Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Economics (ē`konŏm"ĭks) noun [ Greek ta` o'ikonomika` , equiv. to "h o'ikonomi`a . See Economic .]
1. The science of household affairs, or of domestic management.

2. Political economy; the science of the utilities or the useful application of wealth or material resources. See Political economy , under Political . "In politics and economics ." V. Knox.

Economist noun [ Confer French économiste .]
1. One who economizes, or manages domestic or other concerns with frugality; one who expends money, time, or labor, judiciously, and without waste. " Economists even to parsimony." Burke.

2. One who is conversant with political economy; a student of economics.

Economization noun The act or practice of using to the best effect. [ R.] H. Spenser.

Economize (e*kŏn"o*mīz) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Economized ; present participle & verbal noun Economizing .] [ Confer French économiser .] To manage with economy; to use with prudence; to expend with frugality; as, to economize one's income. [ Written also economise .]

Expenses in the city were to be economized .
Jowett (Thucyd. ).

Calculating how to economize time.
W. Irving.

Economize intransitive verb To be prudently sparing in expenditure; to be frugal and saving; as, to economize in order to grow rich. [ Written also economise .] Milton.

Economizer noun
1. One who, or that which, economizes.

2. Specifically: (Steam Boilers) An arrangement of pipes for heating feed water by waste heat in the gases passing to the chimney.

Economy (-mȳ) noun ; plural Economies . [ French économie , Latin oeconomia household management, from Greek o'ikonomi`a , from o'ikono`mos one managing a household; o'i^kos house (akin to Latin vicus village, English vicinity ) + no`mos usage, law, rule, from ne`mein to distribute, manage. See Vicinity , Nomad .]
1. The management of domestic affairs; the regulation and government of household matters; especially as they concern expense or disbursement; as, a careful economy .

Himself busy in charge of the household economies .

2. Orderly arrangement and management of the internal affairs of a state or of any establishment kept up by production and consumption; esp., such management as directly concerns wealth; as, political economy .

3. The system of rules and regulations by which anything is managed; orderly system of regulating the distribution and uses of parts, conceived as the result of wise and economical adaptation in the author, whether human or divine; as, the animal or vegetable economy ; the economy of a poem; the Jewish economy .

The position which they [ the verb and adjective] hold in the general economy of language.

In the Greek poets, as also in Plautus, we shall see the economy . . . of poems better observed than in Terence.
B. Jonson.

The Jews already had a Sabbath, which, as citizens and subjects of that economy , they were obliged to keep.

4. Thrifty and frugal housekeeping; management without loss or waste; frugality in expenditure; prudence and disposition to save; as, a housekeeper accustomed to economy but not to parsimony.

Political economy . See under Political .

Syn. -- Economy , Frugality , Parsimony . Economy avoids all waste and extravagance, and applies money to the best advantage; frugality cuts off indulgences, and proceeds on a system of saving. The latter conveys the idea of not using or spending superfluously, and is opposed to lavishness or profusion . Frugality is usually applied to matters of consumption, and commonly points to simplicity of manners; parsimony is frugality carried to an extreme, involving meanness of spirit, and a sordid mode of living. Economy is a virtue, and parsimony a vice.

I have no other notion of economy than that it is the parent to liberty and ease.

The father was more given to frugality , and the son to riotousness [ luxuriousness].

Écorché noun [ French] (Fine Arts) A manikin, or image, representing an animal, especially man, with the skin removed so that the muscles are exposed for purposes of study.

Écossaise noun [ French] (Mus.) A dancing tune in the Scotch style.

Ecostate adjective [ Prefix e- + costate .] (Botany) Having no ribs or nerves; -- said of a leaf.

Écoute noun [ French, a listening place.] (Mil.) One of the small galleries run out in front of the glacis. They serve to annoy the enemy's miners.

Ecphasis noun [ New Latin , from Greek ..., from ... to speak out.] (Rhet.) An explicit declaration.

Ecphonema noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... a thing called out, from ... to cry out; 'ek out + ... voice.] (Rhet.) A breaking out with some interjectional particle.

Ecphoneme noun [ See Ecphonema .] A mark (!) used to indicate an exclamation. G. Brown.

Ecphonesis noun [ New Latin , from Greek .... See Ecphonema .] (Rhet.) An animated or passionate exclamation.

The feelings by the ecphonesis are very various.

Ecphractic adjective [ Greek ..., from ... to open; 'ek out + ... to block up: confer French ecphractique .] (Medicine) Serving to dissolve or attenuate viscid matter, and so to remove obstructions; deobstruent. -- noun An ecphractic medicine. Harvey.

Écrasement noun [ French] (Surg.) The operation performed with an écraseur.

Écraseur noun [ French, from écraser to crush.] (Surg.) An instrument intended to replace the knife in many operations, the parts operated on being severed by the crushing effect produced by the gradual tightening of a steel chain, so that hemorrhage rarely follows.

Écru adjective [ French, from Latin crudus raw.] Having the color or appearance of unbleached stuff, as silk, linen, or the like.

Ecstasy noun ; plural Ecstasies . [ French extase , Latin ecstasis , from Greek ..., from ... to put out of place, derange; ... = 'ek out + ... to set, stand. See Ex- , and Stand .] [ Also written extasy .]
1. The state of being beside one's self or rapt out of one's self; a state in which the mind is elevated above the reach of ordinary impressions, as when under the influence of overpowering emotion; an extraordinary elevation of the spirit, as when the soul, unconscious of sensible objects, is supposed to contemplate heavenly mysteries.

Like a mad prophet in an ecstasy .

This is the very ecstasy of love.

2. Excessive and overmastering joy or enthusiasm; rapture; enthusiastic delight.

He on the tender grass
Would sit, and hearken even to ecstasy .

3. Violent distraction of mind; violent emotion; excessive grief of anxiety; insanity; madness. [ Obsolete]

That unmatched form and feature of blown youth
Blasted with ecstasy .

Our words will but increase his ecstasy .

4. (Medicine) A state which consists in total suspension of sensibility, of voluntary motion, and largely of mental power. The body is erect and inflexible; the pulsation and breathing are not affected. Mayne.

Ecstasy transitive verb To fill ecstasy, or with rapture or enthusiasm. [ Obsolete]

The most ecstasied order of holy . . . spirits.
Jer. Taylor.

Ecstatic adjective [ Greek ..., from ...: confer French extatique . See Ecstasy , noun ]
1. Pertaining to, or caused by, ecstasy or excessive emotion; of the nature, or in a state, of ecstasy; as, ecstatic gaze; ecstatic trance.

This ecstatic fit of love and jealousy.

2. Delightful beyond measure; rapturous; ravishing; as, ecstatic bliss or joy.

Ecstatic noun An enthusiast. [ R.] Gauden.

Ecstatical adjective
1. Ecstatic. Bp. Stillingfleet.

2. Tending to external objects. [ R.] Norris.

Ecstatically adverb Rapturously; ravishingly.

Ect-, Ecto- [ Greek ... outside.] A combining form signifying without , outside , external .

Ectad adverb [ Ect- + Latin ad towards.] (Anat.) Toward the outside or surface; -- opposed to entad . B. G. Wilder.

Ectal adjective [ See Ect- .] (Anat.) Pertaining to, or situated near, the surface; outer; -- opposed to ental . B. G. Wilder.

Ectasia noun [ New Latin See Ectasis .] (Medicine) A dilatation of a hollow organ or of a canal.

Ectasis noun [ Latin , from Greek ...; 'ek out + ... to stretch.] (Pros.) The lengthening of a syllable from short to long.

Ectental adjective [ Greek ... outside + ... inside.] (Biol.) Relating to, or connected with, the two primitive germ layers, the ectoderm and ectoderm; as, the " ectental line" or line of juncture of the two layers in the segmentation of the ovum. C. S. Minot.

Ecteron noun [ See Ect- .] (Anat.) The external layer of the skin and mucous membranes; epithelium; ecderon. -- Ec`ter*on"ic adjective

Ectethmoid adjective [ Ect- + ethmoid .] (Anat.) External to the ethmoid; prefrontal.

Ecthlipsis noun [ Latin , from Greek ..., from ... to squeeze out.]
1. The dropping out or suppression from a word of a consonant, with or without a vowel.

2. (Lat. Pros.) The elision of a final m , with the preceding vowel, before a word beginning with a vowel.

Ecthoreum noun ; plural Ecthorea . [ New Latin , from Greek ... to leap out; ek out + ..., ..., to leap, dart.] (Zoology) The slender, hollow thread of a nettling cell or cnida. See Nettling cell . [ Written also ecthoræum .]

Ecthyma noun ; plural Ecthymata . [ New Latin , from Greek ... pimple, from ... to break out.] (Medicine) A cutaneous eruption, consisting of large, round pustules, upon an indurated and inflamed base. Dunglison.

Ecto- See Ect- .

Ectoblast noun [ Ecto- + Greek ... bud, germ.] (Biol.) (a) The outer layer of the blastoderm; the epiblast; the ectoderm. (b) The outer envelope of a cell; the cell wall. Agassiz.

Ectobronchium noun ; plural Ectobronchia . [ New Latin See Ecto- , and Bronchia .] (Anat.) One of the dorsal branches of the main bronchi in the lungs of birds.

Ectocuneriform, Ectocuniform noun [ Ecto- + cuneiform , cuniform .] (Anat.) One of the bones of the tarsus. See Cuneiform .

Ectocyst noun [ Ecto- + Greek ... bladder.] (Zoology) The outside covering of the Bryozoa.

Ectoderm noun [ Ecto- + - derm .] (Biol.) (a) The outer layer of the blastoderm; epiblast. (b) The external skin or outer layer of an animal or plant, this being formed in an animal from the epiblast. See Illust. of Blastoderm .

Ectodermal, Ectodermic adjective (Biol.) Of or relating to the ectoderm.

Ectolecithal adjective [ Ecto- + Greek ... the yolk of an egg.] (Biol.) Having the food yolk, at the commencement of segmentation, in a peripheral position, and the cleavage process confined to the center of the egg; as, ectolecithal ova.

Ectomere noun [ Ecto- + - mere .] (Biol.) The more transparent cells, which finally become external, in many segmenting ova, as those of mammals.

Ectoparasite noun (Zoology) Any parasite which lives on the exterior of animals; -- opposed to endoparasite . -- Ec`to*par`a*sit"ic adjective

Ectopia noun [ New Latin , from Greek 'ek out + ... place.] (Medicine) A morbid displacement of parts, especially such as is congenial; as, ectopia of the heart, or of the bladder.

Ectopic adjective (Medicine) Out of place; congenitally displaced; as, an ectopic organ.

Ectoplasm noun [ Ecto- + Greek ... form.] (Biol.) (a) The outer transparent layer of protoplasm in a developing ovum. (b) The outer hyaline layer of protoplasm in a vegetable cell. (c) The ectosarc of protozoan.

Ectoplastic adjective [ Ecto- + Greek ... to mold.] Pertaining to, or composed of, ectoplasm.