Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Echelon (ĕsh" e *lŏn) noun [ French, from échelle ladder, from Latin scala .]
1. (Mil.) An arrangement of a body of troops when its divisions are drawn up in parallel lines each to the right or the left of the one in advance of it, like the steps of a ladder in position for climbing. Also used adjectively; as, echelon distance. Upton (Tactics).

2. (Naval) An arrangement of a fleet in a wedge or V formation. Encyc. Dict.

Echelon lens (Optics) , a large lens constructed in several parts or layers, extending in a succession of annular rings beyond the central lens; -- used in lighthouses.

Echelon transitive verb (Mil.) To place in echelon; to station divisions of troops in echelon.

Echelon intransitive verb To take position in echelon.

Change direction to the left, echelon by battalion from the right.
Upton (Tactics).

Echidna (e*kĭd"nȧ) noun [ Latin , a viper, adder, Greek 'e`chidna .]
1. (Gr. Myth.) A monster, half maid and half serpent.

2. (Zoology) A genus of Monotremata found in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. They are toothless and covered with spines; -- called also porcupine ant-eater , and Australian ant-eater .

Echidnine noun [ See Echidna .] (Chemistry) The clear, viscid fluid secreted by the poison glands of certain serpents; also, a nitrogenous base contained in this, and supposed to be the active poisonous principle of the virus. Brande & C.

Echinate, Echinated adjective [ Latin echinatus . See Echinus .] Set with prickles; prickly, like a hedgehog; bristled; as, an echinated pericarp.

Echinid adjective & noun (Zoology) Same as Echinoid .

Echinidan noun [ Confer French échinide .] (Zoology) One the Echinoidea.

Echinital adjective Of, or like, an echinite.

Echinite noun [ Confer French échinite . See Echinus .] (Paleon.) A fossil echinoid.

Echinococcus noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... hedgehog, sea urchin + ... grain, seed. So called because forming little granular bodies, each armed with hooklets and disposed upon the inner wall of the hydatid cysts.] (Zoology) A parasite of man and of many domestic and wild animals, forming compound cysts or tumors (called hydatid cysts) in various organs, but especially in the liver and lungs, which often cause death. It is the larval stage of the Tænia echinococcus , a small tapeworm peculiar to the dog.

Echinoderm noun (Zoology) One of the Echinodermata.

Echinodermal adjective (Zoology) Relating or belonging to the echinoderms.

Echinodermata (e*kī`no*dẽr"mȧ*tȧ) noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek 'echi^nos hedgehog, sea urchin + de`rma , -atos , skin.] (Zoology) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom. By many writers it was formerly included in the Radiata. [ Written also Echinoderma .]

» The species usually have an exterior calcareous skeleton, or shell, made of many pieces, and often covered with spines, to which the name. They may be star-shaped, cylindrical, disk-shaped, or more or less spherical. The body consists of several similar parts ( spheromeres ) repeated symmetrically around a central axis, at one end of which the mouth is situated. They generally have suckers for locomotion. The group includes the following classes: Crinoidea, Asterioidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, and Holothurioidea. See these words in the Vocabulary, and also Ambulacrum .

Echinodermatous adjective (Zoology) Relating to Echinodermata; echinodermal.

Echinoid adjective [ Echinus + -oid .] (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Echinoidea. -- noun One of the Echinoidea.

Echinoidea noun plural [ New Latin See Echinus , and -oid .] (Zoology) The class Echinodermata which includes the sea urchins. They have a calcareous shell, usually more or less spheroidal or disk-shaped, composed of many united plates, and covered with movable spines. See Spatangoid , Clypeastroid . [ Written also Echinidea , and Echinoida .]

Echinozoa (e*kī`no*zō"ȧ) noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek 'echi^nos an echinus + zw^,on an animal.] (Zoology) The Echinodermata.

Echinulate adjective (Bot. & Zoology) Set with small spines or prickles.

Echinus noun ; plural Echini . [ Latin , a hedgehog, sea urchin, Greek 'echi^nos .]
1. (Zoology) A hedgehog.

2. (Zoology) A genus of echinoderms, including the common edible sea urchin of Europe.

3. (Architecture) (a) The rounded molding forming the bell of the capital of the Grecian Doric style, which is of a peculiar elastic curve. See Entablature . (b) The quarter-round molding (ovolo) of the Roman Doric style. See Illust. of Column (c) A name sometimes given to the egg and anchor or egg and dart molding, because that ornament is often identified with the Roman Doric capital. The name probably alludes to the shape of the shell of the sea urchin.

Echiuroidea noun plural [ New Latin , from echiurus , the name of one genus (Gr. 'e`chis an adder + o'yra` tail) + -oid .] (Zoology) A division of Annelida which includes the genus Echiurus and allies. They are often classed among the Gephyrea, and called the armed Gephyreans .

Echo (ĕk"o) noun ; plural Echoes (ĕk"ōz). [ Latin echo , Greek 'hchw` echo, sound, akin to 'hchh` , 'h^chos , sound, noise; confer Sanskrit vāç to sound, bellow; perhaps akin to English voice : confer French écho .]
1. A sound reflected from an opposing surface and repeated to the ear of a listener; repercussion of sound; repetition of a sound.

The babbling echo mocks the hounds.
Shak.

The woods shall answer, and the echo ring.
Pope.

2. Fig.: Sympathetic recognition; response; answer.

Fame is the echo of actions, resounding them.
Fuller.

Many kind, and sincere speeches found an echo in his heart.
R. Latin Stevenson.

3. (a) (Myth. & Poetic) A wood or mountain nymph, regarded as repeating, and causing the reverberation of them.

Sweet Echo , sweetest nymph, that liv'st unseen
Within thy airy shell.
Milton.

(b) (Gr. Myth.) A nymph, the daughter of Air and Earth, who, for love of Narcissus, pined away until nothing was left of her but her voice.

Compelled me to awake the courteous Echo
To give me answer from her mossy couch.
Milton.

Echo organ (Mus.) , a set organ pipes inclosed in a box so as to produce a soft, distant effect; -- generally superseded by the swell. -- Echo stop (Mus.) , a stop upon a harpsichord contrived for producing the soft effect of distant sound. -- To applaud to the echo , to give loud and continuous applause. M. Arnold.

I would applaud thee to the very echo ,
That should applaud again.
Shak.

Echo transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Echoed ; present participle & verbal noun Echoing . -- 3d pers. sing. present Echoes ]
1. To send back (a sound); to repeat in sound; to reverberate.

Those peals are echoed by the Trojan throng.
Dryden.

The wondrous sound
Is echoed on forever.
Keble.

2. To repeat with assent; to respond; to adopt.

They would have echoed the praises of the men whom they ...nvied, and then have sent to the newspaper anonymous libels upon them.
Macaulay.

Echo intransitive verb To give an echo; to resound; to be sounded back; as, the hall echoed with acclamations. " Echoing noise." Blackmore.

Echo noun ; plural Echoes . [ Latin echo , Greek ... echo.] (Whist) (a) A signal, played in the same manner as a trump signal, made by a player who holds four or more trumps (or as played by some exactly three trumps) and whose partner has led trumps or signaled for trumps. (b) A signal showing the number held of a plain suit when a high card in that suit is led by one's partner.

Echoer noun One who, or that which, echoes.

Echoless adjective Without echo or response.

Echometer noun [ Greek ..., ..., sound + -meter : confer French échomètre .] (Mus) A graduated scale for measuring the duration of sounds, and determining their different, and the relation of their intervals. J. J. Rousseau.

Echometry noun [ Confer French échométrie .]
1. The art of measuring the duration of sounds or echoes.

2. The art of constructing vaults to produce echoes.

Echon, Echoon pron. Each one. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Echopathy noun [ Echo + -pathy , as in homeopathy .] (Medicine) A morbid condition characterized by automatic and purposeless repetition of words or imitation of actions.

Echoscope noun [ Greek ..., ..., sound + -scope .] (Medicine) An instrument for intensifying sounds produced by percussion of the thorax. Knight.

Éclair noun [ French] (Cookery) A kind of frosted cake, containing flavored cream.

Eclaircise transitive verb [ French éclaircir ; prefix es- (L. ex ) + clair clear, Latin clarus .] To make clear; to clear up what is obscure or not understood; to explain.

Eclaircissement noun [ French, from éclaircir . See Eclaircise , transitive verb ] The clearing up of anything which is obscure or not easily understood; an explanation.

The eclaircissement ended in the discovery of the informer.
Clarendon.

Eclampsia noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... a shining forth, from ... to shine forth; ... out + ... to shine.] (Medicine) A fancied perception of flashes of light, a symptom of epilepsy; hence, epilepsy itself; convulsions.

» The term is generally restricted to a convulsive affection attending pregnancy and parturition, and to infantile convulsions.

Eclampsy noun (Medicine) Same as Eclampsia .

Eclat noun [ French éclat a fragment, splinter, explosion, brilliancy, splendor, from éclater to splinter, burst, explode, shine brilliantly, probably of German origin; confer Old High German sleizan to slit, split, from slīzan , German schleissen ; akin to English slit .]
1. Brilliancy of success or effort; splendor; brilliant show; striking effect; glory; renown. "The eclat of Homer's battles." Pope.

2. Demonstration of admiration and approbation; applause. Prescott.

Eclectic adjective [ Greek ..., from ... to pick out, choose out: confer French éclectique . See Eclogue , and confer Elect .]
1. Selecting; choosing (what is true or excellent in doctrines, opinions, etc.) from various sources or systems; as, an eclectic philosopher.

2. Consisting, or made up, of what is chosen or selected; as, an eclectic method; an eclectic magazine.

Eclectic physician , one of a class of practitioners of medicine, who select their modes of practice and medicines from all schools; formerly, sometimes the same as botanic physician . [ U.S.] -- Eclectic school . (Paint.) See Bolognese school , under Bolognese .

Eclectic noun One who follows an eclectic method.

Eclectically adverb In an eclectic manner; by an eclectic method.

Eclecticism noun [ Confer French éclecticisme . Confer Electicism .] Theory or practice of an eclectic.

Eclegm noun [ French éclegme , Latin ecligma , from Greek ..., from ... to lick up.] (Medicine) A medicine made by mixing oils with sirups. John Quincy.

Eclipse (e*klĭps") noun [ French éclipse , Latin eclipsis , from Greek 'e`kleipsis , prop., a forsaking, failing, from 'eklei`pein to leave out, forsake; 'ek out + lei`pein to leave. See Ex- , and Loan .]
1. (Astron.) An interception or obscuration of the light of the sun, moon, or other luminous body, by the intervention of some other body, either between it and the eye, or between the luminous body and that illuminated by it. A lunar eclipse is caused by the moon passing through the earth's shadow; a solar eclipse, by the moon coming between the sun and the observer. A satellite is eclipsed by entering the shadow of its primary. The obscuration of a planet or star by the moon or a planet, though of the nature of an eclipse, is called an occultation . The eclipse of a small portion of the sun by Mercury or Venus is called a transit of the planet.

» In ancient times, eclipses were, and among unenlightened people they still are, superstitiously regarded as forerunners of evil fortune, a sentiment of which occasional use is made in literature.

That fatal and perfidious bark,
Built in the eclipse , and rigged with curses dark.
Milton.

2. The loss, usually temporary or partial, of light, brilliancy, luster, honor, consciousness, etc.; obscuration; gloom; darkness.

All the posterity of our fist parents suffered a perpetual eclipse of spiritual life.
Sir W. Raleigh.

As in the soft and sweet eclipse ,
When soul meets soul on lovers' lips.
Shelley.

Annular eclipse . (Astron.) See under Annular . -- Cycle of eclipses . See under Cycle .

Eclipse transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Eclipsed (e*klĭpst"); present participle & verbal noun Eclipsing .]
1. To cause the obscuration of; to darken or hide; -- said of a heavenly body; as, the moon eclipses the sun.

2. To obscure, darken, or extinguish the beauty, luster, honor, etc., of; to sully; to cloud; to throw into the shade by surpassing. "His eclipsed state." Dryden.

My joy of liberty is half eclipsed .
Shak.

Eclipse intransitive verb To suffer an eclipse.

While the laboring moon
Eclipses at their charms.
Milton.

Ecliptic (e*klĭp"tĭk) noun [ Confer French écliptique , Latin linea ecliptica , Greek 'ekleiptiko`s , prop. adj., of an eclipse, because in this circle eclipses of the sun and moon take place. See Ecliptic , adjective ]
1. (Astron.) A great circle of the celestial sphere, making an angle with the equinoctial of about 23° 28′. It is the apparent path of the sun, or the real path of the earth as seen from the sun.

2. (Geology) A great circle drawn on a terrestrial globe, making an angle of 23° 28′ with the equator; -- used for illustrating and solving astronomical problems.

Ecliptic adjective [ Latin eclipticus belonging to an eclipse, Greek 'ekleiptiko`s . See Eclipse .]
1. Pertaining to the ecliptic; as, the ecliptic way.

2. Pertaining to an eclipse or to eclipses.

Lunar ecliptic limit (Astron.) , the space of 12° on the moon's orbit from the node, within which, if the moon happens to be at full, it will be eclipsed. -- Solar ecliptic limit , the space of 17° from the lunar node, within which, if a conjunction of the sun and moon occur, the sun will be eclipsed.

Eclogite noun [ See Ecloque .] (Min.) A rock consisting of granular red garnet, light green smaragdite, and common hornblende; -- so called in reference to its beauty.

Eclogue noun [ Latin ecloga , Greek ... a selection, choice extracts, from ... to pick out, choose out; ... out + ... to gather, choose: confer French égloque , écloque . See Ex- , and Legend .] A pastoral poem, in which shepherds are introduced conversing with each other; a bucolic; an idyl; as, the Ecloques of Virgil, from which the modern usage of the word has been established.

Economic (?; 277), E`co*nom"ic*al adjective [ French économique , Latin oeconomicus orderly, methodical, Greek ... economical. See Economy .]
1. Pertaining to the household; domestic. "In this economical misfortune [ of ill- assorted matrimony.]" Milton.

2. Relating to domestic economy, or to the management of household affairs.

And doth employ her economic art
And busy care, her household to preserve.
Sir J. Davies.

3. Managing with frugality; guarding against waste or unnecessary expense; careful and frugal in management and in expenditure; -- said of character or habits.

Just rich enough, with economic care,
To save a pittance.
Harte.

4. Managed with frugality; not marked with waste or extravagance; frugal; -- said of acts; saving; as, an economical use of money or of time.

5. Relating to the means of living, or the resources and wealth of a country; relating to political economy; as, economic purposes; economical truths.

These matters economical and political.
J. C. Shairp.

There was no economical distress in England to prompt the enterprises of colonization.
Palfrey.

Economic questions, such as money, usury, taxes, lands, and the employment of the people.
H. C. Baird.

6. Regulative; relating to the adaptation of means to an end. Grew.

» Economical is the usual form when meaning frugal, saving; economic is the form commonly used when meaning pertaining to the management of a household, or of public affairs.

Economically adverb With economy; with careful management; with prudence in expenditure.