Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Chowder (-d&etl;r) noun [ French chaudière a kettle, a pot. Confer Caldron .]
1. (Cookery) A dish made of fresh fish or clams, biscuit, onions, etc., stewed together.

2. A seller of fish. [ Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Chowder beer , a liquor made by boiling black spruce in water and mixing molasses with the decoction.

Chowder transitive verb To make a chowder of.

Chowry (-rȳ) noun [ Hind. chaunri .] A whisk to keep off files, used in the East Indies. Malcom.

Chowter (-tẽr) transitive verb [ Confer Middle English chowre , and Prov. English chow , to grumble.] To grumble or mutter like a froward child. [ Obsolete] E. Phillips.

Choy root (choi" rōt`). See Chay root .

Chrematistics noun [ Greek ... 9sc. ...) the art of traffic, from ... goods, money, from ... to use.] The science of wealth; the science, or a branch of the science, of political economy.

Chreotechnics noun [ Greek ... useful + ... art.] The science of the useful arts, esp. agriculture, manufactures, and commerce. [ R.]

Chrestomathic adjective Teaching what is useful. "A chrestomathic school." Southey.

Chrestomathy noun [ Greek ...; ... useful + ..., ..., to learn.] A selection of passages, with notes, etc., to be used in acquiring a language; as, a Hebrew chrestomathy .

Chrism noun [ Middle English crisme , from Anglo-Saxon crisma ; also Middle English creme , from Old French cresme , like the Anglo-Saxon word from Late Latin chrisma , from Greek ..., from ... to anoint; perhaps akin to Latin friare , fricare , to rub, Sanskrit gharsh , English friable , friction . Confer Chrisom .] (Gr. & R. C. Church...s)


1. Olive oil mixed with balm and spices, consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday, and used in the administration of baptism, confirmation, ordination, etc.

2. The same as Chrisom .

Chrismal adjective [ Late Latin chrismalis .] Of or pertaining to or used in chrism.

Chrismation noun [ Late Latin chrismatio .] The act of applying the chrism, or consecrated oil.

Chrismation or cross-signing with ointment, was used in baptism.
Jer. Taylor.

Chrismatory noun [ Late Latin chrismatorium .] A cruet or vessel in which chrism is kept.

Chrisom noun [ See Chrism .]


1. A white cloth, anointed with chrism, or a white mantle thrown over a child when baptized or christened. [ Obsolete]

2. A child which died within a month after its baptism; -- so called from the chrisom cloth which was used as a shroud for it. [ Obsolete] Blount.

Christ noun [ Latin Christus , Greek ..., from ... anointed, from chri`ein to anoint. See Chrism .] The Anointed ; an appellation given to Jesus, the Savior. It is synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah .

Christ's-thorn noun (Botany) One of several prickly or thorny shrubs found in Palestine, especially the Paliurus aculeatus , Zizyphus Spina-Christi , and Z. vulgaris . The last bears the fruit called jujube , and may be considered to have been the most readily obtainable for the Crown of Thorns.

Christcross noun
1. The mark of the cross, as cut, painted, written, or stamped on certain objects, -- sometimes as the sign of 12 o'clock on a dial.

The fescue of the dial is upon the christcross of noon.
Old Play. Nares.

2. The beginning and the ending. [ Obsolete] Quarles.

Christcross-row The alphabet; -- formerly so called, either from the cross usually set before it, or from a superstitious custom, sometimes practiced, of writing it in the form of a cross, by way of a charm.

From infant conning of the Christcross- row .
Wordsworth.

Christen transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Christened ; present participle & verbal noun Christening .] [ Anglo-Saxon cristnian to make a Christian, from cristen a Christian.]


1. To baptize and give a Christian name to.

2. To give a name; to denominate. " Christen the thing what you will." Bp. Burnet.

3. To Christianize. [ Obsolete] Jer. Taylor.

4. To use for the first time. [ Colloq.]

Christendom noun [ Anglo-Saxon cristend...m ; cristen a Christian + -dom .]
1. The profession of faith in Christ by baptism; hence, the Christian religion, or the adoption of it. [ Obsolete] Shak.

2. The name received at baptism; or, more generally, any name or appelation. [ Obsolete]

Pretty, fond, adoptious christendoms .
Shak.

3. That portion of the world in which Christianity prevails, or which is governed under Christian institutions, in distinction from heathen or Mohammedan lands.

The Arian doctrine which then divided Christendom .
Milton

A wide and still widening Christendom .
Coleridge.

4. The whole body of Christians. Hooker.

Christian noun [ Latin christianus , Greek ...; confer Anglo-Saxon cristen . See Christ .]


1. One who believes, or professes or is assumed to believe, in Jesus Christ, and the truth as taught by Him; especially, one whose inward and outward life is conformed to the doctrines of Christ.

The disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.
Acts xi. 26.

2. One born in a Christian country or of Christian parents, and who has not definitely becomes an adherent of an opposing system.

3. (Eccl.) (a) One of a Christian denomination which rejects human creeds as bases of fellowship, and sectarian names. They are congregational in church government, and baptize by immersion. They are also called Disciples of Christ , and Campbellites . (b) One of a sect (called Christian Connection ) of open-communion immersionists. The Bible is their only authoritative rule of faith and practice.

» In this sense, often pronounced, but not by the members of the sects, krīs"ch a noun

Christian adjective
1. Pertaining to Christ or his religion; as, Christian people.

3. Pertaining to the church; ecclesiastical; as, a Christian court. Blackstone.

4. Characteristic of Christian people; civilized; kind; kindly; gentle; beneficent.

The graceful tact; the Christian art.
Tennyson.

Christian Commission . See under Commission . -- Christian court . Same as Ecclesiastical court . -- Christian era , the present era, commencing with the birth of Christ. It is supposed that owing to an error of a monk (Dionysius Exiguus, d. about 556) employed to calculate the era, its commencement was fixed three or four years too late, so that 1890 should be 1893 or 1894. -- Christian name , the name given in baptism, as distinct from the family name, or surname.

Christian adjective -- Christian Endeavor, Young People's Society of . In various Protestant churches, a society of young people organized in each individual church to do Christian work; also, the whole body of such organizations, which are united in a corporation called the United Society of Christian Endeavor, organized in 1885. The parent society was founded in 1881 at Portland, Maine, by Rev. Francis E. Clark, a Congregational minister.

Christian Era The era in use in all Christian countries, which was intended to commence with the birth of Christ. The era as now established was first used by Dionysius Exiguus (died about 540), who placed the birth of Christ on the 25th of December in the year of Rome 754, which year he counted as 1 a.d. This date for Christ's birth is now generally thought to be about four years too late.

Christian Science A system of healing disease of mind and body which teaches that all cause and effect is mental, and that sin, sickness, and death will be destroyed by a full understanding of the Divine Principle of Jesus' teaching and healing. The system was founded by Rev. Mary Baker Glover Eddy, of Concord, N. H., in 1866, and bases its teaching on the Scriptures as understood by its adherents.

Christian Scientist A believer in Christian Science; one who practices its teachings.

Christian Seneca Joseph Hall (1574 -- 1656), Bishop of Norwich, a divine eminent as a moralist.

Christian Socialism Any theory or system that aims to combine the teachings of Christ with the teachings of socialism in their applications to life; Christianized socialism; esp., the principles of this nature advocated by F. D. Maurice, Charles Kingsley, and others in England about 1850. -- Christian socialist .

Christianism noun [ Latin christianismus , Greek ...: confer French christianisme .]
1. The Christian religion. [ Obsolete] Milton.

2. The Christian world; Christendom. [ Obsolete] Johnson

Christianite noun [ In sense ( a ) named after Christian Frederic, of Denmark; in sense ( b ) after Christian VII., of Denmark.] (Min.) (a) Same as Anorthite . [ R.] (b) See Phillipsite .

Christianity noun [ Middle English cristiente , Old French cristienté , French chrétienté , from Latin christianitas . ]


1. The religion of Christians; the system of doctrines and precepts taught by Christ.

2. Practical conformity of one's inward and outward life to the spirit of the Christian religion

3. The body of Christian believers. [ Obsolete]

To Walys fled the christianitee
Of olde Britons.
Chaucer.

Christianization noun The act or process of converting or being converted to a true Christianity.

Christianize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Christianized ; present participle verbal noun Christianizing .] [ Confer French christianiser , Latin christianizare , from Greek ....]


1. To make Christian; to convert to Christianity; as, to Christianize pagans.

2. To imbue with or adapt to Christian principles.

Christianized philosophers.
I. Taylor.

Christianize intransitive verb To adopt the character or belief of a Christian; to become Christian.

The pagans began to Christianize .
Latham.

Christianlike adjective Becoming to a Christian.

A virtuous and a Christianlike conclusion.
Shak.

Christianly adverb In a manner becoming the principles of the Christian religion.

Sufferings . . . patiently and Christianly borne.
Sharp.

Christianly adjective Christianlike. Longfellow.

Christianness noun Consonance with the doctrines of Christianity. [ Obsolete] Hammond.

Christless adjective Without faith in Christ; unchristian. Tennyson.

Christlike adjective Resembling Christ in character, actions, etc. -- Christ"like`ness , noun

Christly adjective Christlike. H. Bushnell.

Christmas noun [ Christ + mass .] An annual church festival (December 25) and in some States a legal holiday, in memory of the birth of Christ, often celebrated by a particular church service, and also by special gifts, greetings, and hospitality.

Christmas box . (a) A box in which presents are deposited at Christmas. (b) A present or small gratuity given to young people and servants at Christmas; a Christmas gift. -- Christmas carol , a carol sung at, or suitable for, Christmas. -- Christmas day . Same as Christmas . -- Christmas eve , the evening before Christmas. -- Christmas fern (Botany) , an evergreen North American fern ( Aspidium acrostichoides ), which is much used for decoration in winter. -- Christmas flower , Christmas rose , the black hellebore, a poisonous plant of the buttercup family, which in Southern Europe often produces beautiful roselike flowers midwinter. -- Christmas tree , a small evergreen tree, set up indoors, to be decorated with bonbons, presents, etc., and illuminated on Christmas eve.

Christmastide noun [ Christmas + tide time.] The season of Christmas.

Christocentric adjective [ Christ + centric .] Making Christ the center, about whom all things are grouped, as in religion or history; tending toward Christ, as the central object of thought or emotion. J. W. Chadwick.

Christology noun [ Crist + -logy .] A treatise on Christ; that department of theology which treats of the personality, attributes, or life of Christ.

Christom noun See Chrisom . [ Obsolete] Shak.

Christophany noun [ Christ + Greek ... to show.] An appearance of Christ, as to his disciples after the crucifixion.

Chromascope noun [ Greek ... color + -scope .] An instrument for showing the optical effects of color.

Chromate noun [ Confer French chromate . See Chrome .] (Chemistry) A salt of chromic acid.

Chromatic adjective [ Latin chromaticus , Greek ..., suited for color, from ..., ..., color; akin to ... color, ... skin, color of the skin.]
1. Relating to color, or to colors.

2. (Mus.) Proceeding by the smaller intervals (half steps or semitones) of the scale, instead of the regular intervals of the diatonic scale.

» The intermediate tones were formerly written and printed in colors.

Chromatic aberration . (Opt.) See Aberration , 4 . -- Chromatic printing , printing from type or blocks covered with inks of various colors. -- Chromatic scale (Mus.) , the scale consisting of thirteen tones, including the eight scale tones and the five intermediate tones.

Chromatical adjective Chromatic. [ Obsolete]