes out at thy displeasure.
Addison.

-- To go over . (a) To traverse; to cross, as a river, boundary, etc.; to change sides.

I must not go over Jordan.
Deut. iv. 22.

Let me go over , and see the good land that is beyond Jordan.
Deut. iii. 25.

Ishmael . . . departed to go over to the Ammonites.
Jer. xli. 10.

(b) To read, or study; to examine; to review; as, to go over one's accounts.

If we go over the laws of Christianity, we shall find that . . . they enjoin the same thing.
Tillotson.

(c) To transcend; to surpass. (d) To be postponed; as, the bill went over for the session. (e) (Chemistry) To be converted (into a specified substance or material); as, monoclinic sulphur goes over into orthorhombic, by standing; sucrose goes over into dextrose and levulose. -- To go through . (a) To accomplish; as, to go through a work. (b) To suffer; to endure to the end; as, to go through a surgical operation or a tedious illness. (c) To spend completely; to exhaust, as a fortune. (d) To strip or despoil (one) of his property. [ Slang] (e) To botch or bungle a business. [ Scot.] -- To go through with , to perform, as a calculation, to the end; to complete. -- To go to ground . (a) To escape into a hole; -- said of a hunted fox. (b) To fall in battle. -- To go to naught (Colloq.), to prove abortive, or unavailling. -- To go under . (a) To set; -- said of the sun. (b) To be known or recognized by (a name, title, etc. ). (c) To be overwhelmed, submerged, or defeated; to perish; to succumb. -- To go up , to come to nothing; to prove abortive; to fail. [ Slang] -- To go upon , to act upon, as a foundation or hypothesis. -- To go with . (a) To accompany. (b) To coincide or agree with. (c) To suit; to harmonize with. -- To go ( well , ill , or hard ) with , to affect (one) in such manner. -- To go without , to be, or to remain, destitute of. -- To go wrong . (a) To take a wrong road or direction; to wander or stray. (b) To depart from virtue. (c) To happen unfortunately. (d) To miss success. -- To let go , to allow to depart; to quit one's hold; to release.

Go transitive verb
1. To take, as a share in an enterprise; to undertake or become responsible for; to bear a part in.

They to go equal shares in the booty.
L'Estrange.

2. To bet or wager; as, I'll go you a shilling. [ Colloq.]

To go halves , to share with another equally. -- To go it , to behave in a wild manner; to be uproarious; to carry on; also, to proceed; to make progress. [ Colloq.] -- To go it alone (Card Playing) , to play a hand without the assistance of one's partner. -- To go it blind . (a) To act in a rash, reckless, or headlong manner. [ Slang] (b) (Card Playing) To bet without having examined the cards. -- To go one's way , to set forth; to depart.

Go noun
1. Act; working; operation. [ Obsolete]

So gracious were the goes of marriage.
Marston.

2. A circumstance or occurrence; an incident. [ Slang]

This is a pretty go .
Dickens.

3. The fashion or mode; as, quite the go . [ Colloq.]

4. Noisy merriment; as, a high go . [ Colloq.]

5. A glass of spirits. [ Slang]

6. Power of going or doing; energy; vitality; perseverance; push; as, there is no go in him. [ Colloq.]

7. (Cribbage) That condition in the course of the game when a player can not lay down a card which will not carry the aggregate count above thirty-one.

Great go , Little go , the final and the preliminary examinations for a degree. [ Slang, Eng. Univ.] -- No go , a failure; a fiasco. [ Slang] Thackeray. -- On the go , moving about; unsettled. [ Colloq.]

Go noun Something that goes or is successful; a success; as, he made a go of it; also, an agreement.

"Well," said Fleming, "is it a go ?"
Bret Harte.

Goa noun (Zoology) A species of antelope ( Procapra picticauda ), inhabiting Thibet.