Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Hiccough noun [ Middle English hickup , hicket , hickock ; probably of imitative origin; confer D. & Danish hik , Swedish hicka , Armor. hak , hik , W. ig , French hoquet .] (Physiol.) A modified respiratory movement; a spasmodic inspiration, consisting of a sudden contraction of the diaphragm, accompanied with closure of the glottis, so that further entrance of air is prevented, while the impulse of the column of air entering and striking upon the closed glottis produces a sound, or hiccough. [ Written also hickup or hiccup.]

Hiccough intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Hiccoughed ; present participle & verbal noun Hiccoughing .] To have a hiccough or hiccoughs.

Hickory noun [ North American Indian pawcohiccora (Capt. J. Smith) a kind of milk or oily liquor pressed from pounded hickory nuts. " Pohickory " is named in a list of Virginia trees, in 1653, and this was finally shortened to "hickory." J. H. Trumbull. ] (Botany) An American tree of the genus Carya , of which there are several species. The shagbark is the C. alba , and has a very rough bark; it affords the hickory nut of the markets. The pignut, or brown hickory, is the C. glabra . The swamp hickory is C. amara , having a nut whose shell is very thin and the kernel bitter.

Hickory shad . (Zoology) (a) The mattowacca, or fall herring. (b) The gizzard shad.

Hicksite noun A member or follower of the "liberal" party, headed by Elias Hicks , which, because of a change of views respecting the divinity of Christ and the Atonement, seceded from the conservative portion of the Society of Friends in the United States, in 1827.

Hickup noun & intransitive verb See Hiccough .

Hickwall, Hickway noun [ Middle English , also hyghwhele , highawe .] The lesser spotted woodpecker ( Dendrocopus minor ) of Europe. [ Prov. Eng.]

Hid imperfect & past participle of Hide . See Hidden .

Hidage noun [ From hide a quantity of land.] (O. Eng. Law.) A tax formerly paid to the kings of England for every hide of land. [ Written also hydage .]

Hidalgo noun [ Spanish , contr. from hijo de algo , i. e. , son of something; hijo son (fr. Late Latin filius ) + algo something, from Latin aliquod . Confer Fidalgo .] A title, denoting a Spanish nobleman of the lower class.

Hidden past participle & adjective from Hide . Concealed; put out of view; secret; not known; mysterious.

Hidden fifths or octaves (Mus.) , consecutive fifths or octaves, not sounded, but suggested or implied in the parallel motion of two parts towards a fifth or an octave.

Syn. -- Hidden , Secret , Covert . Hidden may denote either known to on one; as, a hidden disease; or intentionally concealed; as, a hidden purpose of revenge. Secret denotes that the thing is known only to the party or parties concerned; as, a secret conspiracy. Covert literally denotes what is not open or avowed; as, a covert plan; but is often applied to what we mean shall be understood, without openly expressing it; as, a covert allusion. Secret is opposed to known , and hidden to revealed .

Bring to light the hidden things of darkness.
1 Cor. iv. 5.

My heart, which by a secret harmony
Still moves with thine, joined in connection sweet.
Milton.

By what best way,
Whether of open war, or covert guile,
We now debate.
Milton.

Hiddenite noun [ After W. English Hidden .] (Min.) An emerald-green variety of spodumene found in North Carolina; lithia emerald, -- used as a gem.

Hiddenly adverb In a hidden manner.

Hide (hīd) transitive verb [ imperfect Hid (hĭd); past participle Hidden (hĭd"d'n), Hid ; present participle & verbal noun Hiding (hīd"ĭng).] [ Middle English hiden , huden , Anglo-Saxon hȳdan ; akin to Greek key`qein , and probably to English house , hut , and perhaps to English hide of an animal, and to hoard . Confer Hoard .]
1. To conceal, or withdraw from sight; to put out of view; to secrete.

A city that is set on an hill can not be hid .
Matt. v. 15.

If circumstances lead me, I will find
Where truth is hid .
Shak.

2. To withhold from knowledge; to keep secret; to refrain from avowing or confessing.

Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate.
Pope.

3. To remove from danger; to shelter.

In the time of trouble he shall hide me in his pavilion.
Ps. xxvi. 5.

To hide one's self , to put one's self in a condition to be safe; to secure protection. "A prudent man foreseeth the evil, and hideth himself ." Prov. xxii. 3. -- To hide the face , to withdraw favor. "Thou didst hide thy face , and I was troubled." Ps. xxx. 7. -- To hide the face from . (a) To overlook; to pardon. " Hide thy face from my sins." Ps. li. 9. (b) To withdraw favor from; to be displeased with.

Syn. -- To conceal; secrete; disguise; dissemble; screen; cloak; mask; veil. See Conceal .

Hide intransitive verb To lie concealed; to keep one's self out of view; to be withdrawn from sight or observation.

Bred to disguise, in public 'tis you hide .
Pope.

Hide and seek , a play of children, in which some hide themselves, and others seek them. Swift.

Hide noun [ Anglo-Saxon hīd , earlier hīged ; probably orig., land enough to support a family; confer Anglo-Saxon hīwan , hīgan , members of a household, and English hind a peasant.] (O. Eng. Law.) (a) An abode or dwelling. (b) A measure of land, common in Domesday Book and old English charters, the quantity of which is not well ascertained, but has been differently estimated at 80, 100, and 120 acres. [ Written also hyde .]

Hide noun [ Middle English hide , hude , Anglo-Saxon hȳd ; akin to Dutch huid , Old High German hūt , German haut , Icelandic hūð , Dan. & Swedish hud , Latin cutis , Greek ky`tos ; and confer Greek sky`tos skin, hide, Latin scutum shield, and English sky . √13.]
1. The skin of an animal, either raw or dressed; -- generally applied to the undressed skins of the larger domestic animals, as oxen, horses, etc.

2. The human skin; -- so called in contempt.

O tiger's heart, wrapped in a woman's hide !
Shak.

Hidebound adjective
1. Having the skin adhering so closely to the ribs and back as not to be easily loosened or raised; -- said of an animal.

2. (Hort.) Having the bark so close and constricting that it impedes the growth; -- said of trees. Bacon.

3. Untractable; bigoted; obstinately and blindly or stupidly conservative. Milton. Carlyle.

4. Niggardly; penurious. [ Obsolete] Quarles.

Hideous (hĭd"e*ŭs; 277) adjective [ Middle English hidous , Old French hidous , hidos , hidus , hisdos , hisdous , French hideux : confer Old French hide , hisde , fright; of uncertain origin; confer Old High German egidī horror, or Latin hispidosus , for hispidus rough, bristly, English hispid .]
1. Frightful, shocking, or offensive to the eyes; dreadful to behold; as, a hideous monster; hideous looks. "A piteous and hideous spectacle." Macaulay.

2. Distressing or offensive to the ear; exciting terror or dismay; as, a hideous noise. " Hideous cries." Shak.

3. Hateful; shocking. "Sure, you have some hideous matter to deliver." Shak.

Syn. -- Frightful; ghastly; grim; grisly; horrid; dreadful; terrible.

-- Hid"e*ous*ly , adverb -- Hid"e*ous*ness , noun

Hider noun One who hides or conceals.

Hiding noun The act of hiding or concealing, or of withholding from view or knowledge; concealment.

There was the hiding of his power.
Hab. iii. 4.

Hiding noun A flogging. [ Colloq.] Charles Reade.

Hidrosis noun [ Written also, but incorrectly, idrosis .] [ New Latin , from Greek ... to sweat, ... sweat.]
1. (Physiol.) Excretion of sweat; perspiration.

2. (Medicine) Excessive perspiration; also, any skin disease characterized by abnormal perspiration.

Hidrotic adjective [ Greek ... sudorific.] (Medicine) Causing perspiration; diaphoretic or sudorific.

Hidrotic noun A medicine that causes perspiration; a diaphoretic or a sudorific.

Hie intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Hied ; present participle & verbal noun Hying .] [ Middle English hien , hihen , highen , Anglo-Saxon higian to hasten, strive; confer Latin ciere to put in motion, call upon, rouse, Greek ... to go, English cite .] To hasten; to go in haste; -- also often with the reciprocal pronoun. [ Rare, except in poetry] "My husband hies him home." Shak.

The youth, returning to his mistress, hies .
Dryden.

Hie noun Haste; diligence. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Hiems noun [ Latin ] Winter. Shak.

Hierapicra noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... sacred + ... bitter.] (med.) A warming cathartic medicine, made of aloes and canella bark. Dunglison.

Hierarch noun [ Late Latin hierarcha , Greek ...; "iero`s sacred (akin to Sanskrit ishiras vigorous, fresh, blooming) + ... leader, ruler, from ... to lead, rule: confer French hiérarque .] One who has high and controlling authority in sacred things; the chief of a sacred order; as, princely hierarchs . Milton.

Hierarchal, Hierarchic adjective Pertaining to a hierarch. "The great hierarchal standard." Milton.

Hierarchical adjective [ Confer French hiérarchique .] Pertaining to a hierarchy. -- Hi`er*arch`ic*al*ly , adverb

Hierarchism noun The principles or authority of a hierarchy.

The more dominant hierarchism of the West.
Milman.

Hierarchy (-ȳ) noun ; plural Hierarchies (-ĭz). [ Greek 'ierarchi`a : confer French hiérarchie .]
1. Dominion or authority in sacred things.

2. A body of officials disposed organically in ranks and orders each subordinate to the one above it; a body of ecclesiastical rulers.

3. A form of government administered in the church by patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, bishops, and, in an inferior degree, by priests. Shipley.

4. A rank or order of holy beings.

Standards and gonfalons . . . for distinction serve
Of hierarchies , of orders, and degrees.
Milton.

Hieratic adjective [ Latin hieraticus , Greek ...; akin to "iero`s sacred: confer French hiératique .] Consecrated to sacred uses; sacerdotal; pertaining to priests.

Hieratic character , a mode of ancient Egyptian writing; a modified form of hieroglyphics, tending toward a cursive hand and formerly supposed to be the sacerdotal character, as the demotic was supposed to be that of the people.

It was a false notion of the Greeks that of the three kinds of writing used by the Egyptians, two -- for that reason called hieroglyphic and hieratic -- were employed only for sacred, while the third, the demotic, was employed for secular, purposes. No such distinction is discoverable on the more ancient Egyptian monuments; bur we retain the old names founded on misapprehension.
W. H. Ward (Johnson's Cyc.).

Hierocracy noun [ Greek "iero`s sacred + ... to be strong, rule.] Government by ecclesiastics; a hierarchy. Jefferson.

Hieroglyph, Hieroglyphic noun [ Confer French hiéroglyphe . See Hieroglyphic , adjective ]


1. A sacred character; a character in picture writing, as of the ancient Egyptians, Mexicans, etc. Specifically, in the plural, the picture writing of the ancient Egyptian priests. It is made up of three, or, as some say, four classes of characters: first, the hieroglyphic proper, or figurative, in which the representation of the object conveys the idea of the object itself; second, the ideographic , consisting of symbols representing ideas, not sounds, as an ostrich feather is a symbol of truth; third, the phonetic , consisting of symbols employed as syllables of a word, or as letters of the alphabet, having a certain sound, as a hawk represented the vowel adjective

2. Any character or figure which has, or is supposed to have, a hidden or mysterious significance; hence, any unintelligible or illegible character or mark. [ Colloq.]

Hieroglyphic, Hieroglyphical adjective [ Latin hieroglyphicus , Greek ...; "iero`s sacred + gly`fein to carve: confer French hiéroglyphique .]


1. Emblematic; expressive of some meaning by characters, pictures, or figures; as, hieroglyphic writing; a hieroglyphic obelisk.

Pages no better than blanks to common minds, to his, hieroglyphical of wisest secrets.
Prof. Wilson.

2. Resembling hieroglyphics; not decipherable. "An hieroglyphical scrawl." Sir W. Scott.

Hieroglyphically adverb In hieroglyphics.

Hieroglyphist noun One versed in hieroglyphics. Gliddon.

Hierogram noun [ Greek "iero`s sacred + -gram .] A form of sacred or hieratic writing.

Hierogrammatic adjective [ Confer French hiérogrammatique .] Written in, or pertaining to, hierograms; expressive of sacred writing. Bp. Warburton.

Hierogrammatist noun [ Confer French hiérogrammatiste .] A writer of hierograms; also, one skilled in hieroglyphics. Greenhill.

Hierographic, Hierographical adjective [ Latin hierographicus , Greek ...: confer French hiérographique .] Of or pertaining to sacred writing.

Hierography noun [ Greek ...; "iero`s sacred + gra`fein to write: confer French hiérographie .] Sacred writing. [ R.] Bailey.

Hierolatry noun [ Greek "iero`s sacred + ... worship, ... to worship.] The worship of saints or sacred things. [ R.] Coleridge.

Hierologic, Hierological adjective [ Confer French hiérologique .] Pertaining to hierology.

Hierologist noun One versed in, or whostudies, hierology.

Hierology noun [ Greek ...; "iero`s sacred + ... discourse: confer French hiérologie .] A treatise on sacred things; especially, the science which treats of the ancient writings and inscriptions of the Egyptians, or a treatise on that science.

Hieromancy noun [ Greek "iero`s sacred + ... divination: confer French hiéromantie .] Divination by observing the objects offered in sacrifice.

Hieromartyr noun [ Greek "iero`s sacred + English martyr .] A priest who becomes a martyr.